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Democratization and Political Change as Threats to Collective Sentiments: Testing Durkheim in Russia

PRIDEMORE, WILLIAM ALEX; KIM, SANG-WEON
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Durkheim argued that acute political crises result in increased homicide rates because they pose a threat to sentiments about the collective. Though crucial to Durkheim’s work on homicide, this idea remains untested. The authors took advantage of the natural experiment of the collapse of the Soviet Union to examine this hypothesis. Using data from Russian regions (N = 78) and controlling for measures of anomie and other covariates, the authors estimated the association between political change and change in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000. Results indicated that regions exhibiting less support for the Communist Party in 2000 (and thus greater change in political ideals because the Party had previously exercised complete control) were regions with greater increases in homicide rates. Thus, while democratization may be a positive development relative to the Communist juggernaut of the past, it appears that the swift political change in Russia is partially responsible for the higher rates of violence there following the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Preservation, Conversion, and Innovation: The Evaluation of Political Novelty from Plato to Machiavelli

Pappin, Gladden John
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
A premier distinction of liberal democracy is its praise of novelty and change, in the form of technological innovations and new expressions of personal liberty. To understand and critique our dedication to innovation, I study classical, medieval and early modern views on what the most important changes are for human beings—the changes of political regime and the changes of the soul. The philosophers from Plato to Machiavelli studied the desirability and possibility of political preservation, the effects of conversion and its relationship to notions of divine providence, and the changes brought by new religious institutions of a quasi-political character. The classical philosophers emphasize the importance and the difficulty of political preservation. In the Republic, Plato shows that a defensive conservatism results in political change. In the Symposium, while making human desire a major cause of change, he shows the human longing for preservation, as well. The attempt to make a lasting city is an effort to resist the tide of change which overtakes all things. In the fifth book of his Politics, Aristotle shows his expectation that political change will always occur, and that its many different causes make it difficult to master. The Christian revelation praises newness as the quality of conversion...

Political creativity

Kubicek, Brett V. (Brett Vincent), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 297 p.; 15596899 bytes; 15636460 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
This thesis is about political change and the possibilities for politically creative individuals to achieve desired change. To identify such possibilities, I argue that we should employ a catalog of analytical tools from the social, psychological and cognitive sciences, organized in three sets. One covers social dynamics, the social mechanisms behind stability and change, either sudden or incremental; the second captures ordinary differences among group members in how they understand conditions, react to events, and connect to others; and the third set deals with extraordinary differences in mindsets and aptitudes which may enable individuals to exert considerable influence on conditions. A fundamental problem is the difficulty of separating the impact of individual action (agency) from effects of social conditions and trends (structure), given that political events involve interaction of the two. My solution is to focus onprojects for political change, which are long-term endeavors that go against prevailing conditions and conventional ideas, and which focus upon changing one broad element of the political landscape (such as to restructure inter-group relations, to empower a previously weak constituency, to change certain status quo ideas and practices...

The waning of the two giants: the electoral decline of the Italian Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Communist Party

Cristiano, Giancarlo.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Italy is currently experiencing profound political change. One aspect of this change involves the decline in electoral support for the Italian Christian Democratic Party (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI), now the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS). Signs of the electoral decline of both parties began to appear in the late 1970s and early 1980s and accelerated in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The pr imar y purpos e of th is thes is is to expla i n the electoral decline of the DC and PCI/PDS in the last decade. The central question being addressed in this thesis is the following: What factors contributed to the decline in electoral support for the DC and PCI? In addition, the thesis attempts to better comprehend the change in magni tude and direction of the Italian party system. The thesis examines the central question within an analytical framework that consists of models explaining electoral change in advanced industrial democracies and in Italy. A review of the literature on electoral change in Italy reveals three basic models: structural (socioeconomic and demographic factors), subcultural (the decline of the Catholic and Communist subcultures), and pol i tical (factors such as party strategy, and the crisis and collapse of communism in iv Eastern Europe and the former soviet Union and the end to the Cold War). Significant structural changes have occurred in Italy...

Uncivil Societies : A Theory of Sociopolitical Change

Monga, Celestin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
In times of crises, it is always useful to revisit some of the paradigms that underlie collective thinking and action. For nearly 200 years, most social science has relied on the assumption that the emergence of strong and nurturing social capital through a vibrant civil society yields all kind of positive externalities to society. Following intuition and anecdotal observations from Alexis de Tocqueville, a large body of theoretical and empirical research has attempted to confirm that societies strive politically and economically when they are able to build strong non-state actors and community organizations. Many disciplines-mainly political science, economics, law, and international relations-have constructed influential analytical frameworks in support of that general proposition. This paper examines the philosophical foundations of conventional wisdom and observes that it often fails to take into account the dark side of some civil society groups, from the mafia to Al Qaeda. While acknowledging the potential contribution of civil society to the development process...

Political Alternation as a Restraint on Investing in Influence : Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

Milanovic, Branko; Hoff, Karla; Horowitz, Shale
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The authors develop and implement a method for measuring the frequency of changes in power among distinct leaders and ideologically distinct parties that is comparable across political systems. The authors find that more frequent alternation in power is associated with the emergence of better governance in post communist countries. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that firms seek durable protection from the state, which implies that expected political alternation is relevant to the decision whether to invest in influence with the governing party or, alternatively, to demand institutions that apply predictable rules, with equality of treatment, regardless of the party in power.

Carrots and Sticks : The Political Economy of Nutrition Policy Reforms

Natalicchio, Marcela; Garrett, James; Mulder-Sibanda, Menno; Ndegwa, Steve; Voorbraak, Doris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The World Bank and other development partners have been involved in the implementation of nutrition programs for over 30 years. While a number of these programs have become successful and sustainable large-scale operations, many others have been hindered by political and administrative obstacles. The disparate results of these nutrition programs suggest that generating technically sound knowledge about nutrition and providing it to policymakers is not enough to ensure good results. It is also crucial to understand the political context, and the constraints and motivations of politicians, public officials, and other relevant players to initiate, implement, and sustain sound policies. In May 2007 the World Bank held an international workshop on these issues to help increase the impact of nutrition programs and policies at the country level. This paper summarizes the results of that workshop. Drawing from the political economy literature, it presents two frameworks for understanding how to undertake action to put nutrition on the agenda and move it forward...

Markets and Politics in Central Asia: Structural Reform and Political Change

Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Elsevier BV, North Holland Publicador: Elsevier BV, North Holland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Book review Markets and Politics in Central Asia: Structural Reform and Political Change: G. Gleason (Ed.), Routledge, London, New York, 2003, xi + 178 pp, £60.00 (cloth

Political Parties and Party Systems in World Politics: A comparative analysis of party-based foreign policy contestation and change

CHRYSSOGELOS, Angelos-Stylianos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The argument of this dissertation is that instances of foreign policy change can be best understood as interactions between ongoing dynamics of important aspects of domestic party systems and changes in a state’s normative and material international environment. I identify three types of dynamics of party systems: different patterns of coalition and opposition, different patterns of expression of social cleavages through parties, and redefinitions of the meaning attached to the main axis of competition. These dynamics provide partisan actors with the ideational resources to make sense of changes in the international system, contribute to the creation of new (domestic and foreign) policy preferences and bring about political incentives for the promotion of new foreign policies. The pace, content and fields of change are determined by the specific aspects of a party system undergoing change. Using insights from party systems theory and political sociology, the dissertation promotes the idea that the contestation of foreign policy, the engagement of domestic political actors with developments in the international system, and ultimately foreign policy change, all take place within a thick social and institutional structure that prescribes interests and delineates the terms of debate. In this way...

Politics without parties : political change and democracy building in Egypt before and after the revolution

COLLOMBIER, Virginie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
This working paper is the first draft of a work in progress on party politics in contemporary Egypt. Written in early 2013, following the first round of free elections to take place after Hosni Mubarak had been ousted from power, it focuses on non-Islamist parties, their development and their role in political change before and after the popular uprising of 2011. It shows that since 2011, similarly throughout the 2000s, political mobilization in the non-Islamist sphere has mostly happened through fluid networks and alliances, rather than coherent organizations created with a view to gaining power and governing. While attempting to identify some of the obstacles that have impeded party development before and after the 2011 revolution, this draft paper also underlines the determining impact those have had on democracy building.

Bodies, Deviancy, and Socio-Political Change: Judith Butler on Intelligibility

Orr, CELESTE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
In this thesis I contribute to arguments showing how the human body is much more than a vessel that enables us to experience the world through our senses. Our sense of embodiment and our embodied performances give meaning to and shape the world in which we live. I argue that our bodies are crucial to socio-political change and subverting discriminatory cultural assumptions and ideologies. Deviant performances can cause us to be less than intelligible individuals. That is, according to Judith Butler, we become less than intelligible when we do not perform in such a way that meets certain cultural expectations. Dominant expectations are typically implicitly understood to be common-sense values. Unfortunately, many of our implicit values have embedded unjust prejudices that directly affect our thinking and behaviour. These discriminatory implicit values are couched in “the background.” Alexis Shotwell’s expansion of what John R. Searle terms “the background” is particularly useful to understand the political nature of implicitly held beliefs. These discriminatory assumptions couched in the background systematically oppress us. However, the prejudices of the background can be exposed through repeatedly performing our bodies in certain ways. Additionally...

Book review: Revolution stalled: the political limits of the internet in the post-Soviet sphere

Pirgova, Luba
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
"Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere." Sarah Oates. Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- Can the internet fundamentally challenge non-free regimes? For many, the role that social networking played in political change in the Middle East and beyond raises important questions about the ability of authoritarian leaders to control the information sphere and their subjects. Revolution Stalled analyses the contemporary Russian internet, aiming to illuminate how and when online activity can spark political action. Luba Pirgova recommends the book to those interested in media history, social media, and public life in Russia.

Book review: democratic decline and democratic renewal: political change in Britain, Australia and New Zealand by Ian Marsh and Raymond Miller

Caird, Simson
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/01/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
In Democratic Decline and Democratic Renewal, Ian Marsh and Raymond Miller link the decreasing quality of democracy to the failings of political parties. This detailed study of the politics of the UK, Australia and New Zealand is an ambitious attempt both to document decline and to reverse the trend, finds Jack Simson Caird, who is impressed by the authors’ proposals to enhance the role of parliamentary committees.

Fifty years after Martin Luther King’s speech, Obama’s gradual approach to political change still needs King’s visionary dream to play against

Kier, Ruth
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/09/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Last week saw the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King’s ‘I have a dream’ speech, which was marked at an event by President Barack Obama. Rune Kier writes that while King’s speech was one which articulated abrupt and revolutionary change to achieve equality against an apparently stagnant establishment, Obama’s rhetoric is that of gradual, hard won, political change. Despite these differences, King’s speech is still the vision that Obama is striving for.

The myth of 'us': digital networks, political change and the production of collectivity

Couldry, Nick
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
This article examines critically the claims that digital networks (digital media infrastructures, especially social media platforms) fundamentally change the conditions of politics over the longerterm. Without doubt digital networks enable faster political mobilization, accelerated cycles of action, and some new forms of collectivity, but how consequential is this in the longer-term when set alongside other longer term consequences of a digitally saturated environment? The author argues that some leading accounts of digital media’s contributions to political change operate with a thin account of the social, the sort of thin account that historically has been supplemented by media’s mythical accounts over the past century of their role in supplying social knowledge. In the digital age, even the most detailed and rigorous accounts of digital networks’ contributions to political action (Bennett & Segerberg, 2012, 2013) fail to show that those networks also facilitate longer-term political action that builds longer-term political transformations: arguably, the resulting acceleration of action encourages short-term loyalties and less stability in political socialization. However, this limitation of existing accounts tends to be masked by a new myth for the age of digital networks: the myth of ‘us’...

Popularity, political change, economic and social development agenda and potential for South American integration: four key points to consider in the Brazilian elections

Panizza , Francisco
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/10/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Brazilians will go to the polls next Sunday. By touching upon popularity, political change, socioeconomic development and South American integration, Francisco Panizza shows that, regardless of the outcome of the election, it signals some positive changes but also some problems that are still very much part of the Brazilian political system.

Insights from societal psychology: a contextual politics of societal change

Howarth, Caroline; Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora; Franks, Bradley; Garcia-Lorenzo, Lucia; Gillespie, Alex; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Goncalves-Portelinha, I.; Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Lahlou, Saadi; Mannell, Jenevieve Claire; Reader, Tom W.; Tennant, C.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
In this paper we demonstrate that societal psychology makes a unique contribution to the study of change through its focus on the 'contextual politics' of change, examining the different interests at stake within any social context. Societal psychology explores the contexts which promote or inhibit social and societal change and can be seen as a bridge between social and political psychology. It focuses on how the context shapes the ways in which societal change is understood, supported or resisted. To understand the intellectual rationale of societal psychology, and how it aims to foster societal change, we first consider the history of the discipline. Second, we consider what is meant by 'context', as understanding the environment of change is the hallmark of societal psychology. Third, we lay out three distinct features of a societal psychological approach to change: the politics of change; interventions and planned change; emergent change processes. Finally, the paper examines possible future developments of societal psychology and its role in understanding and creating societal change, alongside its place within the wider canon of social and political psychology. The article is available in full...

Exploring political change---Thatcherism and the remaking of the Labour Party 1979--1997.

Heffernan, Richard
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
The politics of Thatcherism reflects a political and economic project rooted in the ideology of the New Right. While subject to the interplay of opportunity and circumstance, chance and fortune, the Thatcher and Major governments of 1979-1997 did pursue and largely enact a coherent political agenda. Thatcherism is best understood as a process enacted over time. At its very heart was an anti-statist commitment to roll back the frontiers not of the state per se but of the pre-existing 'social democratic' state. As a project simultaneously informed by an ideological doctrine and constrained by the dictates of statecraft, Thatcherism was an agent of political change, one which reconfigurated state and society at the same time it was responsive to political realities and electoral pressures. Rather than spring from nothing, Thatcherism was constructed over time and through experience. As a result, modem politics has seen a dramatic shift in favour of right-reformist neo-liberal politics at the expense of left-reformist social democratic politics. Through developing a theory of party competition driven party change this thesis explores the much remarked transformation of the Labour Party since 1983. It offers a theory of consensus politics that suggests consensus does not simply reflect a policy coincidence but implies a broad association on general principles which inform the policy decisions parties make. Policy is enacted within a consensual settlement reflecting implicit and unstated 'guiding assumptions' shared across parties...

Social organization and political change in a Cypriot village

Loizos, Peter
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1972 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
This thesis is concerned with the way that modern political change affects social relationships in a prosperous predominantly Greek-Cypriot village. The first chapter traces the main social, political, demographic and economic changes to have affected the village in this century. The second chapter considers in detail the importance of landholdings, of supplementary occupations, and of status distinctions derived from education and work in the villagers' system of social evaluation. Chapter 3, in considering kinship and affinity as institutional constraints on the conduct of individuals, also stresses one prize of success in the village arena - the desirability of one's children as marriage partners. The fourth chapter is concerned with other types of social relations which constrain men, in particular fictive kinship, friendship and membership in the village itself (which is defined in a number of ways); this leads directly to the description of the village as a solidary community. Chapter 5 analyses the leadership opportunities provided by administrative office in the village, and considers how far power is achieved and diffused in other ways. Chapter 6 examined the scope of politics in the village, particularly the meaning of the opposition between left and right wing supporters...

Analytical challenges for neoinstitutional theories of institutional change in comparative political science

Rezende,Flávio da Cunha
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This article analyses the core critiques on institutional change theories within the neoinstitutional research agenda in comparative political science. It offers an explanatory typology using analytical challenges for the development of theories with new institutional approaches. This typology provides key critical issues that should be seriously considered by political scientists when analysing change. The framework suggests that the analytical challenges be posed in five interwoven dimensions: a) inclusion of institutional variables; b) agency and cognition; c) contextual sensitivity; d) increasing precision in the concept of institution (and institutional change); and, e) recursive interaction between agents and institutions in the process of institutional change. Based on these challenges, the article conducts a comparative analysis of the theories of change suggested by North and Aoki to understand how they deal with such issues.