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A responsabilidade do poder político no estado constitucional sob o paradigma da democratic responsiveness; Political accountability in the constitutional state in light of democratic responsiveness.

Lorencini, Bruno Cesar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
O objetivo central desta tese é formular propostas normativas de delineamento do instituto da responsabilidade do poder político de forma a que este sirva como mecanismo de conformação de um paradigma de democracia qualificada (democratic responsiveness), cujo atributo fundamental é favorecer a correlação entre a atividade política e as expectativas e interesses da sociedade. Sob as premissas de que a qualificação democrática deve ser um objetivo fundamental no Estado Constitucional contemporâneo e de que a agregação de responsiveness ao processo político é, sem dúvida, um expediente necessário para tanto, defendemos em nossa tese a adoção de um modelo normativo em que as três facetas do instituto da responsabilidade responsibility, accountability e liability favoreçam a aproximação entre poder político e sociedade, o que é coerente com uma conformação mais substancial do princípio da soberania popular na experiência democrática, atenuando o déficit que as teorias procedimentais de democracia e a representação política independente causaram nesse campo. Valorizando o papel que a Constituição e o direito exercem em relação ao fenômeno político, apresentamos, como uma primeira proposta para um delineamento do instituto da responsabilidade do poder político que cumpra os objetivos acima colimados...

Political Christianity: Internal Organization, Preferences and Church Political Activity

Rhodes, Christopher
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
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This dissertation examines the role of internal structure of religious organizations in influencing these organizations’ interactions with incumbent governments and ultimately determining the political activities of religious groups. This dissertation fits within a body of literature known as the political economy of religion. I expand upon this literature by examining religious groups in terms of internal organization, focusing on Christian churches in Africa, with Kenya as my primary case country. The central argument of this dissertation is that churches (national-level denominations) with certain organizational features – centralized leadership, authoritarian decision-making procedures, and lack of internal accountability mechanisms – are more likely to have friendlier interactions with governments and therefore tend to adopt more pro-government political stances compared to churches that lack these features. This relationship operates through two mechanisms. First, centralized churches possess negotiation advantages over decentralized churches. Second, centralized, authoritarian churches can more easily be co-opted by incumbent governments. The dissertation also expand upon existing literature by offering a fuller and more nuanced understanding of the preferences of governments and churches vis-à-vis one another...

Democracy and city life

King, Loren A. (Loren Antony), 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 204 p.; 19465291 bytes; 19465049 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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45.87%
The deliberative turn in recent political theory ties legitimacy to public deliberation about reasons, offered for and against exercises of authority by informed and sincere citizens, who share a commitment to finding mutually acceptable terms of social cooperation. But even such reasonable citizens may disagree on important matters, and some citizens will only rarely, if ever, see their sincere reasoned judgements reflected in democratic outcomes. I argue that, to be widely perceived as legitimate in plural settings, fair deliberative procedures must not only be inclusive and self-evidently grounded in a commitment to reasonableness and mutual respect; they must further ensure that dissenting parties have a reasonable expectation of eventually transforming features of the public sphere to better accommodate their distinctive values and interests. The result is a fair deliberative pluralism that reflects the cacophonous and variegated character of the public sphere in modern democracies. But I caution that this ideal requires conditions that can sustain spatial patterns of wealth and control over land uses that undermine the interests of certain spatially fixed groups. I draw on the experiences of U.S. cities to illustrate this tension. These cities feature profound and enduring inequalities of wealth and political influence...

As imagens da cultura política brasileira em A carteira de meu tio de Joaquim Manuel de Macedo; The images of brasilian political culture in the portfolio of my uncle Joaquim Manuel de Macedo

CARNEIRO JÚNIOR, Nelson
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Sociologia; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Sociologia; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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45.89%
The novel A carteira de meu tio, written by Joaquim Manoel de Macedo, shows the reality of Brazilian political culture during 19th century. The book makes radiography of political customs, using symbols and allegories that re-affirm the image of country with a low consistence in representatives and institutional political space exiguous in function of predominance of privilege of clients. The allegories presented in the book A carteira de meu tio, refers to the constitution of 1824, are the starting point of this research that realizes a social interpretation of a literary work, showing how this one present important representations to analyzes of society. This essay intends to study how cultural aspects from national political culture presents in A carteira de meu tio are appropriated by literary representation and historical and social production. Literature is the support that will allow revealing the images elaborated by the author and through historical part and a social analyzes, we will show what exist besides the present speeches in literary work about the purpose of the research. The representation of the imperial constitution of 1824 in A carteira de meu tio, by Joaquim Manoel de Macedo, symbolizes and presents political practices realized in Second Empire Government and the images of political activity in Brazil The conception of political citizenship and the role taken by political institutions in the country during 1853 to 1865 are evaluated as decisive elements in consolidation of a national political culture.; O romance A carteira de meu tio de Joaquim Manuel de Macedo discute o quadro da cultura política brasileira em meados do século XIX. A obra realiza uma radiografia dos costumes políticos...

La libertad de asociación política de los Jueces en Europa frente a los principios de independencia e imparcialidad; Freedom of political association of judges in Europe: An analysis through the principles of independency and impartiality

Morelli, Antonio
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /01/2014 SPA
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45.82%
El presente artículo pretende analizar el estatus de los jueces frente a los principios de independencia e imparcialidad que la función exige. Esto en un marco de libertad de asociación. Específicamente el artículo desarrolla la facultad de asociación que tienen los jueces europeos, como el elemento más esencial en un sistema democrático, es decir, los partidos políticos. El análisis enfoca la cuestión de la interferencia entre el poder judicial y la esfera política, ante la posibilidad más o menos implícita de limitar esta facultad de los jueces para asociarse o ejercer cualquier actividad política. Ello atendiendo las inevitables dificultades que conlleva respecto al principio de igualdad; The present article develops an analysis on the Judge’s status against the principles independency and impartiality per se, in relation with freedom of association. Specifically, the article treats the possibility for European judges to associate regarding a quintessential element of a democratic system, that is, political affiliation. The analysis focuses on the issue of interference between the judiciary and the political sphere and the possibility of limiting judges to participate in any political activity, with the consequent difficulties related with the principle of equality

Interest Group Politics in the European Union: Migrant Inclusion Organizations and Political Behavior Across Levels of Governance

Schnyder, Melissa
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Political Science, 2006; This project explores why similar organizations located in similar countries in the European Union (EU) working on behalf of similar interests will undertake very different strategies to achieve their policy goals. I focus on organizations working toward a migrant inclusion policy agenda across twenty EU countries, and compare their political activities across levels of governance. I develop an integrative model based on group interconnectedness to explain activity. In particular, I examine how an organization's ties with a range of other actors shape activity levels and activity choice, as compared to more traditional social movement explanations. A broad range of activities are examined, including lobbying, protest, judicial action, media use, and collaborative efforts with others. The findings support the proposition that the nature and strength of an organization's connections strongly influences its political activity across each level of governance. At the national level, increasingly strong connections to other like-minded actors serve to increase and moderate activity. Moreover, groups that maintain strong connections with actors beyond the state are more likely to expand their activities across levels of governance...

Inefficient Lobbying, Populism and Oligarchy

Campante, Filipe R.; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The authors investigate the theoretical effects of lobbying and pressure group activities on both economic efficiency and on equity. Looking at lobbying as a political activity that takes place alongside production, they find that lobbies may generate economic inefficiency as part of the process of shifting the allocation of government expenditures in their favor. Outcomes of this non-electoral political process will always be biased toward the group with a comparative advantage in politics, rather than in production. In a context where the main political conflict is one between "the rich" and "the poor," political equilibria may be either populist (inefficiently pro-poor) or oligarchic (inefficiently pro-rich), depending on each group's lobbying effectiveness.

Organizing for Prosperity : Collective Action, Political Parties and the Political Economy of Development

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.91%
The ability of citizens to act collectively plays a central role in major debates in the political economy of development, including the causes and consequences of democratization and clientelism. This essay uses two lines of research to underscore the importance of explicitly introducing the organization of collective action into these debates. Exhaustive research on the management of open access resources demonstrates that citizens' ability to act collectively depends on non-trivial organizational arrangements that allow leaders to sanction free-riding and allow members to replace leaders if they shirk. Other research demonstrates wide variability in the organization of political parties. In countries where political parties do not have these two organizational characteristics, public policies are less friendly to economic development. This evidence suggests that in future research on democracy, state-building and development, citizen organization should be a central object of analysis.

A crisis of social democracy : organized labour and the NDP in an era of neoliberalism

Fowler, Tim.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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The NDP was founded out of the ashes of the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation to cooperate with the Canadian Labour Congress to become the 'political arm of organized labour' in Canada. The NDP has long claimed they are the party which represents the policy goals of organized labour in Canada: that the NDP alone will fight for trade union rights, and will fight for Canadian workers. Divergent Paths is an examination of the links between the labour movement and the ND P in an era ofneo-liberalism. Provincial NDP governments have become increasingly neoliberal in their ideological orientation, and have often proved to be no friend to the labour movement when they hold office. The Federal party has never held power, nor have they ever formed the Official Opposition. This thesis charts the progress of the federal NDP as they become more neoliberal from 1988 to 2006, and shows how this trend effects the links between the NDP and labour. Divergent Paths studies each federal election from 1988 to 2006, looking at the interactions between Labour and the NDP during these elections. Elections provide critical junctions to study discourse - party platforms, speeches, and other official documents can be used to examine discourse. Extensive newspaper searches were used to follow campaign events and policy speeches. Studying the party's discourse can be used to determine the ideological orientation of the party itself: the fact that the party's discourse has become neoliberal is a sure sign that the party itself is neoliberal. The NDP continues to drive towards the centre of the political spectrum in an attempt to gain multi-class support. The NDP seems more interested in gaining seats at any cost...

The political integration of newcomers of Latin American origin to Canada: an examination of the role and relevance of prior knowledge

Long, Neyda H; Hughes, Andrew S.
Fonte: Faculty of Education, Queen's University Publicador: Faculty of Education, Queen's University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 127914 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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45.88%
The purpose of this research was to map the understanding of the concept of political participation held by newcomers to Canada from countries from Spanish-speaking Latin America. The relevance of the work lies in the view that this prior knowledge plays a significant role in how newcomers adjust to political activity in the new society. Canada has tacitly recognized the full spectrum of participation and belonging for newcomers, including its economic, social and political dimensions, but the historical emphasis in policies and programs has been upon economic and social integration. Here, attention is directed to the issue of integration into the political fabric of the nation. The research employed a phenomenographic method and data were generated from 70 individuals from 30 families. The findings revealed that the participants attach considerable importance to political participation whether through conventional electoral politics or through grass-roots actions. For the study participants, the concept of political participation includes components related to emotional commitments, community involvement, social action, freedom of conscience, the power to make a difference and identification with Canada. The findings show that the motivational force to belong channels the preferred forms of political engagement.

Partisan Asymmetries in Online Political Activity

Conover, Michael D.; Gonçalves, Bruno; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We examine partisan differences in the behavior, communication patterns and social interactions of more than 18,000 politically-active Twitter users to produce evidence that points to changing levels of partisan engagement with the American online political landscape. Analysis of a network defined by the communication activity of these users in proximity to the 2010 midterm congressional elections reveals a highly segregated, well clustered partisan community structure. Using cluster membership as a high-fidelity (87% accuracy) proxy for political affiliation, we characterize a wide range of differences in the behavior, communication and social connectivity of left- and right-leaning Twitter users. We find that in contrast to the online political dynamics of the 2008 campaign, right-leaning Twitter users exhibit greater levels of political activity, a more tightly interconnected social structure, and a communication network topology that facilitates the rapid and broad dissemination of political information.; Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, 6 tables

Echo chamber amplification and disagreement effects in the political activity of Twitter users

Dyagilev, Kirill; Yom-Tov, Elad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Online social networks have emerged as a significant platform for political discourse. In this paper we investigate what affects the level of participation of users in the political discussion. Specifically, are users more likely to be active when they are surrounded by like-minded individuals, or, alternatively, when their environment is heterogeneous, and so their messages might be carried to people with differing views. To answer this question, we analyzed the activity of about 200K Twitter users who expressed explicit support for one of the candidates of the 2012 US presidential election. We quantified the level of political activity (PA) of users by the fraction of political tweets in their posts, and analyzed the relationship between PA and measures of the users' political environment. These measures were designed to assess the likemindedness, e.g., the fraction of users with similar political views, of their virtual and geographic environments. Our results showed that high PA is usually obtained by users in politically balanced virtual environment. This is in line with the disagreement theory of political science that states that a user's PA is invigorated by the disagreement with their peers. Our results also show that users surrounded by politically like-minded virtual peers tend to have low PA. This observation contradicts the echo chamber amplification theory that states that a person tends to be more politically active when surrounded by like-minded people. Finally...

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND YOUTH: FROM DISCONTENT TO RESPONSIBILITY IN RELATION TO A COMMON DESTINY; PARTICIPATION POLITIQUE ET JEUNESSE: DU MALAISE À LA RESPONSABILISATION DEVANT LE DESTIN COMMUN; PARTICIPAÇÃO POLÍTICA E JUVENTUDE: DO MAL-ESTAR À RESPONSABILIZAÇÃO FRENTE AO DESTINO COMUM

Castro, Lúcia Rabello de; Universidade Federal do Paraná
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This article analyzes the relationship between youth and contemporary politics. Its principalfocus of discussion refers to the process of political subjectivation and deals initially with the questionof how this process implies the building of a sense of belonging to a collectivity and being responsiblefor life in common, as major aspects of the process of assuming one’s connection to society whichsuggest modes of participation and action. Possibilities for engagement and their political meaningare discussed in light of youth’s apparent inertia and apathy with regard to politics. A qualitativeempirical study with approximately 25 youth is presented, based on interviews carried out withyouth activists in student organizations and in political parties, as well as youth engaged in volunteersocial work. In our analysis, there is evidence of convergence and divergence between the twogroups in the meaning and objectives of engaged action and in conventional forms of militance; wediscuss the relationship between these youths’ trajectories and “causes” they take up that propelltheir action and social participation. This brings out a distinction between “politics” and “the political”,keeping in mind that institutionalized forms of political activity no longer seem to allow us to dealwith the demands of a shared existence...

Entrepreneurs, democratic institutions and political reform; Entrepreneurs, institutions démocratiques et réforme politique; EMPRESARIADO, INSTITUIÇÕES DEMOCRÁTICAS E REFORMA POLÍTICA

Costa, Paulo Roberto Neves; Universidade Federal do Paraná
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2008 POR
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45.89%
This text looks at how presidents of the 40 entities that represent entrepreneurs evaluate the functioningof democratic institutions and perspectives of political reform between the years of 2004 and 2005.Data is aggregated in two ways: on the one hand, for the whole set of entities and on the other,according to the nature of each entity (syndicate or associative), by sector (industry, commerce,agriculture, finance, etc.) and by location and scope (state entities, distinguished by regions, andnationwide ones). Our objectives include, on the one hand, defending the importance of mobilizingthis type of variable in analyzing the characteristics of entrepreneurs and their political action and, on the other, verifying the degree of homogeneity of opinions and positions with regard to the followingaspects: degree of adhesion to and stance taken regarding democracy as a political regime; theevaluation of working democratic institutions; the political importance that is attributed to socialgroups and political institutions; views taken on entrepreneurs’ political activity regarding the powersthat be and, lastly, their position regarding to political reform. In this way we attempt to establishelements for future analysis of patterns of entrepreneurial political action regarding issues of politicalinstitutions and the future of democracy in Brazil.; Ce texte analyse comment les présidents de 40 organismes de représentation des entrepreneursbrésiliens évaluent le fonctionnement des institutions démocratiques et la perspective de la réformepolitique entre les années 2004-2005. Les données seront intégrées de la façon suivante : d’abord...

Book review: Revolution stalled: the political limits of the internet in the post-Soviet sphere

Pirgova, Luba
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
"Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere." Sarah Oates. Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- Can the internet fundamentally challenge non-free regimes? For many, the role that social networking played in political change in the Middle East and beyond raises important questions about the ability of authoritarian leaders to control the information sphere and their subjects. Revolution Stalled analyses the contemporary Russian internet, aiming to illuminate how and when online activity can spark political action. Luba Pirgova recommends the book to those interested in media history, social media, and public life in Russia.

Book review: Spaces of contention: spatialities and social movements

Walklate, Jenny
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2013 EN; EN
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45.82%
"Spaces of Contention: Spatialities and Social Movements." Walter Nicholls, Byron Miller, and Justin Beaumont (eds.). Ashgate. July 2013. --- As social movements have become more complex, geographers are increasingly studying the spatial dynamics of collective resistance, and sociologists and political scientists are increasingly analysing the role of space, place and scale in contentious political activity. Occupying a position at the intersection of these disciplinary developments, this book aims to examine how social movements have employed spatial practices to respond to and shape changing social and political contexts. Reviewed by Jenny Walklate.

Theorists and actors: Zhang Shizhao on "self-awareness" as political action

Jenco, Leigh K.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This paper draws on the thought of the early twentieth century Chinese intellectual Zhang Shizhao to re-examine the foundations of effective political action. Writing during the critical historical juncture that spanned the fall of China's last imperial dynasty and the establishment of a republican government, Zhang reflects upon the possibilities for political action in contexts where the communities that might underwrite its meaning are no longer—or not yet—accessible. These reflections culminate in Zhang's vision of self-rule as an individualized process of “self-awareness.” I sketch out the model of political action his account implies to explain how he can render such individualized activity politically relevant. Contrasting with accounts of democratic action like Hanna Pitkin's that privilege “action in concert,” Zhang's self-awareness reorients the focus of political activity toward disparate—though cumulative—efforts to render shared problems incrementally and personally tractable.

Facebook was not a hotbed of political activity during the 2008 U.S. Presidential election

Carlisle, Juliet; Patton, Rob
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
The 2008 election which saw President Barack Obama elected was hailed as the first ‘Facebook election’. But was Facebook really a ‘hotbed’ for political activity in that election? Using data from questionnaires and Facebook profiles, Juliet Carlisle and Rob Patton take a close look at the nature of political engagement on Facebook during the 2008 election. They find that the variables that are known to predict political participation in the offline world, such as sex and parental income, are not predictors of political activity in the Facebook environment. They also find, surprisingly, that those with more friends and who belong to more Facebook groups are less likely to be politically active.

Oil and women's political participation: a sub-national assessment of the role of protests and NGOs in Nigeria

Shochat, Sharon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The resource curse literature, which links natural resource abundance with negative political and economic outcomes, is largely based on large-N cross-national studies. This thesis examines the effects of oil production on women’s political participation at the sub-national level, comparing the 36 states in the Nigerian federation, of which some are oil-producing. Shedding new light on the negative effects of oil production at the local and community level, and exploring the gender-related dimensions of the resource curse, I argue that the effect of oil varies across different forms of political activity: while oil production may have a negative impact on women’s legislative participation, it can also have a positive impact on non-formal types of political participation, specifically protest and NGO activity. I further suggest that the underlying trigger for both of these effects is oil’s impact on women’s work, which is manifested differently at national and local levels. The analysis is based on a mixed-methods approach that combines quantitative and qualitative tools, including original datasets on oil production and legislative participation, women’s protests, and women-led NGOs across Nigeria’s states. The combination of evidence offers a wide-ranging repertoire of the impact of oil on women. Drawing on historical evidence and women’s testimonies...

Tamils and the nation: India and Sri Lanka compared

Rasaratnam, Madurika
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
This dissertation examines the divergent trajectories of ethnic and national politics in the Tamil speaking regions of India and Sri Lanka. Despite comparable historical experiences and conditions, the south Indian Tamil speaking areas were peaceably accommodated within a pan-Indian framework whilst Sri Lankan politics was marked by escalating Tamil-Sinhala ethnic polarisation and violent conflict. The dissertation explains these contrasting outcomes by setting out a novel theoretical framework that draws on the work of Reinhart Koselleck and his analysis of the links between concepts and political conflict. It argues that in the era of popular sovereignty the nation and ethnicity have become central and unavoidable concepts of political order, but concepts that can be deliberately constructed through political activity in more or less inclusive ways. Setting out the conceptual connections between the nation, ethnicity and popular sovereignty, the dissertation shows how the conceptual tension between a unified national identity / interest and ethnic pluralism becomes a central and unavoidable locus of political contestation in the era of popular sovereignty. Tracing the politics of ethnicity and nationalism in India and Sri Lanka from the late nineteenth century to the late 1970’s...