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Quantifying technology infusion and policy impact on low earth orbit communication satellite constellations

Chang, Darren Datong, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 204 p.; 10443811 bytes; 10468706 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Technology infusion and policy implementation bring impacts to the trade space of complex engineering systems. This work describes in detail the frameworks for quantitative analyses on these impacts, demonstrates their use on the sample system, and presents the analysis results. The low earth orbit (LEO) communication satellite constellation system serves as the platform for carrying out the system trade space analysis. The system is reproduced in computer environment in the form of a multiple-input-output MATLAB model. The model contains multiple modules that incorporate the physics, economy, and policies of the real-world system. The inputs to the model are system design variables and the outputs are system performance, capacity, and cost. The Pareto optimal solution set of the baseline trade space is generated by the model using a full-factorial run that covers the entire design space. To simulate technology infusion, technical and cost attributes of four new technologies are quantified and infused into the system model. The infusion of technologies and combinations of technologies into the system is simulated. Policy implementation is simulated by changing the policy constraints in the model. The technology-infused trade space and policy-implemented trade space have new sets of Pareto optimal solutions. By comparing these solution sets with the baseline optimal solution set in the objective space...

Combinations of policy measures with a high potential for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

Bandivadekar, Anup P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 p.; 4578772 bytes; 4578577 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Fuel consumption of cars and light-duty trucks is one of the most vigorously debated issues in the U.S. While impressive gains have been made in terms of both fuel efficiency and individual vehicle fuel economy in the past two decades, the overall fuel consumption of the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet continues to grow. Although concerns about the effect of emissions from the vehicles and a significant reliance on imported oil provide legitimate reasons for government action to manage fuel consumption, the economic and societal impacts of such intervention assume multiple dimensions. This research finds that there exists no silver bullet for reducing the fuel consumption of motor vehicles in the U.S. However, there are several different policy measures available to affect the production and purchase of more fuel efficient vehicles as well as reduce the amount of driving. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual of policy options reveals the potential for combination of policies. A fleet model helps understand the time delay between the introduction of new fuel efficient vehicles and the reduction in fuel consumption of the fleet. Analysis of political and institutional obstacles enables an evaluation of the feasibility of a comprehensive policy package. A reinforcing combination of different policies can increase the overall effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Such an approach aims at exploiting synergies between different measures...

Bringing policy into space systems conceptual design : qualitative and quantitative methods

Weigel, Annalisa L. (Annalisa Lynn), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168 p.; 15537090 bytes; 15536849 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
A change in government policy can send waves of crippling impacts through the design and development of publicly funded complex engineering systems. Thus it is important for system architects and designers to understand the interaction of policy with their systems, and to strive for policy robustness in their systems. To be policy robust is to successfully pass through policy changes that might arise during the course of system development in order to bring the system into operational use. The goal of this thesis research is to enable the creation of policy robust system architectures and designs through making policy an active consideration in the engineering systems architecting and design process. Qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are brought to bear on the problem using space systems as the application domain, and a process is set down through which policy can become an active consideration instead of a static constraint. Unique contributions of this thesis in the qualitative analysis of policy robust systems include new heuristics describing the interaction of policy and publicly funded engineering systems, as well as impact flow path diagrams for tracing policy interactions with technical engineering system parameters. Quantitative contributions include general relationships for the behavior of engineering system architecture sets under downward annual budget policy pressure...

Engineering and policy analysis of strategic and tactical options for future aerospace traffic management

Falker, John M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 7238178 bytes; 7237987 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Current space launch/landing events are conducted only within Special Use Airspace (SUA), separate from air traffic. This is a strategic traffic management policy because SUA size and duration are set well in advance. It forces space operations to disrupt aviation, which could become costly with growth in air or space transportation. This was investigated through integrated engineering/policy analysis of strategic and tactical options. Total annual disruption cost was calculated using the number of conflicts per SUA event, the annual SUA events, the average disruption per conflict, and the cost per unit disruption. The conflict count was identified as most important, and an analytical airspace conflict model was developed to predict the number of conflicts associated with restricting an arbitrary region of airspace for a given duration. This approach was used to investigate the sensitivity of disruption cost to SUA radius, SUA active duration, air traffic density, relative velocity, annual SUA events, and conflict resolution distance. The current annual cost is under $1 million, but the expected ranges of all factors comprise a plausible range of $100 to $8 million. This cost was most sensitive to SUA radius: on average, doubling the radius multiplies the cost by 49...

Technology and policy options for reducing industrial air pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

Vijay, Samudra, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.; 14451916 bytes; 14485152 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Technology plays an important role in dealing with air pollution and other environmental problems faced by developing and developed societies. This research examines if technological solutions alone, such as end-of-pipe and process control technologies, can achieve substantial and sustained emissions reduction from the industrial sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Environmental standards for most of the criteria pollutants have frequently been violated in the MCMA. Severe air pollution in the MCMA, and the roles of point and area sources, particularly industrial sector, are the prime motivating factors for this research. Industrial sources of air pollution play a significant role in aggravating the air pollution problem in the MCMA. This research focuses on a 25-year horizon for socio-economic growth of the MCMA, and its implications on industrial energy demand, and pollutant emissions. I develop a simulation model to estimate industrial energy demand and emissions from the MCMA industrial sector. The model incorporates industrial growth rate, changes in the structure of industry and energy intensity, pollution control technologies, fuel-switching, technological progress, etc. I find that the level of industrial activity...

Managing the transition toward self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle markets : policy analysis using a dynamic behavioral spatial model

Supple, Derek R. (Derek Richard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 97 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Designing public policy or industry strategy to bolster the transition to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) is a formidable challenge as demonstrated by historical failed attempts. The transition to new fuels occurs within a dynamically complex system with many distributed actors, long time delays, several important feedback relationships, and multiple tipping points. A broad-boundary, behavioral, dynamic model with explicit spatial structure was previously developed to represent the most important AFV transition barriers. Using California as an illustrative testing region, the model simulates the spatial diffusion of entrant vehicle/fuel technology pairs individually or in competition with other entrants. In this work, the integrated model is carefully parameterized for various specific alternative vehicle technologies. Structural and parametric sensitivity analyses are used to build understanding of system behavior and to identify policy leverage points or the need for further model calibration.; (cont.) The qualitative impacts of policies are tested individually and then in multi-policy combinations to find synergies. Under plausible assumptions and strong policies, AFVs can achieve successful diffusion but this process requires long time periods. Findings indicate some commonly suggested policies may provide little leverage and be very costly. The analysis reveals the importance of designing policy cognizant of the system structure underlying its dynamic behavior. Several examples demonstrate how policy leverage varies with context such as key attributes of the alternative vehicle technology. Broadly...

Irreversibilities and the timing of environmental policy

Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 31 p
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The Standard framework in which economists evaluate environmental policies is cost-benefit analysis, so policy debates usually focus on the expected flows of costs and benefits, or on the choice of discount rate. But this can be misleading when there is uncertainty over future outcomes, when there are irreversibilities, and when policy adoption can be delayed. This paper shows how two kinds of uncertainty - over the future costs and benefits of reduction environmental degradation, and over the evolution of an ecosystem - interact with two kinds of irreversibilities - sunk costs associated with an environmental regulation, and "sunk benefits" of avoided environmental degradation - to affect optimal policy timing and design.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, the M.I.T. Program on Global Climate Change and the National Science Foundation.

Drug policy in Australia: the supervised injecting facilities debate

Gunaratnam, Praveena
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 131772 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Many theories have been developed to explain the influence of different groups in policy making. Some focus on public opinion, claiming that especially in issues of high salience, public opinion will play a decisive role in determining policy directions. Other theories claim interest groups (including professionals) and politicians are more critical in shaping the agenda and the solutions which are seen as viable in addressing a particular problem. The supervised injecting facilities debate in Australia, which reached its peak between 1999 and 2001 when the ACT, Victoria and NSW attempted to establish such facilities, was one characterised by a high degree of conflict between groups with differing moral and political beliefs about drug use. Case studies of each jurisdiction were assembled to delineate the impact of these different groups on the eventual failure to establish trials in ACT and Victoria, compared to success in NSW. The results indicate public opinion was sharply divided on the issue, therefore cannot be considered a major determinant of public policy in this area. Politicians however, because of their ability to block the legislation and funding needed to establish the trials, undoubtedly had the greatest influence in policy making.; no

Learning from Labor? Welfare policy transfer between Australia and Britain

Pierson, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 187197 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The evidence is examined for (and against) a process of policy transfer in the early 1990s between the Australian Labor Party (then in government) and policy reformers in the Labour Party in the UK in the two areas of ‘welfare to work’ (especially the JET initiative) and, rather more briefly, child support. Policy transfer of the JET was broadly successful while the transfer of the CSA initiative failed. Policy transfer is a real process but also complex and uncertain. The extent of transfer is conditioned by factors such as the extent of dissatisfaction with existing arrangements and the adequacy of local policy advice.; no

Networks and policy making: from theory to practice in Australian social policy

Hazlehurst, David
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 252164 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Traditional approaches to policy-making, in Australia and elsewhere, have assumed that policy-making processes are, and ought to be, centralised and hierarchical. However, policy networks have emerged as an alternative model of policy-making, particularly in Europe. Policy networks have been a regular feature of Australian policy-making, though usually under government sponsorship and on the government’s terms. Recent developments suggest that governments may be encouraging a more independent and less ‘top-down’ approach to the use of policy networks. The Coalition Government’s engagement of a ‘social coalition’ in welfare reform, particularly through the Reference Group on Welfare Reform, provides an interesting case study of this trend.; no

A Chronology Of Postwar U.S. Federal Income Tax Policy

Yang, Shu-Chun Susan
Fonte: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research Publicador: Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 182638 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
This note provides a chronology of major tax events that involved changes in federal taxes on individual and corporate income from 1948 to 2006. For each event, the note provides background and policy motivation, major provisions, legislative timeline, and estimated revenue changes. As most tax changes were preceded by extensive legislative delays, this chronology suggests that people were likely to have foreknowledge about tax policy. It also finds that postwar income tax policy was typically motivated by one of three rationales: 1) balancing the budget or reducing deficits, 2) controlling inflation, and 3) stimulating economic activity or promoting growth.

Marketing the joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, defense focused Masters in Business Administration to active duty military officers; Marketing the joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, defense focused Masters in Business Administration to active duty military officers

McGowan, Dennis M.; McGowan, Dennis M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xiv, 69 p. : col. ill., col. maps; xiv, 69 p. : col. ill., col. maps
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46.25%
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; In April 2001, the Naval Postgraduate School's Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (NPS GSBPP), and the University of Maryland (UMD), Robert H. Smith School of Business embarked on a joint venture to provide a defense focused Masters in Business Administration (MBA) to military service members and Department of Defense (DoD) civilians living in the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. This program is commonly called the Joint MBA (JMBA). Through market research; Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat Analysis; analysis of consumer buying; behavior and consideration of product life cycle; this marketing plan establishes an overarching marketing strategy for the JMBA. The strategy includes a product mission, marketing objectives, positioning, communication channels, the JMBA message and a description of managing the JMBA marketing process.; In April 2001, the Naval Postgraduate School's Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (NPS GSBPP), and the University of Maryland (UMD), Robert H. Smith School of Business embarked on a joint venture to provide a defense focused Masters in Business Administration (MBA) to military service members and Department of Defense (DoD) civilians living in the metropolitan Washington...

Contestability, policy advice and the Australian Strategic Policy Institute

Perkins, Celia
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 76689 bytes; 350 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
As the public service is "thrown open to the cold winds of competition" (Hartigan, 2000), and the implementation of new public management advances past simple contracting-out, contestability of policy advice to government is receiving increased interest as new area of reform to pursue. The Government's commitment to establish an Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) is motivated by the potential for that institution to provide contestable advice on defence and security policy issues. To understand how the creation of this Institute might assist the Government's desire for policy contestability, this paper will look more closely at the principles of contestability and consider how the experience of other similar ventures by Government have contributed to increased contestability in policy advice. This understanding should inform the establishment of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.; no

Program Evaluation and Policy Management in Australian Central Agencies

Di Francesco, Michael Francis
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Of the many components of reform to Australian government administration in the 1980s, the introduction of systematic program evaluation is perhaps one of the least examined. This thesis seeks to assess the Federal Labor Government's evaluation strategy as an instrument for enhancing what are here termed the policy management capacities of central agencies. It proceeds in two steps. First, the thesis traces in detail the development of program evaluation policy in Australian federal government from the effectiveness reviews of the Coombs Report of 1976 to the current evaluation strategy, and argues that, despite competing purposes for it, evaluation was intended primarily to serve decision making in central government. This policy aim was cemented by the economic crisis of the mid 1980s and framed around budgetary issues by its steward, the Department of Finance. Second, in order to assess the impact of the evaluation strategy, the thesis develops a framework for analysing program evaluation as one instrument for strengthening the core policy management functions of central agencies. In this context, policy management is essentially a coordination task. The contribution of evaluation to two aspects of policy management-resource coordination...

Public sector restructuring and community consultation in the Australian Capital Territory: can old and new public policy trends work together?

Enfield, Samantha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 68003 bytes; 351 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The aim and the reality of community consultation in the public policy process are often at odds. Simple mechanical remedies of consultative models and practices will not in themselves include the citizen beyond the ballot box. This Discussion Paper discusses the findings of a study conducted as part of PhD work in progress that examines two current public institutional trends in the ACT, purchaser-provider public sector arrangements and community consultation. The Australian Capital Territory offers the academic and practicing public policy community a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of old and new trends in OECD public policy best practice. Internationally, ideas about purchaser-provider models have been in place for some time. Current OECD activity is now emphasising community consultation to "strengthen government-citizen connections" in OECD countries and notes that there is now a strong trend towards renewal and expansion of public consultation in regulatory development which is underway in OECD countries (PUMA 1999). The ACT has both purchaser provider arrangements and significant investment in community consultation and provides a practical insight into the interaction of past ideas and current preoccupations in public policy. The Discussion Paper's study has found indications in the ACT that public institutional and reported service delivery arrangements have conditionally resulted in greater government control over the policy process; elected representatives have greater determination of public services...

Attribution principles for data integration : technology and policy perspectives; Principles of attribution for data integration : technology and policy perspectives

Lee, Thomas Y. (Thomas Yupoo)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 250 p.; 14265560 bytes; 14265360 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This thesis addresses problems of attribution that arise from the data integration that is exemplified by data re-use and re-distribution on the Web. We present two different perspectives. We begin with a simple definition of attribution, asking what data are we interested in and where does it come from? A formal model and its properties are defined, implementation in an extended relational algebra is described, and application to semistructured data on the Web is discussed. However, because the problem is more than simply what and where, we then expand the scope of our analysis. From the perspective of intellectual property policies, we adopt a broader view of the attribution problem space. A policy analysis that surveys the status quo policy landscape and stakeholder interests is followed by specific policy recommendations. Informed by our technology perspective, we offer two new arguments to support misappropriation as a policy approach to the attribution problem space. Our formal model of attribution is developed in the established foundation of the Domain Relational Calculus (DRC). Three distinct types of attribution are identified: comprehensive, source, and relevant. For each type, we consider the attribution of equivalent DRC expressions...

Uncertainty and learning in sequential decision-making : the case of climate policy

Webster, Mort David
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 240 p.; 21779590 bytes; 21779345 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The debate over a policy response to global climate change has been and continues to be deadlocked between 1) the view that the impacts of climate change are too uncertain and so any policy response should be delayed until we learn more, and 2) the view that we cannot wait to resolve the uncertainty because climate change is irreversible so we must take precautionary measures now. The objective of this dissertation is to sort out the role of waiting for better information in choosing an appropriate level of emissions abatement activities today under uncertainty. In this dissertation, we construct two-period sequential decision models to represent the choice of a level of emissions abatement over the next decade and another choice for the remainder of this century, both empirical models based on a climate model of intermediate complexity, and analytical dynamic programming models. Using the analytical models, we will show that for learning to have an influence on the decision before the learning occurs, an interaction must be present between strategies in the two decision periods. We define an "interaction" as the dependence of the marginal cost or marginal damage of the future decision on today's decision. When an interaction is present and is uncertain...

Perspectives on the satellite services industry : analysis of challenges and opportunities in the market, policy and regulatory environments

Torres-Padilla, Juan Pablo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 197 p.; 10918326 bytes; 10930610 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This thesis focuses on Space Communications and combines engineering, economics, market, and policy analyses to identify challenges and opportunities in the industry that are beyond the scope of any one isolated discipline. This work is divided in two parts. The first part begins by discussing the background of the communications satellite industry, its value-chain, service applications, history and evolution, and then explores two questions of significant importance to the survival and sustained growth of this industry: 1) are satellite communications solutions competing or complementary alternatives to terrestrial networks-in what context and for what service applications? And 2) what are the characteristics of the regulatory and policy environments and how do they affect the satellite communications industry? In order to address the first question, a framework to analyze the tradeoffs associated with satellite versus terrestrial solutions is developed around three axes: type of solution, service application, and geographic market. It is then argued that satellite solutions and terrestrial networks have a dual character: they are simultaneously competing and complementary technologies. The case is made that satellite solutions have important competitive advantages for voice and data transmission in rural markets and urban areas where terrestrial networks are not available. It is found that consumer video applications represent the most dynamic market with the highest potential of growth for satellite operators. Then...

Assessing the technical, economic and policy-centered feasibility of a proposed satellite communication system for the developing world

Samuels, Ayanna Terehas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 217 p.; 11571112 bytes; 11585349 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Satellite communication systems remain one of the most under utilized development mediums in less industrialized countries. This research proposes to establish a low cost satellite communications system tailored specifically for the developing world (+/- 30⁰ latitude). The technical, economic and policy related frontiers of the problem are integrated within a MATLAB based satellite communication constellation simulation which is used to assess the feasibility of the proposed satellite system. The analysis demonstrates that with technical advances that would allow higher capacity systems at lower costs and a renewed policy framework in line with the present state of the satellite system industry, it could be feasible to establish a low earth orbit satellite communications system for the developing world. The inputs to the satellite simulation are the proposed system's desired design variables and other relevant parameters. The outputs are system performance, capacity and cost. The Pareto optimal solution trade space is generated by the simulation model using a full-factorial run that probes the entire design space. The application of choice is short messaging services (SMS), chosen for its ability to provide proven connectivity at moderate costs. The capacity and cost of the most ideal Pareto architecture is contrasted against demand in the defined developing world region. The simulation also accounts for the necessary policy considerations and assesses the feasibility of the proposed system amidst the existing industry policy and regulatory framework. Additionally...

Environmental technology and policy development in a regional system : transboundary water management and pollution prevention in southeastern Europe

Electris, Christi
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 270 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In order to surmount the barriers to transboundary integration and coordination of environmental technology and regulatory policy in Southeastern Europe, the environmental capabilities and needs of the region are discussed, and a regional cooperation and coordination systems framework is developed. The thesis focuses on a case study of transboundary water resource management of the Mesta/Nestos River Basin between Bulgaria and Greece is presented in order to understand the coordination problems between a particular locality's level of integration in environmental technology development and use, and environmental regulatory policy, as well as the barriers to cooperation between two localities sharing a transboundary resource. For the case study, the physical characteristics and environmental stresses on the basin are described in detail. Next the policy governing local water resource management and environmental technology development is reviewed in terms of national laws and regulations, the bilateral diplomatic agreements, and the EU framework that drives much of the current activity in the basin today. Finally, the gaps in current policy and the barriers to coordinating water resource-related technology policy and environmental regulatory policy development are analyzed. The end result is a set of recommendations pertaining to the particular basin...