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Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006; Hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica no Brasil, 2004 - 2006; Hospitalizaciones por enfermedad neumocócica en Brasil, 2004-2006

NOVAES, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; SARTORI, Ana Marli Christovam; SOÁREZ, Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.05%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.; OBJETIVO: Estimar as hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica com base em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH). MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com base em dados do SIH de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006: números de hospitalizações e mortes por meningite pneumocócica...

Hospital costs related to streptococcal meningitis among children in Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

Lucarevschi, Bianca Rezende; de Ulhoa Escobar, Ana Maria; Grisi, Sandra
Fonte: CADERNOS SAUDE PUBLICA; RIO DE JANIERO Publicador: CADERNOS SAUDE PUBLICA; RIO DE JANIERO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Knowledge of hospital costs is highly important for public health decision-making. This study aimed to estimate direct hospital costs related to pneumococcal meningitis in children 13 years or younger in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, from January 1999 to December 2008. Data were obtained from medical records. Hospital costs were calculated according to the mixed method for measurement of quantities of items with identified costs and value attribution to items consumed (micro-costing and gross-costing). All costs were calculated according to monetary values for November 2009 and in Brazilian currency (Real). Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for frequencies and means analysis. Forty-one cases were reported. Direct hospital costs varied from R$ 1,277.90 to R$ 19,887.56 (mean = R$ 5,666.43), or 10 to 20 times the mean cost of hospitalization for other diseases. Hospital staff labor was the highest cost, followed by medication, procedures, supplies, and lab tests.

Custos hospitalares da meningite causada por Streptococcus pneumoniae na cidade de São José dos Campos, SP; Hospital costs of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in the city of São José dos Campos, SP

Lucarevschi, Bianca Rezende
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.96%
O conhecimento dos custos das doenças imunopreveníveis, em especial os custos hospitalares da meningite pneumocócica, objeto de estudo desta tese, são de grande importância para os processos de tomada de decisão no que se refere a intervenções ou estratégias de saúde pública. O objetivo desta tese foi estimar os custos hospitalares relacionados à meningite pelo Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças com idade até 13 anos (inclusive), na cidade de São José dos Campos, nos últimos dez anos. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de custo-de-doença, a partir dos casos notificados de meningite pneumocócica ocorridos de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2008. O cálculo da estimativa de custos hospitalares foi realizado de acordo com o método misto para a mensuração das quantidades dos itens de custos identificados e também para atribuição de valor aos itens consumidos, fazendo uso do micro-costing quando este era possível, e do gross-costing, como alternativa de viabilidade. Todos os custos foram calculados com os valores monetários referentes a novembro de 2009, e expressos em reais. Para análise das freqüências e médias, foi usado o programa Epi-Info versão 3.5.1. Resultados: De 1999 a 2008, foram notificados ao núcleo municipal de vigilância epidemiológica 41 casos de meningite pneumocócica em menores com até 13 anos de idade (média = 4...

Pneumococcal meningitis: epidemiological profile pre- and post-introduction of the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine

Hirose,Tatiane E.; Maluf,Eliane M.C.P.; Rodrigues,Cristina O.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.97%
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the possible effects of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate 10-valent vaccine schedule in the state of Parana on pneumococcal meningitis cases and to assess the distribution of serotypes among cases. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of cases of pneumococcal meningitis in the state of Paraná reported to Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), from 1998 to 2011. A total of 1,339 cases of pneumococcal meningitis were analyzed; 1,205 cases from the pre-vaccine period (1998-2009) were compared to 134 cases from the post-vaccine period (2010-2011). Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses (chi-squared test and prevalence ratio) were performed using JMP 5.1.2 statistical software (JMP Statistical Discovery, North Carolina, USA) and EPI INFO 6 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia, EUA). RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the mean rates of incidence and mortality in the general population. The analysis of cases in the pre- and post-vaccination periods in the age groups covered by vaccination (younger than 2 years) showed significant reductions in incidence rates (6.01 cases/100,000 to 2.49 cases/100...

Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006

Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Soárez,Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.94%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.

Impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children up to two years of age in Brazil

Grando,Indianara Maria; Moraes,Camile de; Flannery,Brendan; Ramalho,Walter Massa; Horta,Marco Aurélio P.; Pinho,Diana Lucia Moura; Nascimento,Gilmara Lima
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.81%
The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae on the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 2 years in Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. This is a descriptive study and ecological analysis using data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pre-vaccination (2007-2009) and post-vaccination (2011-2012) periods were defined to compare incidence rates and mortality. A total of 1,311 cases and 430 deaths were reported during the study period. Incidence decreased from 3.70/100,000 in 2007 to 1.84/100,000 in 2012, and mortality decreased from 1.30/100,000 to 0.40/100,000, or 50% and 69% respectively, with the greatest impact in the 6-11 month age group. This decrease in Pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality rates two years after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine suggests its effectiveness.

Environmental enrichment restores cognitive deficits induced by experimental childhood meningitis

Barichello,Tatiana; Fagundes,Glauco D.; Generoso,Jaqueline S.; Dagostin,Caroline S.; Simões,Lutiana R.; Vilela,Márcia C.; Comim,Clarissa M.; Petronilho,Fabricia; Quevedo,João; Teixeira,Antonio L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.74%
Objective: To evaluate the influence of environmental enrichment (EE) on memory, cytokines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental pneumococcal meningitis during infancy. Methods: On postnatal day 11, the animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension intracisternally at 1 × 106 CFU/mL and remained with their mothers until age 21 days. Animals were divided into the following groups: control, control + EE, meningitis, and meningitis + EE. EE began at 21 days and continued until 60 days of age (adulthood). EE consisted of a large cage with three floors, ramps, running wheels, and objects of different shapes and textures. At 60 days, animals were randomized and subjected to habituation to the open-field task and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. After the tasks, the hippocampus and CSF were isolated for analysis. Results: The meningitis group showed no difference in performance between training and test sessions of the open-field task, suggesting habituation memory impairment; in the meningitis + EE group, performance was significantly different, showing preservation of habituation memory. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task...

JNK is activated but does not mediate hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in experimental neonatal pneumococcal meningitis

Sury, Matthias D.; Agarinis, Claudia; Widmer, Hans-Rudolf; Leib, Stephen L.; Christen, Stephan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.92%
Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with caspase 3-dependent apoptosis of recently post-mitotic immature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The death of these cells is implicated in the learning and memory deficits in patients surviving the disease. The stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to be an important mediator of caspase 3-dependent neuronal apoptosis. However, whether JNK is involved in hippocampal apoptosis caused by pneumococcal meningitis has not been investigated so far. Here we show in a neonatal rat model of pneumococcal meningitis that JNK3 but not JNK1 or JNK2 is activated in the hippocampus during the acute phase of infection. At the cellular level, JNK3 activation was accompanied in the dentate gyrus by markedly increased phosphorylation of its major down-stream target c-Jun in early immature (Hu-positive) neurons, but not in migrating (doublecortin-positive) neurons, the cells that do undergo apoptosis. These findings suggested that JNK may not be involved in pneumococcal meningitis-induced hippocampal apoptosis. Indeed, although intracerebroventricular administration of D-JNKI-1 or AS601245 (two highly specific JNK inhibitors) inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation and protein expression in the hippocampus...

Restoration of Akt activity by the bisperoxovanadium compound bpV(pic) attenuates hippocampal apoptosis in experimental neonatal pneumococcal meningitis

Sury, Matthias D; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Agarinis, Claudia; Yousefi, Shida; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Christen, Stephan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
Pneumococcal meningitis causes apoptosis of developing neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The death of these cells is accompanied with long-term learning and memory deficits in meningitis survivors. Here, we studied the role of the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) survival pathway in hippocampal apoptosis in a well-characterized infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Meningitis was accompanied by a significant decrease of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) and of phosphorylated (i.e., activated) Akt in the hippocampus. At the cellular level, phosphorylated Akt was decreased in both the granular layer and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the region where the developing neurons undergo apoptosis. Protein levels and activity of PTEN, the major antagonist of PI3K, were unaltered by infection, suggesting that the observed decrease in PIP3 and Akt phosphorylation is a result of decreased PI3K signaling. Treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV(pic) restored Akt activity and significantly attenuated hippocampal apoptosis. Co-treatment with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed restoration of Akt activity and attenuation of hippocampal apoptosis, while it had no significant effect on these parameters on its own. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was mediated by PI3K-dependent activation of Akt...

Adjunctive Dexamethasone Affects the Expression of Genes Related to Inflammation, Neurogenesis and Apoptosis in Infant Rat Pneumococcal Meningitis

Blaser, Cornelia; Wittwer, Matthias; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.91%
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen causing non-epidemic bacterial meningitis worldwide. The immune response and inflammatory processes contribute to the pathophysiology. Hence, the anti-inflammatory dexamethasone is advocated as adjuvant treatment although its clinical efficacy remains a question at issue. In experimental models of pneumococcal meningitis, dexamethasone increased neuronal damage in the dentate gyrus. Here, we investigated expressional changes in the hippocampus and cortex at 72 h after infection when dexamethasone was given to infant rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Nursing Wistar rats were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae to induce experimental meningitis or were sham-infected with pyrogen-free saline. Besides antibiotics, animals were either treated with dexamethasone or saline. Expressional changes were assessed by the use of GeneChip® Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays and quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cytokines and chemokines were evaluated in immunoassays using Luminex xMAP® technology. In infected animals, 213 and 264 genes were significantly regulated by dexamethasone in the hippocampus and cortex respectively. Separately for the cortex and the hippocampus...

Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.89%
Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis...

Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis

Woehrl, Bianca; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Murr, Carmen; Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G.B.; Baas, Frank; Pfister, Hans W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Morgan, B. Paul; Barnum, Scott R.; van der Ende, Arie; Koedel, Uwe; van de Beek, Diederik
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.99%
Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the proinflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. Additionally, SNPs in genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been linked to susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, although no associations with disease severity or outcome have been established. Here, we have performed a robust prospective nationwide genetic association study in patients with bacterial meningitis and found that a common nonsynonymous complement component 5 (C5) SNP (rs17611) is associated with unfavorable disease outcome. C5 fragment levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial meningitis correlated with several clinical indicators of poor prognosis. Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor–deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared with WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with C5-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented death in all mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Thus...

Brain Abscesses Complicating Acute Pneumococcal Meningitis During Etanercept Therapy

Kasirye, Yusuf; Epperla, Narendranath; Manne, Janaki Ram; Bapani, Sowjanya; Garcia-Montilla, Romel J
Fonte: Marshfield Clinic Publicador: Marshfield Clinic
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
Brain abscess formation as a sequelae of community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all meningitis complications. Although metastatic seeding from a distal peripheral septic focus has been observed, this phenomenon most commonly occurs in the context of ear, nose and throat infections, post-cranial neurosurgical procedures, traumatic open cranial injury, or immunosuppression. We present the case of a man, 61 years old, on etanercept therapy for ankylosing spondylitis who developed multiple brain abscesses as a complication of pneumococcal meningitis. We believe that the predisposition to this extremely rare complication of a particularly aggressive pneumococcal meningitis was most likely due to the underlying immunosuppression resulting from etanercept therapy. As far as we know, this case is the first report linking multiple brain abscess formation in a patient with community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis with etanercept therapy.

Adjunctive N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine in Treatment of Murine Pneumococcal Meningitis

Högen, Tobias; Demel, Cornelia; Giese, Armin; Angele, Barbara; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Koedel, Uwe; Klein, Matthias
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.99%
Despite antibiotic therapy, acute and long-term complications are still frequent in pneumococcal meningitis. One important trigger of these complications is oxidative stress, and adjunctive antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine was suggested to be protective in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. However, studies of effects on neurological long-term sequelae are limited. Here, we investigated the impact of adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine on long-term neurological deficits in a mouse model of meningitis. C57BL/6 mice were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eighteen hours after infection, mice were treated with a combination of ceftriaxone and placebo or ceftriaxone and N-acetyl-l-cysteine, respectively. Two weeks after infection, neurologic deficits were assessed using a clinical score, an open field test (explorative activity), a t-maze test (memory function), and auditory brain stem responses (hearing loss). Furthermore, cochlear histomorphological correlates of hearing loss were assessed. Adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis, but the effect was minor. There was no significant benefit of adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine treatment in regard to other long-term complications of pneumococcal meningitis. Cochlear morphological correlates of meningitis-associated hearing loss were not reduced by adjunctive N-acetyl-l-cysteine. In conclusion...

Leukocyte Attraction by CCL20 and Its Receptor CCR6 in Humans and Mice with Pneumococcal Meningitis

Klein, Matthias; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Angele, Barbara; Geldhoff, Madelijn; Marquez, Gabriel; Varona, Rosa; Häcker, Georg; Schmetzer, Helga; Häcker, Hans; Hammerschmidt, Sven; van der Ende, Arie; Pfister, Hans-Walter; van de Beek, Diederik; Koedel, Uwe
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.96%
We previously identified CCL20 as an early chemokine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis but its functional relevance was unknown. Here we studied the role of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in pneumococcal meningitis. In a prospective nationwide study, CCL20 levels were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and correlated with CSF leukocyte counts. CCR6-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis and WT mice with pneumococcal meningitis treated with anti-CCL20 antibodies both had reduced CSF white blood cell counts. The reduction in CSF pleocytosis was also accompanied by an increase in brain bacterial titers. Additional in vitro experiments showed direct chemoattractant activity of CCL20 for granulocytes. In summary, our results identify the CCL20-CCR6 axis as an essential component of the innate immune defense against pneumococcal meningitis, controlling granulocyte recruitment.

Cannabidiol reduces host immune response and prevents cognitive impairments in Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis

Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A.; Generoso, Jaqueline S.; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simoes, Lutiana R.; Comim, Clarissa M.; Quevedo, Joao; Vilela, Marcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A.; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.95%
Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10 mu l of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-alpha level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol...

Hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica no Brasil, 2004 - 2006; Hospitalizaciones por enfermedad neumocócica en Brasil, 2004-2006; Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006

Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Soárez, Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.05%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.; OBJETIVO: Estimar as hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica com base em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH). MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com base em dados do SIH de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006: números de hospitalizações e mortes por meningite pneumocócica...

Pneumococcal meningitis in Jamaican children

Trotman,H; Olugbuyi,O; Barton,M; McGregor,D; Thomas,S
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features and outcome of pneumococcal meningitis in Jamaican children. METHODS: All patients admitted to the Bustamante Hospital for Children, during the period 1995-1999, who had pneumococcus isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or pleocytosis in association with a blood culture isolate of pneumococcus were selected. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Twenty-five (23%) of 111 patients with pneumococcal infections satisfied criteria for meningitis. The median age was 8 months (range 0.5-60 months). There were 4 (16%) cases of sickle cell disease, 2 (50%) of whom were first diagnosed during the current illness. This represents a 53-fold increased risk of pneumoccocal meningitis in patients with Sickle-cell disease based on population prevalence rates. Oxacillin resistance occurred in 3 (12%) patients, one of whom died. Mortality rate was 12% (3) with all deaths occurring in infants < 1 year. Poor outcome occurred in 36% (9) of the patients. Of the (35%) 8 survivors who had follow-up evaluation, (38%) 3 had documented hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: Meningitis is a common clinical syndrome of invasive pneumococcal disease, occurring in 23% of cases resulting in mortality and high morbidity among Jamaican children. Local seroepidemiological studies are urgently needed to inform national vaccine decisions. As an interim plan...

Evaluating the costs of pneumococcal disease in selected Latin American countries

Constenla,Dagna
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.75%
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs of pneumococcal disease in Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, to describe how these costs vary between different patient groups, and to discuss factors that affect these cost variations. METHODS: The cost of pneumococcal disease was estimated from the health care perspective. For each country, baseline cost estimates were primarily developed using health resources information from patient-level data and facility-specific cost data. A regression model was constructed separately for four types of pneumococcal diseases. The skewness-kurtosis test and the Cook-Weisberg test were performed to test the normality of the residuals and the heteroscedasticity, respectively. RESULTS: The treatment of pneumococcal meningitis generated up to US$ 5 435 per child. The treatment costs of pneumococcal pneumonia were lower, ranging from US$ 372 per child to US$ 3 483 per child. Treatment of acute otitis media cost between US$ 20 per child and US$ 217 per child. The main source of treatment costs variations was level of service provided and country in which costs were incurred. However, the tendency of costs to change with these variables was not statistically significant at the 5% level for most pneumococcal disease models. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal disease resulted in significant economic burden to selected health care systems in Latin America. The patterns of treatment cost of pneumococcal disease showed a great deal of variation.

Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006

Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Soárez,Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.94%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.