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The interaction between ectomycorrhizal fungi and growth promoting bacteria in plant development from in-vitro to the field

Ramos, Miguel A.; Sousa, Nadine R.; Franco, Albina R.; Dundar, Gonul; Oliveira, Rui S.; Castro, Paula M. L.
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 05/06/2013 ENG
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There is currently an array of biotechnological tools which may positively influence plant development and establishment. Symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi is known to improve plant health by increasing nutrient and water uptake and alleviating environmental stresses. Some rhizosphere bacteria are also proven to act as plant stimulating agents, health managers and growth promoters. The use of a combined inoculum using both microorganisms has great potential in forestry. Nevertheless, the interaction between fungi and bacteria is highly specific and bacteria are known not only to enhance fungal growth (mycorrhiza promoting bacteria), but also to strongly inhibit it. It is therefore important to evaluate the compatibility between ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and to determine the impact of such combination in plant development when aiming at the use of optimized microbial inoculum for enhancing plant growth. In the present work we investigated the use of a dual inoculation system, consisting of a bacterial strain from the genus Mesorhizobium in combination with ectomycorrhizal fungi, from in-vitro tests to a nursery stage followed by transplantation to the field. Approximately 5000 seedlings were used in these experiments comprising Quercus suber...

A Plant Health Care Program for Brambles in the Pacific Northwest

McElroy, F. D.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1992 EN
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Pratylenchus and Xiphinema species have been associated with decline and mortality of brambles (Rubus species) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. These nematodes cause direct feeding damage and (or) transmit viruses that result in poor fruit quality and plant decline. A nematode management program has been developed by the author to minimize chemical use and nematode-induced damage while optimizing fruit production. Nematode management is an integral part of a total plant health care program in which foliar and soil pests, plant stresses, and fertility are managed.

Induced plant volatiles allow sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses

Jansen, Roel MC; Hofstee, Jan W; Wildt, Jürgen; Verstappen, Francel WA; Bouwmeester, Harro J; van Henten, Eldert J
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
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A novel approach to support the inspection of greenhouse crops is based on the measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted by unhealthy plants.This approach has attracted some serious interest over the last decade. In pursuit of this interest, we performed several experiments at the laboratory-scale to pinpoint marker volatiles that can be used to indicate certain health problems. In addition to these laboratory experiments, pilot and model studies were performed in order to verify the validity of these marker volatiles under real-world conditions. This paper provides an overview of results and gives an outlook on the use of plant volatiles for plant health monitoring.

The Multifactorial Basis for Plant Health Promotion by Plant-Associated Bacteria▿

Kim, Young Cheol; Leveau, Johan; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Pierson, Leland S.; Ryu, Choong-Min
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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On plants, microbial populations interact with each other and their host through the actions of secreted metabolites. However, the combined action of diverse organisms and their different metabolites on plant health has yet to be fully appreciated. Here, the multifactorial nature of these interactions, at the organismal and molecular level, leading to the biological control of plant diseases is reviewed. To do so, we describe in detail the ecological significance of three different classes of secondary metabolites and discuss how they might contribute to biological control. Specifically, the roles of auxin, acetoin, and phenazines are considered, because they represent very different but important types of secondary metabolites. We also describe how studies of the global regulation of bacterial secondary metabolism have led to the discovery of new genes and phenotypes related to plant health promotion. In conclusion, we describe three avenues for future research that will help to integrate these complex and diverse observations into a more coherent synthesis of bacterially mediated biocontrol of plant diseases.

How Can Research on Plants Contribute to Promoting Human Health?[OA]

Martin, Cathie; Butelli, Eugenio; Petroni, Katia; Tonelli, Chiara
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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One of the most pressing challenges for the next 50 years is to reduce the impact of chronic disease. Unhealthy eating is an increasing problem and underlies much of the increase in mortality from chronic diseases that is occurring worldwide. Diets rich in plant-based foods are strongly associated with reduced risks of major chronic diseases, but the constituents in plants that promote health have proved difficult to identify with certainty. This, in turn, has confounded the precision of dietary recommendations. Plant biochemistry can make significant contributions to human health through the identification and measurement of the many metabolites in plant-based foods, particularly those known to promote health (phytonutrients). Plant genetics and metabolic engineering can be used to make foods that differ only in their content of specific phytonutrients. Such foods offer research tools that can provide significant insight into which metabolites promote health and how they work. Plant science can reduce some of the complexity of the diet-health relationship, and through building multidisciplinary interactions with researchers in nutrition and the pathology of chronic diseases, plant scientists can contribute novel insight into which foods reduce the risk of chronic disease and how these foods work to impact human health.

Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

Thomas, Carla S.; Nelson, Noele P.; Jahn, Gary C.; Niu, Tianchan; Hartley, David M.
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2011 EN
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Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

Liew, Oi Wah; Chong, Pek Ching Jenny; Li, Bingqing; Asundi, Anand K.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2008 EN
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Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for non-invasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control.

Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong
Fonte: Korean Society of Plant Pathology Publicador: Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species...

Rising CO2, Climate Change, and Public Health: Exploring the Links to Plant Biology

Ziska, Lewis H.; Schlesinger, William H.; Epstein, Paul Robert
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated: the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. Objectives: We aimed to critically evaluate the extant and probable links between plant function and human health, drawing on the pertinent literature. Discussion: Here we provide a number of critical examples that range over various health concerns related to plant biology and climate change, including aerobiology, contact dermatitis, pharmacology, toxicology, and pesticide use. Conclusions: There are a number of clear links among climate change, plant biology, and public health that remain underappreciated by both plant scientists and health care providers. We demonstrate the importance of such links in our understanding of climate change impacts and provide a list of key questions that will help to integrate plant biology into the current paradigm regarding climate change and human health.

Trading nitrogen for carbon: Nitrogen and carbon translocation in a plant/fungal (Metarhizium spp.) symbiosis

Behie, Scott William
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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While nitrogen is critical for all plants, they are unable to utilize organically bound nitrogen in soils. Therefore, the majority of plants obtain useable nitrogen through nitrogen fixing bacteria and the microbial decomposition of organic matter. In the majority of cases, symbiotic microorganisms directly furnish plant roots with inorganic forms of nitrogen. More than 80% of all land plants form intimate symbiotic relationships with root colonizing fungi. These common plant/fungal interactions have been defined largely through nutrient exchange, where the plant receives limiting soil nutrients, such as nitrogen, in exchange for plant derived carbon. Fungal endophytes are common plant colonizers. A number of these fungal species have a dual life cycle, meaning that they are not solely plant colonizers, but also saprophytes, insect pathogens, or plant pathogens. By using 15N labeled, Metarhizium infected, wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) in soil microcosms, I demonstrated that the common endophytic, insect pathogenic fungi Metarhizium spp. are able to infect living soil borne insects, and subsequently colonize plant roots and furnish ts plant host with useable, insect-derived nitrogen. In addition, I showed that another ecologically important...

Biodiversity and Health Symposium Conclusions and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The paper reported that to increase the effectiveness of healthcare as well as to alleviate poverty in the poorest parts of the world, the symposium participants recommended urgent attention to three principles: 1. Success will only be achieved if both biological diversity and cultural diversity are conserved.; 2. Leadership must come from indigenous peoples/(local communities) in the use of traditional knowledge for broader health benefits; 3. International cooperation and partnerships are necessary to ensure safety and quality of traditional phytomedicines.

Trophobiosis Theory: A Pest Starves on a Healthy Plant

Paull, John
Fonte: Journal of Biodynamic Agriculture Australia Publicador: Journal of Biodynamic Agriculture Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Trophobiosis Theory is a thesis proposed by Francis Chaboussou, an agronomist of the France’s National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA), in “Healthy Crops: A New Agricultural Revolution”. After two decades, this important book is finally available in English. Trophobiosis has been characterised by the former Minister for the Environment in Brazil, Jose Lutzenberger, as: “a pest starves on a healthy plant” (1995). The essence of Trophiobiosis theory is that pests shun healthy plants, pesticides weaken plants, and weakened plants are more open to pests and disease, and hence pesticides precipitate pest attack and disease susceptibility and thus induce a cycle of further pesticide use.

Plant cell wall engineering: Applications in biofuel production and improved human health

Burton, R.; Fincher, G.
Fonte: Current Biology Ltd Publicador: Current Biology Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production.; Rachel A Burton and Geoffrey B Fincher

Development and testing of the media monitoring tool MedISys for early identification and reporting of existing and emerging plant health threats

Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
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Media monitoring for emerging risks has become an essential tool in public health. This approach also has the potential to deliver early warning of emerging risks to plant health. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has launched a project in collaboration with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission to make use of the Medical Information System (MedISys) media monitoring tool for monitoring plant health threats. This paper provides a summary of the project, which is taking place in partnership with the University of Lleida and the Institut de Recerca I Tecnologia Agroalimentaries. The four specific objectives of the project are: (1) to collate new and appropriate media and information sources, (2) to develop a multilingual ontology for the global identification of emerging new plant health threats, (3) to develop strategies to monitor (re-)emerging plant health threats at global and regional scales, and (4) to test approaches for reporting the identified warnings to the relevant EFSA units and experts through the MedISys interface, including mapping and georeferencing. The plan and structure of the project are presented with examples of preliminary results.; JRC.G.2-Global security and crisis management

Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

Souza,Rocheli de; Ambrosini,Adriana; Passaglia,Luciane M.P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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AbstractPlant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants...

Using Indigenous Knowledge to Raise Agricultural Productivity : An Example from India

Prakash, Siddhartha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The note examines the transfer of knowledge from one generation to the next, and from country to country, through trading ties, and social interactions which has raised knowledge sharing activities within Africa, and elsewhere. Such activities have reinforced the universality of indigenous knowledge, and, despite geographical differences, the note looks at the Sodic Lands Reclamation Project in India, as a good example of integration of traditional knowledge into Bank-supported operations. The first challenge the project presented was the treatment of high build-up of salts in the fields, with high concentrations of exchangeable sodium in which finer soil particles are dispersed, but where water and air cannot penetrate. These sodic soils are toxic to plants, and adversely affect agriculture, human, and plant health. The application of traditional knowledge, i.e., spreading gypsum, building bunds, leaching the soil, starting multi-cropping, green manuring and crop rotation, as well as using compost and plowing the land...

The Role of Bacterial Biofilms and Surface Components in Plant-Bacterial Associations

Bogino, Pablo Cesar; Oliva, Maria de Las Mercedes; Sorroche, Fernando Guido; Giordano, Walter Fabian
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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The role of bacterial surface components in combination with bacterial functional signals in the process of biofilm formation has been increasingly studied in recent years. Plants support a diverse array of bacteria on or in their roots, transport vessels, stems, and leaves. These plant-associated bacteria have important effects on plant health and productivity. Biofilm formation on plants is associated with symbiotic and pathogenic responses, but how plants regulate such associations is unclear. Certain bacteria in biofilm matrices have been found to induce plant growth and to protect plants from phytopathogens (a process termed biocontrol), whereas others are involved in pathogenesis. In this review, we systematically describe the various components and mechanisms involved in bacterial biofilm formation and attachment to plant surfaces and the relationships of these mechanisms to bacterial activity and survival.; Fil: Bogino, Pablo Cesar. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquímicas y Naturales. Departamento de Biología Molecular; Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Córdoba; Argentina;; Fil: Oliva, Maria de Las Mercedes. Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquímicas y Naturales. Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología; Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Córdoba; Argentina;; Fil: Sorroche...

Métodos ópticos no destructivos para monitoreo de salud vegetal; Non-destructive optical methods for monitoring plant health

Cordon, Gabriela Beatriz
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 SPA
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El desarrollo de métodos ópticos analíticos para monitoreo de salud vegetal ha crecido notablemente debido a que estas técnicas permiten ahorrar mucho tiempo y trabajo en el laboratorio. Actualmente, es relevante la posible aplicación de estas metodologías en el monitoreo a distancia de la vegetación. Esta tesis propone un acercamiento al monitoreo de la salud vegetal desde la óptica química-física. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo es la interpretación de la interacción de la luz con el material vegetal en forma rigurosa desde el punto de vista físico y matemático para desarrollar procedimientos de diagnóstico. En particular, se exploraron en profundidad los métodos ópticos basados en determinaciones de reflectancia y en la espectroscopía de fluorescencia. Se encontraron correlaciones entre los espectros de reflectancia con el contenido de pigmentos presentes en las hojas y con el contenido de agua de las mismas. Además, se demostró la aplicabilidad de la teoría de Kubelka-Munk y del modelo de Pila de Placas en hojas. Se efectuó un estudio exhaustivo de la emisión de fluorescencia de clorofila-a presente en el tejido foliar, prestando especial atención al desarrollo y aplicación de modelos adecuados para efectuar correcciones por procesos de reabsorción de luz. Las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de las hojas se ven reflejadas en sus propiedades ópticas; por lo tanto se evaluaron los parámetros fotofísicos de hojas expuestas a diversas condiciones naturales a fin de ahondar los conocimientos existentes al respecto. Adicionalmente...

Bahia State, Brazil; Ariculture Sector Risk Assessment

Arias, Diego; Caballero, Jorge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agriculture Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The present study is part of an effort by the World Bank and the State of Bahia to assess agriculture sector risks as a contribution to the strategic economic development and poverty reduction agenda of the state government. It is composed of two phases: an agricultural sector risk identification and prioritization (volume one) and a risk management strategy and action plan (volume two). The study provides practical elements for the implementation of the Bahia sustainable rural development project - named Bahia Produtiva, which is currently implemented by Regional Development and Action Company of Bahia (CAR) and is financed by a World Bank loan. Risks in Bahia’s agricultural sector are highly concentrated in soybean, maize, cotton, cacao, fruits, vegetables, and beans. There are a number of relatively frequent (1 in 3, 1 in 5 and 1 in 10 year occurrence probability) risks that have moderate expected impact. These risks are climate (drought), pest and diseases, and price volatility. Although livestock production is greatly exposed to sanitary risks...

Projecting the external health costs of a coal-fired power plant: The case of Kusile

Riekert,Johannes W; Koch,Steven F
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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We examine an important subset of the expected health costs associated with the commissioning of Kusile, a new coal-fired electricity generation plant in South Africa. The subset of health impacts focuses on sulphur dioxides, nitrous oxides and large particulate matter (greater than 10 mm). The analysis makes use of the Impact Pathway Approach combined with the data transfer methodology. The plant, which is expected to contribute 4 800 MW of additional electricity to the South African grid is found to have modest health impacts, partly due to the limited additional pollutant emissions expected at the plant. Specifically, additional localised external health costs are found to be in the region of 0.09c/kWh to 6.08c/kWh. Limitations of the analysis are also examined.