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Estuary planning and management in Portugal: sharing local boundaries for water resources management

Fidélis, Teresa; Carvalho, Teresa
Fonte: CESAM – Department of Environment & Planning, University of Aveiro Publicador: CESAM – Department of Environment & Planning, University of Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
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Estuaries concentrate complex and often conflicting sets of natural, economic and social resources and activities bringing multiple challenges to institutional frameworks, planning and management approaches as well as governance practices dedicated to their protection, maintenance and resilience. Portugal has recently adopted a new set of estuary plans of regulatory nature, which combine the perspective of water resources management with that of land-use management. This paper explores the conceptual specificities of estuary planning and management in Portugal and their potential role in contexts of multiple resources, users, instruments and institutions. Given the mentioned complexity and vulnerability to global change, these plans may be crucial for seeking better environmental governance and greater resilience. The paper is structured in three parts. The first one through a literature review summarises some of the main conclusions about the role and specificities of governance in estuaries. The second part presents the legal and procedural features of estuary plans in Portugal and their integration within the water resources and land-use planning systems. The third part concentrates on the specificities of the River Vouga Estuary (Ria de Aveiro)...

Social impact management through planning and development : Hedonic Psychology and a new approach to tourism in Zanzibar

Metzger, A. Tell (Adam Tell), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 p.; 6998621 bytes; 6998430 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This study proposes a new approach to tourism planning and development based on three threads in the literature on social impact management: (1) the current approach to tourism studies; (2) the writings and activities of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture; and, (3) the emerging field of Hedonic Psychology. Combining the best efforts of each of these fields -- respectively, understanding the tensions that arise in tourist areas, developing real-world projects, and understanding the psychological drivers of wellbeing -- creates this new approach, which I call the "Hedonic Psychology Approach." To illustrate the application or this approach and to expose the process of planning and development according to this approach, salient features of the Stone Town of Zanzibar are presented, including brief descriptions of the spatial, social, political, and economic conditions of the historic area. Several recommendations are proposed, from improving open space design to maximize interactions among people, to increasing the coordination new development to institutionalize the potential benefits of the new approach.; by A. Tell Metzger.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 127-130).

Planning for community economic development in the Near North Side of Chicago : a study for the YMCA Robert E. Brooker Inter-Agency Center

Ducharme, Donna Margaret
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: iii, 172 leaves; 14589658 bytes; 14589414 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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by Donna Margaret Ducharme.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH.; Bibliography: leaves 162-164.

City knowledge : an emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning

Carrera, Fabio, 1961-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 256 leaves; 20713680 bytes; 20747615 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
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(cont.) updates. It produces plan-ready information, by exploiting the self-serving and opportunistic pursuit of instant return-on-investment by frontline offices. Thanks to its emergent qualities, City Knowledge engenders unexpected plan-demanding situations, where the ability to conduct second-order analyses leads to deeper knowledge of our cities. In the end, this dissertation proposes a paradigmatic shift by recommending that information be considered as a bonafide infrastructure and be consequently treated with the same attention that cities reserve to other infrastructures such as utilities and roads. It proposes that communicative planners become catalysts of this transformation away from the "hunting-and- gathering" of urban data and toward the "farming" of municipal information.; Recent advances in geo-spatial technologies, together with a steady decline in their cost, have inspired many spontaneous bottom-up municipal GIS initiatives aimed at improving many aspects of urban maintenance, management or planning. Some communities have institutionalized top-down citywide urban information systems with limited results, due to many organizational and institutional factors. Despite some encouraging progress, comprehensive urban information systems are still not commonplace and planners and decision makers still struggle to acquire the rich information that they need to conduct in-depth analyses and to make important decisions. This dissertation suggests a plausible strategy and several practical tactical solutions to set municipalities on a trajectory leading to City Knowledge. The concept of City Knowledge is introduced by first presenting numerous case studies ranging from the maintenance of the canals in Venice...

Toward a more deliberative port planning : the "vision and daring" of environmental NGOs in negotiations on the Second Maasvlakte, Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Kelly, Sarah D. (Sarah Driscoll)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.; 5090378 bytes; 5094172 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This thesis examines the planning process for a major expansion project in the Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Maasvlakte 2), as a case study of mutual gains-oriented consensus building and interactive problem solving. After years of formal negotiations between a broad range of local, regional, and national stakeholders, the project planning came to an impasse when environmental organizations and port expansion proponents could not reconcile their positions on if and under what conditions the port should be extended. I posit that at this critical juncture certain environmental organizations took an uncharacteristically proactive role in altering the relationships between stakeholders in a way that was crucial to the ultimate achievement of a consensus among them. The case demonstrates how actors other than those who are formally responsible for structuring negotiations can profoundly influence them so as to promote a sense of interdependence and shared vision among even the seemingly most oppositional factions. This conclusion supports the assertion by network theorists that in the modern era effective planning and policy formulation cannot be achieved solely through government decision-making.; (cont.) Instead, they must rely upon more deliberative processes that incorporate a wider range of actors. Based upon this analysis...

Metropolitan governance and local land use planning in Boston, Denver, and Portland

Rosan, Christina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 310 p.
ENG
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Metropolitan areas across the U.S. are characterized by sprawling development which uses larger amounts of open space than necessary, leads to the inefficient use of energy and water, increases social inequality, and causes a variety of other negative externalities. One way to prevent this type of development is to promote coordinated land use planning at the metropolitan scale. Metropolitan coordination is a challenge, however, in a country where most land use decisions are made at the local level and most states have not encouraged regional planning. This dissertation examines several different models of metropolitan coordination - or what I call metropolitan governance - and asks how they compare in term of their relative effectiveness. Given the growing interest in voluntary forms of governance, I explore whether regional planning agencies without authority are as effective at influencing local land use planning as regional planning agencies with greater authority. My research focuses on regional planning agencies in Boston, Denver, and Portland because each agency has a different level of authority over land use planning and a different level of control over certain financial tools. My hypothesis is that regional planning agencies with more tools at their disposal (such as state-mandated planning authority and the power to allocate transportation improvement funds) will be more successful at influencing local land use planning so that it meets regional goals. I find that agencies with financial and regulatory incentives are better able to engage local stakeholders and influence local land use planning.; by Christina Davis Rosan.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Wildfire and development : why stronger links to land-use planning are needed to save lives, protect property, and minimize economic risk; Why stronger links to land-use planning are needed to save lives, protect property, and minimize economic risk

Mowery, Molly Anne
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
ENG
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Exploding growth along the Colorado Front Range has expanded the wildland-urban interface-the area where homes and vegetation mix. This area, known as the WUI, is at high risk of wildfires. Wildfire risk is based on both natural conditions, such as invasive species and climate change, and human development decisions that allow continued growth in fire-prone areas. This thesis examines the approaches to wildfire risk mitigation taken by six counties along the Front Range. I argue that these mitigation approaches are effective but do not tackle important aspects of the wildfire problem, including who pays and how risks continue to increase. Counties should minimize development in the WUI by adopting strong policies that incorporate the full costs of fire protection into local jurisdictional budgets and address growth management in the WUI. This requires a greater incorporation of the land-use planning process into decisions that put people and property at risk to wildfire.; by Molly Anne Mowery.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 47-50).

Doing it for themselves - Transformative planning by Indigenous peoples

Lane, Marcus B.; Hibbard, M.
Fonte: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Publicador: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Colonial processes of territorial acquisition and state formation have constituted a continuous assault on the political and cultural autonomy of the indigenous peoples of the New World. In recent decades, indigenous claims for land justice and resource sovereignty have posed considerable legal and political challenges for postsettler states. Planning offers an indispensable conceptual and operational lens through which to examine state responses to indigenous claims. The authors use case studies to explore the utility, contribution, and key features of planning undertaken as a means of resolving resource conflicts, enhancing indigenous capacity to regain and manage custodial lands, and developing community autonomy.; Marcus B. Lane and Michael Hibbard; © 2005 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning

Participation, Decentralization, and Civil Society: Indigenous Rights and Democracy in Environmental Planning.

Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Publicador: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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This article examines Australian indigenous participation in environmental planning to challenge some of the claims made by advocates of more participatory modes of planning. Calls for the enhanced participation of civil society in planning are associated with an international trend toward the decentralization and devolution of many areas of natural resource policy and state responsibility. Democratic decentralization has been widely advocated as being more efficient and equitable than state control. These claims are examined with reference to three stories involving environmental planning and Australian indigenous peoples. The stories suggest that rather than a "new political economy of planning" whereby the spaces for democracy are enlarged by the activities of civil society, the participation of civil society and decentralization can result in political processes whereby public deliberation is suborned by interest group politics.; © Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning

Between hot opposition and lukewarm support : innovation and community in land planning and development; Innovation and community in land planning and development

Mammen, Taylor G
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.
ENG
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Research on two innovative developments in the Mountain West region of the United States validates an argument by Donald Schon that effective "coordination of conflicting frames" represents a "more promising line of attack" on the numerous issues that challenge land planners and developers. This process, which Lester and Piore call "interpretation," moves beyond mere "problem setting and solving" to make space for the occurrence of novelty, or innovation. These innovative responses to problems may not guarantee ideal solutions, but stand the chance of allowing for important improvements. Specifically, the case histories suggest that the interpretive process arises because the developments' proponents, either out of necessity or by design, embraced a more open-ended planning process and commitment to broader collaboration than typically seen in land planning and development. Not surprisingly, these points confirm that novel ideas in land planning and development come about for largely the same reasons that they do in any endeavor.; (cont.) However, because of significant constraints on alternative land use patterns from both the supply and demand sides of the market, as well as from the government, the implementation of innovation in land planning and development depends upon the advocacy of a community devoted to it. Such communities are born from Lester and Piore's process of interpretation...

Waterfront views : defining a new planning process for Brooklyn's post-industrial waterfronts

Grassi, Carrie
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
ENG
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The study of waterfront planning largely focuses on the physical reconnection of the post-industrial, downtown waterfront with the spatial fabric of the city. Attention is given to the need for clarity of regulations, strong leadership, and citizen support. Little focus is given to less visible, residential neighborhood waterfronts, and the importance of understanding and incorporating the neighborhood perspective into the planning process. In this study, the post-industrial waterfront neighborhoods of Greenpoint and Red Hook, Brooklyn are the focus. Ways in which the histories of the neighborhoods, the experiences of their residents and the pressure of outside development interests interact with the city's approach to planning the waterfront are explored. An attempt is made to understand how this dynamic might better inform the way waterfront planning is approached. At the core of this new approach is the recognition that planning for today's waterfront is a complex and contentious process. The neighborhood waterfront setting requires a planning and implementation process that bridges various city-agencies and links to planning activity at the neighborhood level.; y Carrie Grassi.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

The potential for trickle up : how local actors' experiments influence national forest policy planning

Blockhus, Jill M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 p.
ENG
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The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot provinces in 1998, with the handing over of forest land and management responsibility to communities. The initial outcomes of this switch and the policy learning that took place as a result of experimentation with community forestry are examined. I show that learning from and sharing these experiences contributed to policy-oriented learning and influenced the formulation of new policy. I review how lessons learned from the field (e.g. local experimentation, project learning and bottom-up planning) can redefine national forest policy priorities. I present preliminary lessons from adaptation of methods of forest land allocation, forest protection regulations and community forest management planning. I share experiences from pilot provinces where, with the involvement of policy innovators (local and external), the results led to the development of an enabling legal framework for community forestry, in the new Land Law and Forest Law. This dissertation suggests how learning from experiments can lead to better policy options in developing countries.; (cont.) I explore the critical roles that development of methodologies (combined with networking and training) play in advancing the lessons learned from the district and province levels in two directions - first...

The 'creative city' : moving from ideas to planning practice

Simeti, Antonina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
ENG
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Economic development and planning practitioners around the world are focusing on the producers and consumers of the creative economy as the basis for growing vibrant and successful cities. This creative movement calls for an interdisciplinary approach to planning where a break in the rules that govern 'normal' planning practice contribute to environments that breed creativity, innovation and ultimately, economic growth. While it is still too early to measure the economic impacts of the movement, many cities have begun to engage in a creative city planning approach to urban revitalization. This thesis investigates the translation of the creative city concept into urban revitalization policies and programs in Providence, Boston and Baltimore. These case studies illustrate the range of strategies for putting the ideas of the creative city in place, the new difficulties that arise when the planning community attempts to reframe planning practice, and provides recommendations for overcoming these implementation challenges.; by Antonina M. Simeti.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 91-94).

Doing their part? : proactive planning and deliberate avoidance of affordable housing by Massachusetts communities in response to Chapter 40B; Proactive planning and deliberate avoidance of affordable housing by Massachusetts communities in response to Chapter 40B

Frantz, Anna J. (Anna Jordan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 p.; 7535622 bytes; 7542047 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Chapter 40B is an innovative Massachusetts law adopted in 1969 to expand the supply and distribution of subsidized housing throughout the state. The statute creates a streamlined permitting process through which municipalities may waive local regulations that impede the construction of affordable units. Chapter 40B also establishes a state appeals court to which developers may appeal local permitting decisions if less than 10% of a community's housing stock is affordable to low- income households. In the last half-decade, Chapter 40B has become more controversial as a strong housing market and regulatory changes have increased affordable housing development activity under the law. This thesis examines how Chapter 40B has influenced community planning for the development of affordable housing since 2000. Municipal planning staff, land-use board members, and elected officials in five communities on the rapidly-growing edge of metropolitan Boston (Bellingham, Framingham, Marlborough, Norfolk and Southborough) were interviewed about locally-driven affordability initiatives and community attitudes toward affordable housing. This research was supplemented by analysis of building permit data and zoning ordinances. The results suggest that Chapter 40B has increased local attention to affordable housing needs. However...

Participatory parks planning : exploring democratic design as a tool to mediate cultural conflict over neighborhood green space

Sherman, Diana R. (Diana Ruth)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 10378607 bytes; 10384821 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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America's park history has largely been a story of the commodification and representation of nature, from the idyllic naturescapes of the mid-nineteenth century to the reform parks and playgrounds of the City Beautiful era. Not until this century, however, has it become clear that this interpretation of nature is often an Anglo-centric vision, influenced by Western notions of landscape and the frontier. Rarely do American urban parks consider or reflect the non-Western ideals of nature; consequently, these parks are often culturally inaccessible to new immigrants and communities of color. As the United States becomes an increasingly pluralistic society, the need grows for open space that can foster interaction between different ethnic and racial groups and that can serve multiple user groups simultaneously. Parks-and particularly, American parks- are largely products of political will and reflections of power structures, at least with respect to their locations and designs. Design decisions dictate who feels welcome in a space and who feels excluded; similarly, programming choices-often informed by design-can define a park's audience. Thus, a discussion of power in the context of planning provides a critical link in considering reflections of culture in park design...

Nature in practice : the Olmsted firm and the rise of landscape architecture an planning, 1880-1920

Brown, Amy S., 1949-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 206 leaves; 33441521 bytes; 33441278 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This dissertation examines the development of the fields of landscape architecture and planning during the career of John Charles Olmsted. It attributes to him much of what happened in that period to standardize landscape architecture and planning practice. After Frederick Law Olmsted's retirement in 1895, the Olmsted Firm, under John Charles Olmsted, pioneered and led the development of landscape architecture and planning, working at both the large scale of national practice and at the smaller scale of office practice. The Olmsted firm is well-recognized for contributions to the profession of landscape architecture and to the development of American cities, especially in the form of innovative and influential projects in cities and towns across the United States. With the burgeoning cities and suburbs across the United States and increased opportunities for work, Olmsted Brothers grew into the largest landscape architecture and planning firm in the country. In the office, the firm's attempts to manage an often unwieldy amount of production material led to the development of an office system that forms the basis of modern design practice. On the road, John Charles Olmsted expanded the firm's national practice and became the most sought-after expert called in to help plan cities and towns across the country.; by Amy S. Brown.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Preserving Beijing's Old City : the vision and reality of historic conservation planning

Chen, Beatrice B. (Beatrice Bee Fang), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 leaves; 3879747 bytes; 3879554 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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In 2000, the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission drew up a conservation plan for the 25 historic areas in Beijing's Old City. The main principles for the conservation plan were as follows: 1) To preserve the traditional cityscape and hutongs, 2) To ensure the authenticity of the preserved heritage, 3) To implement preservation using a gradual and measured method, 4) To improve the infrastructure and living conditions of the local residents, and 5) To encourage public participation. The residential district of Nanchizi was one of the 25 designated historic areas. In 2001, the area became the pilot site for the implementation of the conservation plan. In June 2002, demolition crews arrived at Nanchizi ready to destroy the courtyard homes. The resulting transformation of Nanchizi reveals that the plan did not succeed in preserving the historic area. This thesis explains why this initial implementation of the historic conservation plan failed to achieve the principles of the plan and examines the causes of this disparity between the vision and the reality of conservation planning in Beijing. It argues that the cause of the disparity between vision and reality lies in the competing visions of those involved in the planning process and that certain visions are valued over others. This cause stems from the inability of planning institutions and processes to respond to the political and economic transitions of China in the past decade. The thesis concludes that in order to succeed in conservation...

The City of Brotherly Love? : investigating collaborative planning in Philadelphia's contemporary revitalization initiatives

Hébert, Jeffrey Paul, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves; 3596809 bytes; 3707343 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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The revitalization of many cities across the United States is much less focused on the development of the city center and its flagship projects than was the case a decade or so ago. Substantial investment has begun to flow into once forgotten, deteriorating urban neighborhoods and community groups are becoming prominent voices in the reshaping of communities. Based on Naomi Carmon's Stages of Urban Revitalization and Patsy Healey's theory of collaborative planning, this thesis presents a theoretical framework that argues that a new stage of urban revitalization practice has emerged. Carmon's research describes three stages of urban revitalization since roughly 1940: The Bulldozer Era (1 940s - 1960s), Neighborhood Rehabilitation (1960s - 1970s), and Center Ciy Revitalization (1970s - 1990s). She then argues that since the late 1990s, a new urban revitalization paradigm has emerged that is more neighborhood focused than the previous stage. Healey describes collaborative planning as the coordination between hard infrastructure (city agencies) and soft infrastructure (neighborhood groups) that produces community plans. This thesis argues that contemporary revitalization planning is a combination of the two.; (cont.) Today, revitalization planning both emphasizes neighborhood revitalization - as outlined by Carmon - and collaboration - as outlined by Healey. American and European examples are presented to illustrate this theory. In addition...

Business leadership in city planning : the case of the Central Artery

Agarwal, Anjali, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77, [20] leaves; 5396353 bytes; 5400372 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This thesis has been motivated by my interest in the Artery Business Committee (ABC), which was formed in 1989 with a mission to collectively represent the business community's interests in the fear and opportunity presented by the Central Artery Project in Boston. ABC's objectives were to ensure access to the downtown business district during the project and to market the city of Boston as a place to visit, do business in and invest in. This example of ABC presents an interesting paradigm in city planning where business groups recognize their relationship and role in planning for the city future. The same trend can also be found in several other cities. Two leading examples, which have been chosen for detail study, are the Commercial Club of Chicago and the Central Houston Inc. Both the business led civic groups have an agenda similar to that of ABC and promote a better future for their cities. Owing to their efforts, both the business groups now hold a strategic position of influence in their city's planning process and decision-making. Their study offers several important lessons, which can further be used as criteria to judge ABC's role in the planning of the Central Artery Project in Boston.; (cont.) In 2005, as the Central Artery project nears completion...

Transit planning in Curitiba and Bogotá : roles in interaction, risk, and change

Ardila Gómez, Arturo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 454 p.
ENG
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What is the role of planners in the planning process for new transit modes? By documenting transit-planning processes in Curitiba and Bogota from 1955-95 and 1986-2001, respectively, this work demonstrates that in both cities planners had important roles in system design, the inventive adaptation of new technologies to local conditions, the integration of newly proposed systems with existing service and, above all, mediation between political leadership and strong vested interests. Both cities put planners' roles in special context, however. First, the mayors had a firm appreciation of planning services and understood that planners needed to interact with stakeholders and politicians. Second, the mayors were strong leaders who offered planners a benchmark from which to understand the implications of stakeholders' demands. Third, these cases were framed by new technologies such as Bus Rapid Transit, which competed against rail alternatives. Fourth, because of the novelty of BRT planners had difficulty producing credible forecasts. This uncertainty forced planners to interact more with stakeholders and politicians to build credibility. Fifth, BRT offered the advantage of being highly flexible, particularly when compared to rail proposals. This flexibility allowed planners to adjust the plans in response to the feedback produced by the interaction with stakeholders and politicians. Adjusting the plans often forced planners to innovate. Within this context...