Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Energia na Agricultura) - FCA; Este trabalho, tendo o objetivo principal de estudar as agressões antrópicas a uma bacia experimental da Represa de Jurumirim, região de importância agrícola para o Estado de São Paulo, foi dividido em três fases. A primeira fase objetivou reconhecer as mudanças temporais significativas no uso do solo entre os anos de 1965 a 1999. Na segunda fase procurou-se realizar uma análise comparativa, através de matrizes de erro, entre os resultados da interpretação visual e os obtidos através de várias técnicas da classificação digital não-supervisionada, visando selecionar a melhor técnica de tratamento de dados digitais. Na terceira fase objetivou-se delimitar a mata ciliar que deveria existir às margens dos rios, correspondente a Legislação Florestal, e comparar com a que é encontrada na área atualmente. Para tanto, foram utilizados dados do satélite Landsat no formato digital. Além destes dados, foram empregadas cartas planialtimétricas, confeccionadas a partir de fotografias aéreas de 1965, para a elaboração do mapa de ocupação do solo da bacia, bem como para a obtenção dos dados da rede de drenagem e registro da imagem. Os mapas de ocupação do solo obtidos a partir da interpretação visual e aqueles obtidos pela classificação não-supervisionada...
Esta pesquisa destina-se ao estudo discursivo da leitura do gênero crônica - suas memórias e seu funcionamento - em duas materialidades. Buscamos compreender o funcionamento na forma escrita - em obras reunidas em antologias, e na forma audiovisual - em crônicas que foram adaptadas a partir de textos que se encontram publicados em antologias e veiculados na televisão, no cinema e na internet. Realizamos um estudo comparativo da macro-estrutura discursiva de duas antologias de crônicas de múltiplos autores - por serem publicações coletivas recentes do gênero no Brasil - a primeira - As Cem Melhores Crônicas Brasileiras - antologia organizada por Joaquim Ferreira dos Santos e publicada pela editora Objetiva, em 2005; e a segunda - Antologia de Crônicas: Crônica Brasileira Contemporânea - organizada e apresentada por Manuel da Costa Pinto, publicada pela editora Salamandra, e também editada em 2005. O exame dos autores selecionados em ambas as antologias nos permitiu identificar os quatro cronistas que têm textos publicados nas duas obras: Carlos Heitor Cony, Ignácio Loyola Brandão, Luis Fernando Verissimo e Mario Prata. Também identificamos que dois destes autores (Prata e Verissimo) tem obras adaptadas para o audiovisual. Buscamos assim constituir um corpus que nos permitisse analisar como se dá a transferência de sentidos entre uma materialidade e outra. Esses sentidos estão em movimento e são reinscritos em outros meios...
Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) creates massive amounts of data, which can overload a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). To solve this problem, we designed a new data storage and image interpretation system in an existing PACS. Two MDCT image datasets, a thick- and a thin-section dataset, and a single-detector CT thick-section dataset were reconstructed. The thin-section dataset was archived in existing PACS disk space reserved for temporary storage, and the system overwrote the source data to preserve available disk space. The thick-section datasets were archived permanently. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) images were reconstructed from the stored thin-section datasets on the PACS workstation. In regular interpretations by eight radiologists during the same week, the volume of images and the times taken for interpretation of thick-section images with (246 CT examinations) or without (170 CT examinations) thin-section images were recorded, and the diagnostic usefulness of the thin-section images was evaluated. Thin-section datasets and MPR images were used in 79% and 18% of cases, respectively. The radiologists’ assessments of this system were useful, though the volume of images and times taken to archive...
This study compares the timeliness of radiology interpretation of Emergency Department (ED) imaging examinations in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) before and after implementation of an automated paging system for notification of image availability. An alphanumeric pager for each radiology subspecialty (chest, pediatrics, bone, neuroradiology, and body) was used to alert the responsible radiologist that an ED imaging examination is available to be viewed on the PACS. The paging system was programmed to trigger off of the PACS database when an image is received on the appropriate radiology display station. The pager message includes the radiology accession number and examination description (such as chest, two-view, or c-spine, etc). The PACS paging tool performance was assessed by calculating the time elapsed, for each ED imaging examination, from the Time Imaged to the Time of Interpretation, where the Time Imaged is the actual image completion time measured at the imaging modality, and the Time Interpreted is the time a radiology interpretation is rendered to the ED, and is measured from the Radiology-to-ED fax time stamp. These measures were analyzed pre- and post-paging system implementation to determine any impact of the automated notification tool on radiology service turnaround time. Results show an improved radiology response time from image completion to interpretation rendered to ED clinicians...
The long-term (10 years) multimodality distributed phased archive for the Medical Information, Communication and Archive System (MICAS) is being implemented in three phases. The selection process took approximately 10 months. Based on the mandatory archive attributes and desirable features, Cemax-Icon (Fremont, CA) was selected as the vendor. The archive provides for an open-solution allowing incorporation of leading edge, “best of breed” hardware and software and provides maximum flexibility and automation of workflow both within and outside of radiology. The solution selected is media-independent, provides expandable storage capacity, and will provide redundancy and fault tolerance in phase II at minimum cost. Other attributes of the archive include scalable archive strategy, virtual image database with global query, and an object-oriented database. The archive is seamlessly integrated with the radiology information system (RIS) and provides automated fetching and routing, automated study reconciliation using modality worklist manager, clinical reports available at any Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) workstation, and studies available for interpretation whether validated or not. Within 24 hours after a new study is acquired...
Radiographic correlation is essential for many of the examinations performed in nuclear medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) on the function and efficiency of a nuclear medicine department at a tertiary care institution. We evaluated 250 consecutive noncardiac nuclear medicine imaging examinations and asked the interpreting physician the following questions: (1) Was PACS used in the interpretation of the study? (2) Did the use of PACS expedite examination completion or aid in study interpretation? And (3) Did the use of PACS permit a definitive diagnosis to be made? PACS was accessed for correlative radiographic images in 155 of the 250 (62%) nuclear medicine examinations. Images available on PACS for review aided in study interpretation in 74% (115 of 155) of cases The use of PACS was thought to expedite examination completion in 55% (86 of 155) of cases. The system was accessed but not operational in only 1% of cases (2 of 155). PACS provides reliable, rapid access to multimodality correlative radiographic images that aid in the interpretation of nuclear medicine examinations. Such systems also increase the efficiency of a nuclear medicine service by allowing timely and conclusive interpretations to be made.
Radiology departments are beginning to embrace new technologies to decrease operating budgets and improve services. One of these technologies is the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). PACS, through immediate availability of images to the radiologist, promises to decrease turnaround times of reports to the clinician. The purpose of this study was to determine if this technology actually decreases the time for referring clinicians to receive reports generated by the radiologist. The time to provide a preliminary report by a resident and time to finalize this report by a board-certified radiologist was retrospectively obtained for 6,022 abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans over two 1-year periods from March 1, 1997 to March 1, 1998 and from March 1, 1998 to March 1, 1999. During the first year, interpretation was conducted using hard-copy film and during the second using PACS. In both 1-year periods, Med-Speak voice recognition software (IBM, White Plains, NY) was employed for dictation. The average time for a preliminary report for a abdominal and pelvic CT, dictated by a resident or fellow, to be available in alphanumeric form on the hospital information system using hard-copy film was 3.73 days. The installation of a PACS system decreased this turnaround time to 0.56 days...
The present study examines the online realization of pragmatic meaning using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences including the English quantifier some, which has both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). Unlike previous ERP studies of this phenomenon, sentences in the current study were evaluated not in terms of their truth with respect to the real world, but in terms of their consistency with a picture presented before the sentence. Sentences (such as “The boy cut some of the steaks in this story”) were constructed such that either 1) both the semantic and pragmatic interpretations were true with respect to the preceding picture (when the boy in fact cut some but not all of the steaks); 2) neither interpretation was true (when the boy in fact cut none of the steaks); or 3) the semantic interpretation was true but the pragmatic interpretation false (when the boy in fact cut all of the steaks). ERPs at the object word, which determined whether the sentence was consistent with the story, showed the largest N400 effect for objects that made the sentence false, whereas they showed an intermediate effect for objects that made the sentence false under the pragmatic interpretation but true under the semantic interpretation. The results suggest that this pragmatic aspect of meaning is computed online and integrated into the sentence model rapidly enough to influence comprehension of later words.
Pictures are defined by their creator’s intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture’s referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist’s intention with her picture’s appearance to investigate children’s use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3–4 and 5–6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist’s changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together...
This thesis is a case study of one teacher’s approach to teaching reading in an upper-primary new arrivals classroom context. The aim of the study is to document and examine her use of multimodal picture books, with particular emphasis on her exploitation of the visual and verbal modes. More specifically, the thesis examines the meaning configuration in a range of
picture book texts used in the lessons and the teacher-student interactions around these texts. The analysis is, thus, a semiotic exploration of the practices involved in the teaching of
reading to a group of New Arrivals Program (NAP) students in order to inform understandings of the teacher’s processes and practices. The research design comprised three complementary sub-studies. The first adopted a multimodal approach to the study of the picture books, where it was demonstrated that varied meanings were constructed from the integration of the verbal and visual resources. It also identified how these two modes combined in linear and non-linear ways that posed demands and challenges to young beginner readers. Analysis of teacher-student talk, which characterised the second sub-study, revealed that the interactions were largely teacher-led. Emphasis was placed on the verbal mode more so than on the visual images...
Die vorliegende Forschungsarbeit ist im Bereich des Lernens mit Texten und Bildern, das in der Literatur auch als Lernen mit Multimedia bezeichnet wird, verortet. Hinsichtlich des Lernens mit Multimedia wurde in den letzten Jahren eine Reihe an Prinzipien postuliert, wie Texte und Bilder dargeboten werden sollten, um den Lernerfolg zu fördern. Die führende Theorie zum Lernen mit Multimedia, die Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML; Mayer, 2009), leitet diese Empfehlungen unter anderem aus älteren Konzeptionen der Struktur des Arbeitsgedächtnisses nach Baddeley (z .B. 1992) ab.
Dass das Arbeitsgedächtnis eine entscheidende Rolle beim Lernen mit Multimedia spielt, ist nicht nur aus theoretischer Sicht plausibel, sondern konnte auch empirisch nachgewiesen werden (z. B. Gyselinck, Cornoldi, Dubois, De Beni & Ehrlich, 2002). Problematisch ist allerdings die Interpretation des Arbeitsgedächtnismodells im Rahmen der CTML hinsichtlich der Verarbeitung geschriebenen Texts: So geht die CTML davon aus, dass zunächst ein Abbild des geschriebenen Texts im visuell-räumlichen Notizblock (VSSP) repräsentiert wird. Daraus resultiert nach der CTML ein Engpass im VSSP bei der Darbietung geschriebenen Texts mit Bildern, welcher bei der Darbietung gesprochenen Texts nicht vorherrscht. Mit Hilfe dieser theoretischen Annahme erklärt Mayer (2009) den sogenannten Modalitätseffekt...
The theoretical basis for the present work is reader response criticism, a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader and his or her experience of a literary work. According to this school of thought, the reader of a particular text is an active agent who completes the meaning of the work through interpretation. So, meaning is created by the interaction of the reader and the text.
I have chosen to work with the picture book The Red Tree by Shaun Tan because its interpretation depends very much on the mood and sensitivity of the reader. The reading of this picture book can indeed produce effects in the reader???s mind and emotions, as I shall explain.
Through The Red Tree children can learn how they can get over their problems. They can obtain a hopeful message and they will learn about and from their problems. It tells a wonderful story, dealing with the topics of hope and desperation. It reflects feelings such as absolute sadness or happiness for living your life. Curiously enough, the different depressing situations that appear in the story follow the actual order of the phases undergone by depressed people.
I have the purpose of working with this book in hospitals. In many hospitals, there are classrooms where children can learn and socialise. My aim is that these children do not forget their school days and they can learn in a different way. They will learn by drawing...
A partir da obra Necrópole do escritor esloveno Boris Pahor, aborda-se a questão do testemunho e pesquisa-se, na narração da experiência traumática, o mal-estar dos modelos tradicionais de representação. Por meio de uma leitura interdisciplinar e levando em conta as artes e as reflexões críticas de pensadores como Jacques Derrida, Georges Didi-Huberman, Emmanuel Levinas, e Walter Benjamin, entre outros, propõe-se um encontro que permitirá que mais de uma voz passe outros traços na abertura do pensamento às artes, no intuito de perceber as implicações e tensões de narrar o trauma, entre a sua impossibilidade e a sua necessidade. Com o propósito de estabelecer diálogos e traduções entre os limiares da imagem e da literatura que, por sua vez, levam ao aprofundamento das questões postas, aborda-se a obra do fotógrafo Evgen Bavcar, a partir da exposição intitulada: Une lumiere dificile, dedicada ao seu encontro com Boris Pahor e a imagem sombria do horror, ao redor dos vestígios do campo de concentração de Natzweiler-Struthof. Assim, diante da (im)possibilidade de representação da catástrofe, revaloriza-se os elementos escriturais da imagem e as dimensões imagéticas da escrita. Finalmente, a partir das propostas de alguns artistas colombianos contemporâneos...
O objetivo deste trabalho é comparar o contexto de publicação do único romance de Oscar Wilde, O Retrato de Dorian Gray", na Inglaterra e no Brasil. A obra aparece pela primeira vez no Reino Unido e EUA em 1890 na Lippincott's. É editada em livro em 1891. A tradução do texto para o português, feita por João do Rio, circula no Brasil em folhetim no jornal A Noite, em 1911. A publicação em livro é feita pela Garnier, em 1923, após a morte do tradutor. A partir dessas informações, se faz relevante considerar alguns tipos de leituras que são possibilitadas nos dois casos. Para compreende-las, analisei dois aspectos ligados á estrutura do romance: o uso do narrador, pelo viés da narratologia de Genette, e a presença de descrições.; The purpose of this study is to compare the context of publication of the only novel by Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray", in England and in Brazil. The work appears for the first time in UK and US in 1890 at Lippincott's. It is edited as a book in 1891. The translation of the text in Portuguese, by Joao do Rio, circulates in Brazil as feuilleton at the newspaper A Noite, in 1911. The publication as book is made by Garnier, in 1923, after the death of the translator. From this information...
Cramer's (1986) transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics posits
retrocausal influences in quantum processes in an attempt to alleviate some of
the interpretational difficulties of the Copenhagen interpretation. In response
to Cramer's theory, Maudlin (2002) has levelled a significant objection against
any retrocausal model of quantum mechanics. I present here an examination of
the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics and an analysis of
Maudlin's critique. I claim that, although Maudlin correctly isolates the
weaknesses of Cramer's theory, his justification for this weakness is off the
mark. The cardinal vice of the transactional interpretation is its failure to
provide a sufficient causal structure to constrain uniquely the behaviour of
quantum systems and I contend that this is due to a lack of causal symmetry in
the theory. In contrast, Maudlin attributes this shortcoming to retrocausality
itself and emphasises an apparently fundamental incongruence between
retrocausality and his own metaphysical picture of reality. I conclude by
arguing that the problematic aspect of this incongruence is Maudlin's
assumptions about what is appropriate for such a metaphysical picture.
We construct fractional Brownian motion (fBm), sub-fractional Brownian motion
(sub-fBm), negative sub-fractional Brownian motion (nsfBm) and the odd part of
fBm in the sense of Dzhaparidze and van Zanten (2004) by means of limiting
procedures applied to some particle systems. These processes are obtained for
full ranges of Hurst parameter. Particle picture interpretations of sub-fBm and
nsfBm were known earlier (using a different approach) for narrow ranges of
parameters; the odd part of fBm process had not been given any physical
interpretation at all.
Our approach consists in representing these processes as $$,
$$, $$, respectively, where X(1) is
an (extended) $S'$-random variable obtained as the fluctuation limit of either
empirical process or the occupation time process of an appropriate particle
system. In fact, our construction is more general, permitting to obtain some
new Gaussian processes, as well as multidimensional random fields. In
particular, we generalize and presumably simplify some results by Hambly and
Jones (2007). We also obtain a new class of $S'$-valued density processes,
containing as a particular case the density process of Martin-L\"of (1976).
The existence of probability in the sense of the frequency interpretation,
i.e. probability as "long term relative frequency," is shown to follow from the
dynamics and the interpretational rules of Everett quantum mechanics in the
Heisenberg picture. This proof is free of the difficulties encountered in
applying to the Everett interpretation previous results regarding relative
frequency and probability in quantum mechanics. The ontology of the Everett
interpretation in the Heisenberg picture is also discussed.; Comment: 23 pp. including one figure. Typos corrected, references updated,
minor changes in wording
Bell's theorem depends crucially on counterfactual reasoning, and is
mistakenly interpreted as ruling out a local explanation for the correlations
which can be observed between the results of measurements performed on
spatially-separated quantum systems. But in fact the Everett interpretation of
quantum mechanics, in the Heisenberg picture, provides an alternative local
explanation for such correlations. Measurement-type interactions lead, not to
many worlds but, rather, to many local copies of experimental systems and the
observers who measure their properties. Transformations of the
Heisenberg-picture operators corresponding to the properties of these systems
and observers, induced by measurement interactions, "label" each copy and
provide the mechanism which, e.g., ensures that each copy of one of the
observers in an EPRB or GHZM experiment will only interact with the "correct"
copy of the other observer(s). The conceptual problem of nonlocality is thus
replaced with a conceptual problem of proliferating labels, as correlated
systems and observers undergo measurement-type interactions with
newly-encountered objects and instruments; it is suggested that this problem
may be resolved by considering quantum field theory rather than the quantum
mechanics of particles.; Comment: 18 pages...
Despite its age quantum theory remains ill-understood, which is partially to
blame on its deep interwovenness with the mysterious concept of quantization.
In this article we argue that a quantum theory recoursing to quantization
algorithms is necessarily incomplete. To provide a new axiomatic foundation, we
give a rigorous proof showing how the Schr\"odinger equation follows from the
Madelung equations, which are formulated in the language of Newtonian
mechanics. We show how the Schr\"odinger picture relates to this Madelung
picture and how the "classical limit" is directly obtained. This suggests a
reformulation of the correspondence principle, stating that a quantum theory
must reduce to a probabilistic version of Newtonian mechanics for large masses.
We then enhance the stochastic interpretation developed by Tsekov, which
speculates that quantum mechanical behavior is caused by random vibrations in
spacetime. A new, yet incomplete model of particle creation and annihilation is
also proposed.; Comment: 41 pages; Keywords: Geometric Quantization, Interpretation of Quantum
Mechanics, Geometric Quantum Theory, Madelung Equations, Classical Limit
The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered via a single photon
interferometer and we propose the interpretation of the Michelson-Morley
experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture. We point out that the
Michelson-Morley experiment revealed the interference of photons, however, it
did not reveal the photons simultaneous arrival at the beam splitter. According
to the de Broglie-Bohm picture, the quantum potential nonlocally determines the
interference of photons. The interference of the photons is not governed by the
arrival time of the photons; rather, it is governed by the quantum potential.
Therefore, there is a possibility for another interpretation of the
Michelson-Morley experimental results.; Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures