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Os modelos de interação da física e dos estudantes; Interactions models of physics and students

Ota, Maria Inês Nobre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/1997 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.38%
Na tentativa de compreender o processo de ensino-aprendizagem no curso de graduação em Física buscaram-se elementos que fossem significativos para a elaboração de uma síntese que estabelecesse, com alguma abrangência, as principais características desse processo. Dentre várias alternativas, optou-se por uma análise do conteúdo que é estudado no curso de graduação. Para isso, foram consideradas as interações físicas, pois as investigações relativas aos vários modelos construídos pela Física para interpretá-las são muito frequentes nas diversas atividades desenvolvidas no curso de graduação. Os pressupostos teóricos, que condicionaram a escolha dos elementos para as análises do processo de ensino-aprendizagem, baseiam-se na concepção de que o conhecimento físico corresponde a construções intelectuais elaboradas por seres humanos em vários momentos históricos. Estas construções estão inscritas numa cultura, numa sociedade e numa história. A elas estão associadas diferentes visões de mundo. Os modelos para a interpretação das interações físicas foram apresentados segundo diferentes visões de mundo. A investigação das várias imagens relativas a eles fornece elementos significativos para um distanciamento de várias teorias estudadas durante o curso de graduação...

Organização de episodios de ensino sobre a "questão nuclear" para o ensino medio : foco no imaginario de licenciados; Production of theach episodes above "nuclear question" for high school : focus in the future of physics teacher imaginary

Thirza Pavan Sorpreso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.4%
Neste trabalho procuramos compreender o imaginário de licenciandos em Física a respeito da inclusão da Física Moderna e Contemporânea no ensino médio. Acompanhamos uma turma de licenciandos em Física cursando a disciplina Prática de Ensino de Física e Estágio Supervisionado durante o primeiro semestre de 2005, no período diurno, na Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Dentro da temática Questão Nuclear os licenciandos prepararam episódios de ensino nos quais deveria estar presente uma das seguintes abordagens estudadas pela pesquisa em ensino de ciências: História da Ciência; Ciência, Tecnologia, Sociedade e Ambiente; Resolução de Problemas e Linguagens no Ensino de Ciências. Tendo como referencial teórico a Análise de Discurso, na vertente iniciada na França por Michel Pêcheux, com apoio principalmente em textos publicados no Brasil por Eni Puccinelli Orlandi, procuramos compreender os sentidos atribuídos pelos licenciandos para a inclusão da Física Nuclear no ensino médio. Para tal analisamos seus discursos escritos e falados nas atividades da disciplina. Pensamos o imaginário dos licenciandos como um dos aspectos condicionados pelas mediações possíveis em sala de aula e também condicionantes das mesmas. Observamos que algumas condições de produção se relacionaram com limites apontados pelos licenciandos para tal inclusão...

Students’ uptake of physics: a study of South Australian and Filipino physics students.

Ben, Francisco
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.41%
The present study brought together and examined different factors that affect students' attitudes towards physics thus influencing their uptake of physics in the South Australian and Filipino contexts. The theoretical framework was designed to examine the possible relationships among student-level and school-level factors. Student-level factors include gender, attitudes towards physics, general self-esteem, motivation to learn physics, and attitudes towards computers. School-level factors include school level, school curriculum, and classroom climate which include teachers. The theoretical base was drawn from numerous research findings on how these factors affect students' attitudes towards, and thus uptake of, physics. From these findings, constructs were integrated into the theoretical framework in an attempt to answer the research questions advanced in this study. The study employed quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data were collected using the Students' Uptake of Physics Study Questionnaire (SUPSQ). Several existing scales specifically designed to measure attitudes towards physics, self-esteem, motivation to learn physics, parents' aspiration for their child's education, attitudes towards computers, and classroom climate were adapted for use in the SUPSQ. Each of these scales was validated using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis which provide inputs from a grounded psychometric perspective. In addition...

Quantum Times: Physics, Philosophy, and Time in the Postwar United States

Crystal, Lisa
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
The concept of time in physics underwent significant changes in the decades following World War II. This dissertation considers several ways in which American physicists grappled with these changes, analyzing the extent to which philosophical methods and questions played a role in physicists' engagement with time. Two lines of questioning run through the dissertation. The first asks about the professional identities of postwar American physicists in relation to philosophy, as exemplified by their engagement with the concept of time. The second analyzes the heterogeneous nature of time in physics, and the range of presuppositions and assumptions that have constituted this "fundamental" physical concept. The first chapter looks to the development of atomic clocks and atomic time standards from 1948-1958, and the ways in which new timekeeping technologies placed concepts such as “clock”, “second,” and “measure of time” in a state of flux. The second chapter looks to the experimental discovery of CP violation by particle physicists in the early 1960s, raising questions about nature of time understood as the variable “t” in the equations of quantum mechanics. The third chapter considers attempts to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity in the late 1960s...

Zero-mode analysis of quantum statistical physics

Bessa, A.; de Carvalho, C. A. A.; Fraga, E. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
We present a unified formulation for quantum statistical physics based on the representation of the density matrix as a functional integral. We identify the stochastic variable of the effective statistical theory that we derive as a boundary configuration and a zero mode relevant to the discussion of infrared physics. We illustrate our formulation by computing the partition function of an interacting one-dimensional quantum mechanical system at finite temperature from the path-integral representation for the density matrix. The method of calculation provides an alternative to the usual sum over periodic trajectories: it sums over paths with coincident endpoints, and includes non-vanishing boundary terms. An appropriately modified expansion into Matsubara modes provides a natural separation of the zero-mode physics. This feature may be useful in the treatment of infrared divergences that plague the perturbative approach in thermal field theory.; Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures

Wigner's new physics frontier: Physics of two-by-two matrices, including the Lorentz group and optical instruments

Baskal, Sibel; Georgieva, Elena; Kim, Y. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2003
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
According to Eugene Wigner, quantum mechanics is a physics of Fourier transformations, and special relativity is a physics of Lorentz transformations. Since two-by-two matrices with unit determinant form the group SL(2,c) which acts as the universal covering group of the Lorentz group, the two-by-two matrices constitute the natural language for special relativity. The central language for optical instruments is the two-by-two matrix called the beam transfer matrix, or the so-called ABCD matrix. It is shown that the ABCD matrices also form the SL(2,C) group. Thus, it is possible to perform experiments in special relativity using optical instruments. Likewise, the optical instruments can be explained in terms of the symmetry of relativistic particles.; Comment: Latex 28 pages, based on the papers presented by the last author(YSK) at a number of conferences, including the 8th International Wigner Symposium (New York, U.S.A., 2003), the 8th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (Puebla, Mexico, 2003), the Symmetry Festival (Budapest, Hungary, 2003), and the International Conference on Physics and Control (Saint Petersburg, Russia, 2003)

Physics Faculty and Educational Researchers: Divergent Expectations as Barriers to the Diffusion of Innovations

Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/08/2006
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
Physics Education Research (PER) practitioners have engaged in substantial curriculum development and dissemination work in recent years. Yet, it appears that this work has had minimal influence on the fundamental teaching practices of typical physics faculty. To better understand this situation interviews were conducted with 5 likely users of physics education research. All reported making changes in their instructional practices and all were influenced, to some extent, by educational research. Yet, none made full use of educational research and most had complaints about their interactions with educational researchers. In this paper we examine how these instructors used educational research in making instructional decisions and identify divergent expectations about how researchers and faculty can work together to improve student learning. Although different instructors emphasized different aspects of this discrepancy between expectations, we believe that they are all related to a single underlying issue: the typical dissemination model is to disseminate curricular innovations and have faculty adopt them with minimal changes while faculty expect researchers to work with them to incorporate research-based knowledge and materials into their unique instructional situations. Implications and recommendations are discussed.; Comment: Manuscript submitted April 2006 to American Journal of Physics...

2T-Physics 2001

Bars, Itzhak
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.4%
The physics that is traditionally formulated in one--time-physics (1T-physics) can also be formulated in two-time-physics (2T-physics). The physical phenomena in 1T or 2T physics are not different, but the spacetime formalism used to describe them is. The 2T description involves two extra dimensions (one time and one space), is more symmetric, and makes manifest many hidden features of 1T-physics. One such hidden feature is that families of apparently different 1T-dynamical systems in d dimensions holographically describe the same 2T system in d+2 dimensions. In 2T-physics there are two timelike dimensions, but there is also a crucial gauge symmetry that thins out spacetime, thus making 2T-physics effectively equivalent to 1T-physics. The gauge symmetry is also responsible for ensuring causality and unitarity in a spacetime with two timelike dimensions. What is gained through 2T-physics is a unification of diverse 1T dynamics by making manifest hidden symmetries and relationships among them. Such symmetries and relationships is the evidence for the presence of the underlying higher dimensional spacetime structure. 2T-physics could be viewed as a device for gaining a better understanding of 1T-physics, but beyond this, 2T-physics offers new vistas in the search of the unified theory while raising deep questions about the meaning of spacetime. In these lectures...

Physics Education Research: Or it's so hard to find good help these days

Mahajan, Sanjoy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/05/2004
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
Physics education research (PER) aims to improve how students solve problems. But whose problems are we teaching students to solve? Physics has grown up as a child of war, and PER stems from the cognitive revolution in psychology, which arose from military needs and funding. Physics, PER, and state power are allies. By improving physics teaching, we arm the state against ourselves and move farther from a peaceful and humane world.; Comment: 9 pages, no figures, plain TeX; AAPT Winter 2004 conference invited talk: session info http://www.aapt.org/AbstractSearch/FullAbstract.cfm?KeyID=3240, other talks from session http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sanjoy/science-society/

Physics and technology system of units for electrodynamics

Ivanov, Mikhail G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
The contemporary practice is to favor the use of the SI units for electric circuits and the Gaussian CGS system for electromagnetic field. A modification of the Gaussian system of units (the Physics and Technology System) is suggested. In the Physics and Technology System the units of measurement for electrical circuits coincide with SI units, and the equations for the electromagnetic field are almost the same form as in the Gaussian system. The XXIV CGMP (2011) Resolution "On the possible future revision of the International System of Units, the SI" provides a chance to initiate gradual introduction of the Physics and Technology System as a new modification of the SI.; Comment: 12 pages

The fate of presentism in modern physics

Wuthrich, Christian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/07/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
There has been a recent spate of essays defending presentism, the view in the metaphysics of time according to which all and only present events or entities exist. What is particularly striking about this resurgence is that it takes place on the background of the significant pressure exerted on the position by the relativity of simultaneity asserted in special relativity, and yet in several cases invokes modern physics for support. I classify the presentist arguments into a two by two matrix depending on whether they take a compatibilist or incompatibilist stance with respect to both special relativity in particular and modern physics in general. I then review and evaluate what I take to be some of the most forceful and intriguing presentist arguments turning on modern physics. Although nothing of what I will say eventuates its categorical demise, I hope to show that whatever presentism remains compatible with empirical facts and our best physics is metaphysically repugnant.; Comment: 23 pages, 4 figures

Statistical physics of social dynamics

Castellano, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo; Loreto, Vittorio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
Statistical physics has proven to be a very fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. The last years have witnessed the attempt by physicists to study collective phenomena emerging from the interactions of individuals as elementary units in social structures. Here we review the state of the art by focusing on a wide list of topics ranging from opinion, cultural and language dynamics to crowd behavior, hierarchy formation, human dynamics, social spreading. We highlight the connections between these problems and other, more traditional, topics of statistical physics. We also emphasize the comparison of model results with empirical data from social systems.; Comment: 58 pages, 22 figures. Final version published in Reviews of Modern Physics

On Wolfgang Pauli's most important contributions to physics

Straumann, Norbert
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2000 DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
After some brief biographical notes, Wolfgang Pauli's main contributions to general relativity, quantum theory, quantum field theory, and elementary particle physics are reviewed. A detailed description is given how Pauli descovered - before the advent of the new quantum mechanics - his exclusion principle.; Comment: Opening lecture at the symposium: Wolfgang Pauli And Modern Physics, in honor of the 100th anniversary of Wolfgang Pauli's birthday, ETH (Zurich), May 4-6 2000; in German

Teaching "Symmetry" in the Introductory Physics Curriculum

Hill, Christopher T.; Lederman, Leon M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.; Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures

The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/07/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.36%
We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.; Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures

Enrico Fermi and the Old Quantum Physics

De Gregorio, Alberto; Sebastiani, Fabio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
We outline Fermi's early attitude towards old quantum physics. We sketch out the context from which his interest for quantum physics arose, and we deal with his work on quantum statistics. We also go through the first two courses on theoretical physics he held in Rome, and his 1928 book on atomic physics.; Comment: To be published in Quaderni di Storia della fisica

Computational Particle Physics for Event Generators and Data Analysis

Perret-Gallix, Denis
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.37%
High-energy physics data analysis relies heavily on the comparison between experimental and simulated data as stressed lately by the Higgs search at LHC and the recent identification of a Higgs-like new boson. The first link in the full simulation chain is the event generation both for background and for expected signals. Nowadays event generators are based on the automatic computation of matrix element or amplitude for each process of interest. Moreover, recent analysis techniques based on the matrix element likelihood method assign probabilities for every event to belong to any of a given set of possible processes. This method originally used for the top mass measurement, although computing intensive, has shown its power at LHC to extract the new boson signal from the background. Serving both needs, the automatic calculation of matrix element is therefore more than ever of prime importance for particle physics. Initiated in the eighties, the techniques have matured for the lowest order calculations (tree-level), but become complex and CPU time consuming when higher order calculations involving loop diagrams are necessary like for QCD processes at LHC. New calculation techniques for next-to-leading order (NLO) have surfaced making possible the generation of processes with many final state particles (up to 6). If NLO calculations are in many cases under control...

Complementarity: Flavor Physics in the LHC Era

Schwartz, A. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.36%
The LHC physics era is about to commence; here we discuss a complementary physics program that would be realized at a high luminosity flavor factory. A flavor factory experiment can search for new physics in CP asymmetries, inclusive decay processes, rare leptonic processes, absolute branching fractions, and other measurements that are challenging or not feasible at the LHC. Such measurements would provide good sensitivity to new physics phases, the presence of a charged Higgs, and supersymmetric couplings. The charged Higgs mass range probed is similar to that accessible at the LHC.; Comment: 11 pages, 11 figures, contribution to the Tenth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics (CIPANP 2009), San Diego, California

Can Physics Teaching be improved by Explanation of Tricks with a Motorcycle?

Risch, Matthias R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.38%
A priority of physics instruction is to help students make the connection between the formulae they think they are required to memorize and the real world in which they interact every day. If you ask students to describe a situation in real life involving physical principles, the most commonly cited examples will pertain to vehicular motion. One situation in real life involving physical principles is vehicle dynamics. Even students who have little interest in physics eagerly discuss problems like how much a car can decelerate travelling in a flat turn or how tricks like the Wheely can be performed on a motorcycle. In the physics classroom, the motion of automotive vehicles is probably the most interesting manifestation of the principles of physics. The laws of physics limiting movements of vehicles are deduced here in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as for homework. Due to limits on frictional forces there are subsequent limits for acceleration, deceleration and speed in a flat turn. Frictional forces also determine the behaviour of a vehicle at rapid speed in a turn.; Comment: 19 pages, 10 figures

Enhancing the process of teaching and learning physics via dynamic problem solving strategies: a proposal

Rojas,S.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.38%
The large number of published articles in physics journals under the title "Comments on ..." and "Reply to ... " is indicative that the conceptual understanding of physical phenomena is very elusive and hard to grasp even to experts, but it has not stopped the development of Physics. In fact, from the history of the development of Physics one quickly becomes aware that, regardless of the state of conceptual understanding, without quantitative reasoning Physics would have not reached the state of development it has today. Correspondingly, quantitative reasoning and problem solving skills are a desirable outcome from the process of teaching and learning of physics. Thus, supported on results from published research, we will show evidence that a well structured problem solving strategy taught as a dynamical process offers a feasible way for students to learn physics quantitatively and conceptually, while helping them to reach the state of an Adaptive Expert highly skillful on innovation and efficiency, a desired outcome from the perspective of a Preparation for Future Learning approach of the process of teaching and learning Physics effectively.