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"Desenvolvimento de um sistema computadorizado de identificação odonto-legal"; Development od computer system for forensic dentistry identification

Matsuzaki, Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
A participação da odontologia legal está cada vez mais presente nos processos de identificação humana, seja nos casos de desastres em massa ou quando o único material disponível para análise são os dentes ou fragmentos de ossos da mandíbula ou da maxila. Após análise e pesquisa da literatura dos programas destinados à área de odontologia legal, foi confeccionada cinco tipos de fichas para a coleta de dados e desenvolvido um programa de computador nacional específico para a área de odontologia legal com o nome de sistema computadorizado de identificação odonto-legal (SOL). Inicialmente o programa pode ser utilizado na área criminal para os casos de: identificação humana em desastre de massa, identificação de pessoa desaparecida e análise das marcas de mordida. Para o projeto e desenvolvimento desse programa utilizou-se os programas Windows XP, Access 2003 e Visual Basic 6 da Microsoft. A plataforma apresenta-se de forma simples e não necessita de programas auxiliares de edição de texto ou imagens, nem a necessidade de conhecimentos avançados em informática do usuário. A partir da ocorrência e do cadastro dos registros, o programa realiza automaticamente uma filtragem dos dados e exibe uma lista com prováveis vítimas...

Frontal sinus recognition for human identification - art. no. 69440S

Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Sartori Falguera, Fernanda Pereira; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Kumar, BVKV; Prabhakar, S; Ross, AA
Fonte: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering Publicador: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: S9440-S9440
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Reconhecimento semi-automático de sinus frontais para identificação humana forense baseado na transformada imagem-floresta e no contexto da forma

Falguera, Juan Rogelio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 92 f. : il. color.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação - IBILCE; Diversos métodos biométricos baseados em características físicas do corpo humano como impressão digital, face, íris e retina têm sido propostos para identificação humana. No entanto, para a identificação post-mortem, tais características biométricas podem não estar disponíveis. Nestes casos, partes do esqueleto do corpo humano podem ser utilizadas para identificação, tais como dentes, tórax, vértebras, ombros e os sinus frontais. Investigações anteriores mostraram, por meio de técnicas manuais para extração de características, que os padrões dos sinus frontais são altamente variáveis entre indivíduos distintos e únicos para cada indivíduo. Esta dissertação de mestrado tem por objetivo propor um método computacional para o reconhecimento de sinus frontais para identificação humana post-mortem em aplicações forenses. Para tanto, foram avaliados métodos de segmentação de imagens de radiografias anteroposteriores de sinus frontais. O método baseado na Transformada Imagem-Floresta demonstrou ser eficiente para segmentação dos sinus frontais das imagens de radiografias, exigindo mínima intervenção humana. Foram também investigadas e implementadas técnicas para extração de descritores geométricos e descritores baseados nas formas dos sinus frontais. Experimentos realizados em um banco de imagens contendo 90 radiografias anteroposteriores de 29 indivíduos mostraram que a técnica de extração de características baseada nos descritores de contexto da forma foi a mais eficaz...

Learning person-specific face representations = : Aprendendo representações específicas para a face de cada pessoa; Aprendendo representações específicas para a face de cada pessoa

Giovani Chiachia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
Os seres humanos são especialistas natos em reconhecimento de faces, com habilidades que excedem em muito as dos métodos automatizados vigentes, especialmente em cenários não controlados, onde não há a necessidade de colaboração por parte do indivíduo sendo reconhecido. No entanto, uma característica marcante do reconhecimento de face humano é que nós somos substancialmente melhores no reconhecimento de faces familiares, provavelmente porque somos capazes de consolidar uma grande quantidade de experiência prévia com a aparência de certo indivíduo e de fazer uso efetivo dessa experiência para nos ajudar no reconhecimento futuro. De fato, pesquisadores em psicologia têm até mesmo sugeridos que a representação interna que fazemos das faces pode ser parcialmente adaptada ou otimizada para rostos familiares. Enquanto isso, a situação análoga no reconhecimento facial automatizado | onde um grande número de exemplos de treinamento de um indivíduo está disponível | tem sido muito pouco explorada, apesar da crescente relevância dessa abordagem na era das mídias sociais. Inspirados nessas observações, nesta tese propomos uma abordagem em que a representação da face de cada pessoa é explicitamente adaptada e realçada com o intuito de reconhecê-la melhor. Apresentamos uma coleção de métodos de aprendizado que endereça e progressivamente justifica tal abordagem. Ao aprender e operar com representações específicas para face de cada pessoa...

Uso de técnicas de recuperação de imagens para o problema de reidentificação de pessoas; Content-based image retrieval techniques applied to the person reidentification problem

Vladimir Jaime Rocca Layza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Vários sistemas de vigilância baseados no uso de múltiplas câmeras têm sido propostos recentemente. No entanto, a identificação de pessoas em sequências de vídeos obtidas por várias câmeras com vistas não sobrepostas, comumente conhecida como reidentificação de pessoas, é um problema em aberto. As razões para que este problema seja considerado desafiador referem-se principalmente às restrições nas quais o problema deve ser resolvido. Estas restrições são definidas a partir das características do cenário e dos objetos de interesse (as pessoas): primeiro, as características biométricas de pessoas não podem ser utilizadas como características discriminantes; segundo, a aparência das pessoas muda drasticamente em virtude de variações na posição, iluminação e parâmetros de câmera. Tais restrições fazem com que uma mesma pessoa possa ser observada por múltiplas câmeras como uma pessoa diferente para cada uma delas. Nesta pesquisa, busca-se investigar alternativas para a criação de sistemas de vigilância visando à reidentificação de pessoas. Foram empregadas técnicas de recuperação de imagens por conteúdo tais como descritores de imagens tradicionais e propostos recentemente, análise multiescala...

Federation of the Person Identification Service between enterprises.

Forslund, D. W.; Smith, R. K.; Culpepper, T. C.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The Person Identification Service (PIDS) is a standard that has been adopted by the Object Management Group for managing identities of persons within a particular domain. That standard includes an interface that supports the ability to connect multiple PIDS servers together in a federated manner. The specification leaves great flexibility as to how to accomplish the federation. In this paper, we examine some of the federated approaches being considered by the Government Computer-based Patient Record Framework (G-CPR) project and discuss their advantages and disadvantages and the details of a specific, scalable approach to federation.

DNA identification by pedigree likelihood ratio accommodating population substructure and mutations

Ge, Jianye; Budowle, Bruce; Chakraborty, Ranajit
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
DNA typing is an important tool in missing-person identification, especially in mass-fatality disasters. Identification methods comparing a DNA profile from unidentified human remains with that of a direct (from the person) or indirect (for example, from a biological relative) reference sample and ranking the pairwise likelihood ratios (LR) is straightforward and well defined. However, for indirect comparison cases in which several members from a family can serve as reference samples, the full power of kinship analysis is not entirely exploited. Because biologically related family members are not genetically independent, more information and thus greater power can be attained by simultaneous use of all pedigree members in most cases, although distant relationships may reduce the power. In this study, an improvement was made on the method for missing-person identification for autosomal and lineage-based markers, by considering jointly the DNA profile data of all available family reference samples. The missing person is evaluated by a pedigree LR of the probability of DNA evidence under alternative hypotheses (for example, the missing person is unrelated or if they belong to this pedigree with a specified biological relationship) and can be ranked for all pedigrees within a database. Pedigree LRs are adjusted for population substructure according to the recommendations of the second National Research Council (NRCII) Report. A realistic mutation model was also incorporated to accommodate the possibility of false exclusion. The results show that the effect of mutation on the pedigree LR is moderate...

Face matching in a long task: enforced rest and desk-switching cannot maintain identification accuracy

Alenezi, Hamood M.; Bindemann, Markus; Fysh, Matthew C.; Johnston, Robert A.
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
In face matching, observers have to decide whether two photographs depict the same person or different people. This task is not only remarkably difficult but accuracy declines further during prolonged testing. The current study investigated whether this decline in long tasks can be eliminated with regular rest-breaks (Experiment 1) or room-switching (Experiment 2). Both experiments replicated the accuracy decline for long face-matching tasks and showed that this could not be eliminated with rest or room-switching. These findings suggest that person identification in applied settings, such as passport control, might be particularly error-prone due to the long and repetitive nature of the task. The experiments also show that it is difficult to counteract these problems.

How variations in distance affect eyewitness reports and identification accuracy

Lindsay, R.; Semmler, C.; Weber, N.; Brewer, N.; Lindsay, M.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Witnesses observe crimes at various distances and the courts have to interpret their testimony given the likely quality of witnesses’ views of events. We examined how accurately witnesses judged the distance between themselves and a target person, and how distance affected description accuracy, choosing behavior, and identification test accuracy. Over 1,300 participants were approached during normal daily activities, and asked to observe a target person at one of a number of possible distances. Under a Perception, Immediate Memory, or Delayed Memory condition, witnesses provided a brief description of the target, estimated the distance to the target, and then examined a 6-person target-present or target-absent lineup to see if they could identify the target. Errors in distance judgments were often substantial. Description accuracy was mediocre and did not vary systematically with distance. Identification choosing rates were not affected by distance, but decision accuracy declined with distance. Contrary to previous research, a 15-m viewing distance was not critical for discriminating accurate from inaccurate decisions.; R. C. L. Lindsay, Carolyn Semmler, Nathan Weber, Neil Brewer and Marilyn R. Lindsay; © Springer. Part of Springer Science+Business Media

Person Detection, Tracking and Identification by Mobile Robots Using RGB-D Images

Vo, Duc My
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This dissertation addresses the use of RGB-D images for six important tasks of mobile robots: face detection, face tracking, face pose estimation, face recognition, person de- tection and person tracking. These topics have widely been researched in recent years because they provide mobile robots with abilities necessary to communicate with humans in natural ways. The RGB-D images from a Microsoft Kinect cameras are expected to play an important role in improving both accuracy and computational costs of the proposed algorithms for mobile robots. We contribute some applications of the Microsoft Kinect camera for mobile robots and show their effectiveness by doing realistic experiments on our mobile robots. An important component for mobile robots to interact with humans in a natural way is real time multiple face detection. Various face detection algorithms for mobile robots have been proposed; however, almost all of them have not yet met the requirements of accuracy and speed to run in real time on a robot platform. In the scope of our re- search, we have developed a method of combining color and depth images provided by a Kinect camera and navigation information for face detection on mobile robots. We demonstrate several experiments with challenging datasets. Our results show that this method improves the accuracy and computational costs...

Compounding Effects of Dysphoria and Mood Stability on Eyewitness Identification

ROUNDING, KEVIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
To date, research on the effect of depressive symptomatology on victim-witness identification is scarce even though depressive symptomatology is highly prevalent in the victim-witness experience. Furthermore, being a victim-witness often instigates the use of counselling services, which could cause a shift in affect, and applying mood dependent memory theories, any change in affect should be detrimental to eyewitness accuracy. Still, individuals suffering from subclinical depression, or dysphoria, have exhibited heightened perceptual skills, and depressed affect exhibits remarkable stability over time. Therefore, I theorized that: (1) dysphoric people’s heightened sensitivity and motivation towards accurate understanding may result in more accurate eyewitness identifications, and (2) individuals who express stable levels of dysphoria should have greater eyewitness identification accuracy than should people with stable levels of nondysphoria, with stable levels of severe depressive symptomatology, or with unstable depressive symptomatology. In Study One, 132 students were randomly assigned to one of three autobiographical mood inductions: a positive, negative, or neutral/control. Following this manipulation, participants completed 12 experimental trials each consisting of a target exposure...

Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification.

Gait-Based Person Identification Robust to Changes in Appearance

Iwashita, Yumi; Uchino, Koji; Kurazume, Ryo
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
The identification of a person from gait images is generally sensitive to appearance changes, such as variations of clothes and belongings. One possibility to deal with this problem is to collect possible subjects' appearance changes in a database. However, it is almost impossible to predict all appearance changes in advance. In this paper, we propose a novel method, which allows robustly identifying people in spite of changes in appearance, without using a database of predicted appearance changes. In the proposed method, firstly, the human body image is divided into multiple areas, and features for each area are extracted. Next, a matching weight for each area is estimated based on the similarity between the extracted features and those in the database for standard clothes. Finally, the subject is identified by weighted integration of similarities in all areas. Experiments using the gait database CASIA show the best correct classification rate compared with conventional methods experiments.

Person Reidentification using Spatiotemporal Appearance

Gheissari, Niloofar; Sebastian, Thomas B; Tu, Peter H; Rittscher, Jens; Hartley, Richard
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc)
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
In many surveillance applications it is desirable to determine if a given individual has been previously observed over a network of cameras. This is the person reidentification problem. This paper focuses on reidentification algorithms that use the overal

Gait Identification Considering Body Tilt byWalking Direction Changes

Makihara, Yasushi; Sagawa, Ryusuke; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Echigo, Tomio; Yagi, Yasushi
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Gait identification has recently gained attention as a method of identifying individuals at a distance. Thought most of the previous works mainly treated straight-walk sequences for simplicity, curved-walk sequences should be also treated considering situations where a person walks along a curved path or enters a building from a sidewalk. In such cases, person’s body sometimes tilts by centrifugal force when walking directions change, and this body tilt considerably degrades gait silhouette and identification performance, especially for widely-used appearance-based approaches. Therefore, we propose a method of body-tilted silhouette correction based on centrifugal force estimation from walking trajectories. Then, gait identification process including gait feature extraction in the frequency domain and learning of a View Transformation Model (VTM) follows the silhouette correction. Experiments of gait identification for circular-walk sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Human face profile recognition

Wong, Vincent
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
The purpose of this thesis is to implement an automatic person identification system based on face profiles. Each person's face profile can be quite unique within a small sample population and therefore it can be used as the basis of an automatic person identification system. To quantify human face profiles for use in the recognition system, Fourier descriptors are used to describe the open curve extracted from a face profile. Fourier descriptors in the low-frequency range are shown to be useful for human face profile recognition. By using 16 Fourier coefficients, a correct recognition rate of 92% for 60 subjects was achieved.

Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Pereira, Sérgio; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu
Fonte: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering Publicador: Spie - Int Soc Optical Engineering
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: S9440-S9440
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Legal medical identification of cases with suspicion: survey of perícias of the Legal Medical Institute of São Paulo, in the decade of 90; Identificação médico legal de casos com suspeita: levantamento de perícias do Instituto Médico Legal de São Paulo, na década de 90

Pettorutti, Alessandra Rezzaghi; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Tsuchiya, Mario Jorge
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ART.; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/11/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The authors had carried through the survey of cases of legal medical identification, with suspicion of being determined person, analyzed for the Nucleus of Anthropology of the Legal Medical Institute of the State of São Paulo, in the period of January of 1990 the December of 2000. The survey was carried through the legal findings medical with the objective to get given on this type of skill, practically inexistent in literature, as well as verifying the factors that had influenced in the identification or not of this type of case. Results: the total number of cases was of 169, being that 125 (73,06%) were bodies in decomposition or skeletons and 44 (26,03%) carbonized. In relation to the cause of death in 93 (55,35%) it was not possible to establish the death cause and in 39 (23,21%) the death occurred due to brain injury. The identification resulted positive in 81 cases (47,9%), using the odontologic methods in 39 cases (60%), genetic in 13 (20%), anthropologic in 9 (13,84%) and fingerprints in 4 cases (6,15%). In 88 cases (52,07%) it was not possible conclusive result, attributing this to it the absence of confrontation elements, which were present in 82 cases (93,18%). Conclusion: the legal medical identification depends on confrontation elements...

Using person factors in social science research

Burger,Gary K.
Fonte: Interdisciplinaria Publicador: Interdisciplinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
The identification of dimensions and structures underlying a set of measures is often of importance in research, and the method of factor analysis is frequently used for that purpose. While R-type factor analysis, which yields the factors present in the variables, is well known to many investigators, Q-type factor analysis, which describes the factors present in the persons, has been employed less frequently. In this paper, Q-type factor analysis is described and distinguished from R-type analysis. Then, three uses of person factors (derived from Q-tipe analysis) in research setting are discussed, to describe the score profiles of individuals, allow more options in conventional data analysis, and to investigate the properties of individual items on measuring instruments. It is argued that person factors can be used profitably for all of these purposes in research.