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Financiamento da educação especial: complexas tramas, permanentes contradições e novos desafios; Special education financing: complex plots, permanent contradictions and new challenges

França, Marileide Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Este estudo analisa a ação do Poder Público no provimento de recursos financeiros à educação especial na gestão do município de Vitória, no estado do Espírito Santo, no âmbito do contexto de financiamento da educação básica, nos anos de 2008, 2009 e 2010. Partimos do pressuposto de que a garantia da educação às pessoas com deficiência, transtornos globais do desenvolvimento e altas habilidades/superdotação e a ampliação de sua oferta implicam intervenção por parte do Estado no intuito de assegurar os direitos dessa população no que tange ao acesso, à permanência e à qualidade de ensino nos sistemas educacionais brasileiros. Com apoio em Poulantzas (2000), entendemos o Estado como espaço público marcado pela correlação de forças entre classes e grupos que compõem a sociedade e participam dos processos decisórios na formulação de políticas públicas. Para o desenvolvimento do trabalho, foi realizada a pesquisa documental, por meio da consulta ao planejamento e execução orçamentária, aos demonstrativos de receitas e despesas, bem como aos documentos oficiais do município. No que se refere à gestão das verbas da educação especial, quanto à sua transparência, organização e padronização...

O comportamento dos fundos de investimentos brasileiros em ambiente de baixa de juros básicos e do investidor que se encontra envolvido neste ambiente

Baumgarten, Sérgio Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
Este trabalho buscou analisar o comportamento dos fundos de investimentos em ambiente de baixa da taxa de juros na economia brasileira e como esta mudança de cenário afeta o comportamento do investidor brasileiro. O objetivo geral foi identificar o comportamento dos Fundos de Investimentos e o comportamento dos Investidores diante da queda dos juros básicos da economia brasileira. A metodologia utilizada foi de uma pesquisa do tipo survey explanatória com análise da relação existente entre a variação da taxa Selic e a participação dos fundos de investimentos analisados. Também foi utilizada pesquisa do tipo survey descritiva com delineamento quantitativo, sendo os dados apresentados através de tabelas e figuras, que identificaram uma queda nos investimentos em poupança/CDB e uma maior procura pelos fundos multimercado e de ações como forma de diversificar os investimentos. Com uma maior divulgação dos fundos de investimentos e o crescimento deste mercado, os brasileiros têm buscado outras alternativas de investimentos além da poupança ou CDB, como os fundos de renda fixa/DI, fundos multimercado ou fundos de ações, como forma de preservar ou aumentar seu patrimônio, sendo uma maneira viável de ampliar a diversificação de seus recursos financeiros. Apesar dos investidores buscarem novas formas de investimentos...

A simplified methodology for parameters measurement of an axial flux permanent magnet motor without neutral point

Pedrosa, Delfim; Gonçalves, Henrique; Exposto, Bruno; Martins, Júlio S.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 13/07/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The recent developments in the area of electric vehicles resulted in the growth of the interest for Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motors, mainly because of their high power density. For the design of the motor drive it is of extreme importance to have the motor parameters, although many times the manufacturers do not provide them. To overcome this problem, in this paper is presented a methodology to obtain the parameters of this type of motor, in order to make possible the implementation of the d-q model. In synchronous motors with permanent magnets the inductance changes with the rotor position, so the d-q model is used to simplify the analysis and to get a better understanding of the motor parameters. Thus, this paper presents the d-q model of an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor with two external stators and one internal rotor.; FEDER Funds - Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors (COMPETE); Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - PTDC/EEA-EEL/104569/2008, MIT-PT/EDAM-SMS/0030/2008

Public Expenditure and Growth

Herrera, Santiago
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
Given that public spending will have a positive impact on GDP if the benefits exceed the marginal cost of public funds, the present paper deals with measuring costs and benefits of public spending. The paper discusses one cost seldom considered in the literature and in policy debates, namely, the volatility derived from additional public spending. The paper identifies a relationship between public spending volatility and consumption volatility, which implies a direct welfare loss to society. This loss is substantial in developing countries, estimated at 8 percent of consumption. If welfare losses due to volatility are this sizeable, then measuring the benefits of public spending is critical. Gauging benefits based on macro aggregate data requires three caveats: a) considering of the impact of the funding (taxation) required for the additional public spending; b) differentiating between investment and capital formation; c) allowing for heterogeneous response of output to different types of capital and differences in network development. It is essential to go beyond country-specificity to project-level evaluation of the benefits and costs of public projects. From the micro viewpoint...

When Can School Inputs Improve Test Scores?

Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
The relationship between school inputs and educational outcomes is critical for educational policy. The authors recognize that households will respond optimally to changes in school inputs and study how such responses affect the link between school inputs and cognitive achievement. To incorporate the forward-looking behavior of households, the authors present a household optimization model relating household resources and cognitive achievement to school inputs. In this framework, if household and school inputs are technical substitutes in the production function for cognitive achievement, the impact of unanticipated inputs is larger than that of anticipated inputs. The authors test the predictions of the model for nonsalary cash grants to schools using a unique data set from Zambia. They find that household educational expenditures and school cash grants are substitutes with a coefficient of elasticity between -0.35 and -0.52. Consistent with the optimization model, anticipated funds have no impact on cognitive achievement...

Pension Funds and National Saving

Lopez Murphy, Pablo; Musalem, Alberto R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The authors conduct an empirical study on the effect of the accumulation of pension fund financial assets, on national saving, using a panel of 43 industrial, and developing countries. The authors find evidence suggesting that the accumulation of pension fund financial assets might increase national saving, when these funds are the result of a mandatory pension program. By contrast, national saving might be unaffected, when pension funds are the result of a public program, implemented to foster voluntary pension saving.

The Fiscal Management of Natural Resource Revenues in a Developing Country Setting (or How to Design a Fiscal Rule If You Are Not Norway)

Eckardt, Sebastian; Sarsenov, Ilyas; Thomas, Mark Roland
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
The exhaustibility and volatility of natural resource revenues pose well-known economic challenges, of which those facing oil producers are the most prominent. If oil revenues represent an important share of export earnings and of government revenues, then they can be part of overheating during booms and costly adjustments during downturns, making fiscal policy exacerbate volatility. At the same time, considerations of intergenerational equity suggest that fiscal policy should also preserve part of current oil revenues for future generations. To address both of these challenges, resource-rich countries commonly establish commodity funds, into which part of their resource-linked revenues are deposited and invested in income-generating assets (usually offshore financial assets). A key question in designing such funds is what share of current revenues should be spent and what share saved. Based on recent advisory services offered to the Ministry of Economy and Trade in Kazakhstan, this note summarizes one possible approach...

Managing Risk for Development : International Risk Sharing

Aizenman, Joshua; Ötker-Robe, İnci
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
This study reports that numerous direct and indirect international risk-sharing mechanisms exist, including (1) self-insurance at the state level, (2) market-based tools, (3) international labor mobility, (4) implicit hedges provided by macroeconomic flexibility, and (5) transfers and access to credit from international financial institutions (IFIs) and bilateral swap arrangements. While the various risk sharing tools help in dealing with exposure to tail risks and transitory shocks, a need exists for adjustment to permanent shocks. The World Bank and other international agencies have been engaged in dialogues concerning international community engagement, and in tangible resource transfers and managerial support of funds and projects aiming at ex-ante risk mitigation, and ex-post stabilization following economic or natural disasters. However, a too risk-averse attitude of the donor community may jeopardise the attempt to stabilize economies in transition, including those with fragile and conflict situations, and the proper heterogeneity of design of incentives and missions can help.

Rail Transport : Framework for Improving Railway Sector Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

Olievschi, Vasile Nicolae
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
In most of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries railways have played, throughout history, a key part in the economic development maintaining a dominant role in transporting freight and passengers at low costs. During the last 50 years, the road transport in the region as throughout the world has expanded rapidly due to the aggressive development of the automobile industry. African governments have invested mainly in road infrastructure improvement, neglecting railways. The liberalization in road transport and the slow response of railways to adapt to the new market conditions resulted in dramatic traffic decline in rail transport. By 1990 most of the Sub-Saharan African railways were in virtual bankruptcy, requiring permanent cash injection and large investments in infrastructure and rolling stock. To address the crisis, many governments have considered concessions as a solution, and between the mid-1990s and 2010 most of the railways were concessioned. Currently, more than 70 percent of the rail transport activities in the region (excluding South Africa) are managed by private operators. The World Bank Group (IDA and IFC) has supported most concession processes through grants and loans...

Experiences with Oil Funds : Institutional and Financial Aspects

Bacon, Robert; Tordo, Silvana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
This study brings together detailed information on the creation, operation, and financial performance of 12 oil funds and 3 other resource funds. The report looks at various funds in Alaska, Alberta, Azerbaijan, Norway, Chad, Sao Tome Principe, Timor, Chile, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Oman, Venezuela, and Russia. The purpose of the study is to provide comparative information on the backgrounds of the creation of these funds, the legislation used to do so, the details of the organization and management of the funds, and of their financial performance. The report opens with a brief review of the reasons for establishing an oil fund and the principal issues involved. The report then provides detailed coverage of four oil funds where there is substantial public information about the operation and performance of the funds. The final chapter provides some comparative material on the different funds and explores the construction of a set of indicators for good practice in the design of the funds. The appendixes contain the legislation which created the governing funds.

Evidence on Policies to Increase the Development Impacts of International Migration

McKenzie, David; Yang, Dean
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
International migration offers individuals and their families the potential to experience immediate and large gains in their incomes, and offers a large number of other positive benefits to the sending communities and countries. However, there are also concerns about potential costs of migration, including concerns about trafficking and human rights, a desire for remittances to be used more effectively, and concerns about externalities from skilled workers being lost. As a result there is increasing interest in policies which can enhance the development benefits of international migration and mitigate these potential costs. This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the effectiveness of these policies at three stages of the migration process: pre-departure, during migration, and directed toward possible return. The existing evidence base suggests some areas of policy success: bilateral migration agreements for countries whose workers have few other migration options, developing new savings and remittance products that allow migrants more control over how their money is used...

Financing Mechanisms for Addressing Remediation of Site Contamination

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Industrial and commercial facilities provide great economic benefit to communities throughout the world. Unfortunately, many industries use or have used practices and materials which have proven toxic to the environment and to those who live and work near contaminated sites. The definition and degree of contamination varies at national and regional levels of government, but leaders throughout the world now recognize the hazard that contaminated industrial and service sites present to the wellbeing of their communities and seek innovative ways to finance the remediation of these challenging sites. Industrial contamination can have a severe, direct impact on adjacent communities. The cleanup and redevelopment of a so-called brownfield can improve a community s economy, provide an opportunity for habitat restoration, and create public space. Cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields can be an effective economic development strategy, with benefits seen in two timeframes. First, there is an immediate and one-time capital expenditure for cleanup activities...

Small Beginnings for Great 0pportunities

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Livro
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
By increasing access to finance for out-of-reach households and families, microfinance continues to be an essential tool for improving livelihoods at the base of the pyramid. The last 20 years have seen remarkable growth in the microfinance sector. From its early stages in small-scale microenterprise lending, through its commercial expansion to offer savings and a broad array of financial services to low-income customers, to its entry into new markets and incorporation of technological innovations, microfinance is ensuring that an ever-greater number of households have permanent access to a range of high-quality and affordable financial services. The microfinance industry is estimated at $60 to $100 billion globally, where several thousand microfinance organizations reach an estimated 200 million clients, most of whom were not previously served by the formal financial sector. However, 2.5 billion adults still lack access to formal financial services. Financial services for low-income people are an important factor when it comes to poverty reduction...

Os fundos permanentes na Casa Pia de Lisboa

Miranda, Jorge Umberto Ramalho
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
Pretende-se com este Relatório Profissional fazer uma descrição detalhada do curriculum vitae que comprove a experiência e atividade profissional desenvolvida no âmbito da especialidade do Mestrado, assim como a apresentação de um tema relacionado com o mesmo. O tema escolhido para desenvolvimento e discussão nas provas foi “Os Fundos Permanentes na Casa Pia de Lisboa”, na medida em que o candidato, enquanto técnico superior na UAF (Unidade de Assuntos Financeiros) dos Serviços Centrais (SC) da CPL (Casa Pia de Lisboa, Instituto Público), é corresponsável pela operacionalização do processo de Gestão do Património/subprocesso dos Fundos Permanentes. Deste modo, justifica-se a importância deste trabalho pela apresentação do tema, na medida em que permite avaliar a identificação e descrição da gestão dos Fundos Permanentes na CPL, que estabeleça a uniformidade de procedimentos e modelos/impressos, por forma a garantir uma informação mais rigorosa e fidedigna e uma fácil consolidação pela UAF da CPL e pela descrição detalhada do curriculum vitae, na medida em que permite avaliar as minhas habilitações académicas e profissionais, bem como minhas habilitações sociais. Finalmente pretende-se demonstrar que o mestrando possui competências equivalentes ou superiores às do estudante que obtém o grau de Mestre em Gestão com o plano curricular da mesma edição do curso; The Permanent Funds at Casa Pia de Lisboa ABSTRACT: The aim of this Professional Report is to present a detailed description of the curriculum vitae to make proof that the professional activity and experience acquired within the Master’s degree...

Oil Rules : Kazakhstan's Policy Options in a Downturn

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
This report assesses the role of fiscal rules for countercyclical economic management in Kazakhstan and simulates the behavior of different types of fiscal rules. The work represents technical assistance to the ministry of economy and budget planning and has been financed by the joint economic research program between the government of Kazakhstan and the World Bank. Kazakhstan adopted a fixed fiscal rule in 2010 and introduced changes to it in 2012. By keeping the annual amount transferred from the fund to the budget constant, Kazakhstan's rule is more stringent than pure application of the permanent rule will imply. This report's five chapters outline the advantages of Kazakhstan's current fiscal rule and its performance against other types of rules. Chapter one reviews the performance of the Kazakh economy and the policy stance of the authorities over the last 10 years. Chapter two argues that fiscal rules should be simple and transparent; presenting evidence that Kazakhstan's current fiscal rule meets these two criteria. Chapter three presents the results of simulations of different global economic scenarios and the expected impacts on key variables in Kazakhstan...

Evaluating Emergency Programs

Maloney, William F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
Emergency programs are designed to soften the impact of economic crises-income shocks experienced by an entire community or country-on consumption and human capital accumulation. Of particular concern are poor people: as a result of inadequate savings or inadequate access to credit or insurance markets, the poor are unable to draw on resources from better times to offset a loss in income today. Further, the systemic nature of the shocks means that risk cannot be effectively pooled through local informal insurance mechanisms. Emergency interventions have included social funds, workfare programs, training programs, conditional transfers (linked to health center visits or children's school attendance, for example), and traditional direct, unconditional transfers in kind (such as communal tables or targeted food handouts). The author highlights some conceptual problems in choosing among these options and evaluating one program of a certain type relative to another. It argues that most such interventions can be thought of as containing both a transfer and an investment component and that their evaluation as emergency programs needs to more explicitly incorporate the intertemporal nature of their design. More specifically...

Risk Absorption by the State : When Is It Good Public Policy?

Anginer, Deniz; de la Torre, Augusto; Ize, Alain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
The global financial crisis brought public guarantees to the forefront of the policy debate. Based on a review of the theoretical foundations of public guarantees, this paper concludes that the commonly used justifications for public guarantees based solely on agency frictions (such as adverse selection or lack of collateral) and/or un-internalized externalities are flawed. When risk is idiosyncratic, it is highly unlikely that a case for guarantees can be made without risk aversion. When risk aversion is explicitly added to the picture, public guarantees may be justified by the state's natural advantage in dealing with collective action failures (providing public goods). The state can spread risk more finely across space and time because it can coordinate and pool atomistic agents that would otherwise not organize themselves to solve monitoring or commitment problems. Public guarantees may be transitory, until financial systems mature, or permanent, when risk is fat-tailed. In the case of aggregate (non-diversifiable) risk...

Aplicabilidade da análise dinâmica do capital de giro como instrumento de avaliação da gestão financeira em cooperativas agropecuárias; Applicability of the dynamic analysis of the working capital as an evaluation instrument of the financial administration in agricultural cooperatives

GIMENES, Régio Marcio Toesca; GIMENES, Fátima Maria Pegorini
Fonte: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar a origem dos recursos que financiaram as necessidades líquidas de capital de giro de uma amostra de 64 cooperativas agropecuárias localizadas em oito estados brasileiros, no período 1999 a 2004. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que a demanda por capital de giro das cooperativas não foi financiada, de uma forma geral, com recursos permanentes (exigíveis a longo prazo e patrimônio líquido), havendo, assim, a necessidade de captação de recursos onerosos de curto prazo para complementar o financiamento do seu ciclo financeiro, geralmente de custo e risco mais elevados do que as demais fontes de financiamento.; This study has as purpose to investigate the origin of the funds that financed the net working capital needs of a sample of 64 located agricultural cooperatives in eight Brazilian states, in the period 1999 to 2004. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that cooperatives' demand for working capital has not been financed, in general, with permanent funds (long term liabilities and stockholders' equity). So, there is a need to raise short-term burdensome funds to complement the financing of its financial cycle, generally, with higher cost and risks than the other sources of funds.

The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery; Global Program Review

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Book; Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
GFDRR was established in September 2006 as a global partnership of the World Bank, UN agencies and bilateral donors, located in World Bank headquarters in Washington, DC. Its missions are (a) to mainstream disaster reduction and climate change adaptation (CCA) in country development strategies, and (b) to foster and strengthen global and regional cooperation among various stakeholders under the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) system. GFDRR supports the implementation of the UN 2005-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). This international agreement in relation to disaster risk reduction (DRR) arose from a 168-nation UN conference held in Kyoto, Japan, in 2005. The key player for coordinating the implementation of HFA is the UNISDR bureau with headquarters in Geneva and eight regional offices worldwide. Another UN agency with operational responsibility for UN disaster related work is the UNDP-BCPR. These two UN agencies and GFDRR have complementary goals, creating potential for collaboration among the three organizations...

Public investments in R&D as a tool for regional economic development: under which circumstances do the European Union’s Structural Funds investments on research achieve their objective to contribute to economic convergence of regions?

Grillo, Francesco
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
In the last decade the endogenous growth theory has been said to have found into the difference of endowment of knowledge that different regions possess both an explanation of semi permanent differences in prosperity levels and, consequently, a recipe for eliminating the gaps. The theory had significant policy consequences and the impact was particularly large on the European Commission when it was decided to drastically increase the share of structural funds – the money meant to produce economic convergence of regions – into R&D. However, statistical data show a weak correlation between R&D expenditure and economic growth acceleration, and more specifically, the correlation becomes even weaker if applied to EU poorer regions. More precisely, the evidence suggests that R&D programmes can display different returns. This work wants to be contribution to better understand the reasons that lie behind these differences. The research tests an hypothesis described through a framework that we called innovation value chain. The result is that better performing innovation strategies are associated to: a more concentrated allocation of available resources and a higher capability of the initial public investments to stimulate further private investments; a clearer distribution of responsibilities for decision making over structural funds programmes and independence from policy making of the implementation processes of the programmes; a presence of partnerships amongst business...