In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL). Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.
When analyzing dialectology survey data, researchers usually exclude respondents who do not complete the survey as directed. It is argued here that such “unusable” responses can be considered “outlier” data and analyzed rather than be excluded, allowing otherwise overlooked language ideologies to emerge. Responses to a perceptual dialectology map survey in which 31 of the 229 respondents wrote comments on a map of Washington state, without drawing lines around perceived dialect areas as instructed, are described to illustrate this point. In the present data, ideologies such as the homogeneity of dialects and the importance of an urban/rural dichotomy surfaced. These themes are examined in terms outlined by Judith Irvine and Susan Gal in their discussion of how ideological processes are evident in language data. In addition, methodological issues regarding the presuppositions and orientation of respondents to the questionnaire itself are raised.
Sociolinguists have discussed problematic language ideologies, such as Standard Language Ideology (Lippi-Green 1997) extensively and social perceptions of Standard English in the U.S and U.K are well documented. However, most work in this area has focused on perceptions of dialects within national contexts. This study makes a novel contribution to the study of language attitudes, investigating perceptions of British regional dialects within the U.S. A survey was created to gauge perceptions of five British regional dialects (Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Newcastle, London). 49 survey participants listened to audio clips of British regional dialect speakers and then completed a mapping activity, answered perception questions, and ranked each speaker on specific qualities. Results showed that speaker region had a significant effect on perception of almost all variables at a statistically significant rate, despite unfamiliarity with all but the London dialect. Results suggest that although participants are largely unfamiliar with varieties of English in England outside of London, they assessed them by recruiting pre-existing stereotypes about vernacular dialects.
The current study implements a speech perception experiment that interrogates local perceptions of Spanish varieties in Miami. Participants (N=292) listened to recordings of three Spanish varieties (Peninsular, Highland Colombian, and Post-Castro Cuban) and were given background information about the speakers, including the parents’ country of origin. In certain cases, the parents’ national-origin label matched the country of origin of the speaker, but otherwise the background information and voices were mismatched. The manipulation distinguishes perceptions determined by bottom-up cues (dialect) from top-down ones (social information). Participants then rated each voice for a range of personal characteristics and answered hypothetical questions about the speakers’ employment, family, and income. Results show clear top-down effects of the social information that often drive perceptions up or down depending on the traits themselves. Additionally, the data suggest differences in perceptions between Hispanic/non-Hispanic and Cuban/non-Cuban participants, although the Cuban participants do not drive the Hispanic participants’ perceptions.
A prosódia é uma informação fônica que está além do nível do segmento, e é usualmente estudada a partir da análise de três parâmetros fonético-acústicos clássicos: frequência fundamental, intensidade e duração. Embora estudada para muitas finalidades, a prosódia geralmente não é a primeira opção de investigação quando se busca conhecer mais sobre diferenças entre variedades de uma mesma língua, por exemplo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho pretende preencher essa lacuna no que diz respeito aos estudos prosódicos para caracterizar e diferenciar variedades faladas no Brasil. O objetivo desta tese de Doutorado foi estudar parâmetros prosódicos que pudessem caracterizar e posteriormente diferenciar sujeitos de diferentes variedades faladas do português brasileiro. Em um segundo momento, ruído aditivo foi incluído nas mesmas amostras de fala utilizadas para caracterizar a prosódia de diferentes variedades do português brasileiro, com o objetivo de entender melhor como os parâmetros prosódicos se comportam quando há inclusão de ruído nas amostras de fala, situação muito comum na área da Fonética Forense. O objetivo secundário da pesquisa foi aplicar testes perceptivos a ouvintes do português brasileiro com a finalidade de saber se eles seriam capazes de reconhecer e categorizar a origem dos falantes de acordo com suas falas. Analisamos amostras de fala espontânea de 35 sujeitos...
Fonte: John Benjamins Publishing CompanyPublicador: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
This paper provides the first perceptual dialectology survey of Scotland. Respondents from the northeast fishing town of Buckie were asked to mark and label dialect areas on a map, and to rate 12 government regions on five scales: "degree-of-difference",
Since the 1960s, sociolinguists have been examining the social factors
that influence language variation and the attitudes speakers have
towards those variations. In this study, the language attitudes about
the perceived Spanish dialects in Mexico are analyzed using a maptask.
A group of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was asked to draw
on a map of Mexico where they felt that people speak Spanish differently.
They were then asked to explain/elaborate on the divisions
that they drew. These maps and interviews were used to determine
the perceived major dialects of Mexican Spanish according to the
majority of participants. Perceptions of dialects are measured via
reoccurring themes that were brought up by a majority of interviewees.
Salient themes include language contact, such as influence
of English or indigenous languages, and whether a dialect was deemed
urban or rural.; Percepciones de los inmigrantes mexicanos de los dialectos del español
de México: un estudio de actitudes lingüísticas. Desde los años 60, los
sociolingüistas han estudiado los factores sociales que influyen en la
variación lingüística y las actitudes de los hablantes hacia esa variación.
En este estudio, se analizan, usando una técnica de mapeo...