Página 1 dos resultados de 162 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

International trends in pedestrian injury mortality.

Roberts, I G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Trends in pedestrian injury mortality for children aged 0-4 and 5-14 for England and Wales, Denmark, Sweden, the USA, and New Zealand were examined from 1968 onwards. While there has been a reduction in the pedestrian mortality in all these countries, there are striking international differences in the extent of these reductions. Denmark has achieved the greatest fall in mortality with the smallest decrease seen in New Zealand. Countries which have experienced major decreases in pedestrian mortality are distinguished by having placed greater emphasis on environmentally based prevention strategies rather than pedestrian skills education.

Child pedestrian injury rates: the importance of "exposure to risk" relating to socioeconomic and ethnic differences, in Auckland, New Zealand.

Roberts, I; Norton, R; Taua, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine how child pedestrian exposure to risk, as measured by the mean number of streets crossed, varies according to indices of material disadvantage and ethnic group. DESIGN: A questionnaire on pedestrian exposure to risk was distributed to children for completion by parents and return to school. Children from 40 schools were selected using a probability cluster design. SETTING: The Auckland region of New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Questionnaires were distributed to 3388 pupils of whom 2873 (85%) completed and returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean number of streets crossed was 2.19 (95% confidence interval 1.82, 2.56) at age 6 years and 2.80 (2.42, 3.17) at age 9 years. The mean number of streets crossed for boys (2.57 (2.15, 2.98)) was similar to that for girls (2.38 (2.05, 2.72)). The mean number of streets crossed by Pacific Island children was 4.87 (4.01, 5.73), more than twice the number crossed by children of predominantly European origin (1.90 (1.65, 2.15)). Children from families without a car crossed an average of 5.34 (4.35, 6.34) streets, compared with 2.90 (2.50, 3.31) streets for children from families with one car, and 1.97 (1.65, 2.29) streets for children from families with two or more cars. CONCLUSION: There are large differences in pedistrian exposure to risk in relation to ethnic group and levels of car ownership. These differences may explain ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in child pedestrian injury rates.

Sensory deficit and the risk of pedestrian injury.

Roberts, I.; Norton, R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between sensory deficit and the risk of child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. SETTING: The Auckland region of New Zealand. METHODS: A community based case-control study was conducted. Cases (n = 190) were all children (< 15 years) killed or hospitalised as a result of a pedestrian injury occurring on a public road between 1 January 1992 and 1 March 1994. Controls (n = 479) were a random sample of the child population. RESULTS: The risk of pedestrian injury for children whose parents reported abnormal vision was over four times that of children with reported normal vision (odds ratio = 4.25, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 10.8). The risk of injury for children whose parents reported abnormal hearing was close to twice that of children with reported normal hearing (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 3.61). CONCLUSIONS: Children with sensory deficits constitute a high risk group for pedestrian injuries. Paediatricians caring for children with sensory impairments should be aware of this increased risk.

Adult accompaniment and the risk of pedestrian injury on the school-home journey.

Roberts, I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of adult accompaniment on the risk of pedestrian injury on the school-home journey. DESIGN: A community based case-control study. SETTING: The Auckland region of New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Cases (n = 54) were all children killed or hospitalized as a result of a pedestrian injury occurring on the school-home journey between 1 January 1992 and 1 March 1994. The response rate for the case group was 98%. Controls (n = 157) were a random sample of all children who walk to and from school in the study region. The response rate for the control group was 100%. MAIN RESULTS: Adult accompaniment on the school-home journey was associated with a reduced risk of injury (odds ratio (OR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 1.66). This effect persisted after controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Adult accompaniment on the school-home journey may have the potential to significantly reduce child pedestrian injury rates. The effect of adult accompaniment may have important implications for the interpretation of child pedestrian exposure studies.

The PRECEDE-PROCEED model: application to planning a child pedestrian injury prevention program.

Howat, P.; Jones, S.; Hall, M.; Cross, D.; Stevenson, M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were first, to modify the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and to use it is as a basis for planning a three year intervention trial that aims to reduce injury to child pedestrians. A second objective was to assess the suitability of this process for planning such a relatively complex program. SETTING: The project was carried out in 47 primary schools in three local government areas, in the Perth metropolitan area. METHODS: The program was developed, based on extensive needs assessment incorporating formative evaluations. Epidemiological, psychosocial, environmental, educational, and demographic information was gathered, organised, and prioritised. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was used to identify the relevant behavioural and environmental risk factors associated with child pedestrian injuries in the target areas. Modifiable causes of those behavioural and environmental factors were delineated. A description of how the model facilitated the development of program objectives and subobjectives which were linked to strategy objectives, and strategies is provided. RESULTS: The process used to plan the child pedestrian injury prevention program ensured that a critical assessment was undertaken of all the relevant epidemiological...

Measuring community/environmental interventions: the Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention Project

Stevenson, M.; Iredell, H.; Howat, P.; Cross, D.; Hall, M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Objectives—To assess the effectiveness of community/environmental interventions undertaken as part of the Child Pedestrian Injury Prevention Project (CPIPP).

Pedestrian and Pedalcyclist Injury Costs in the United States by Age and Injury Severity

Miller, Ted R.; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Crandall, Jeff; Ivarsson, Johan; Finkelstein, A. Eric
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
This paper estimates the incidence, unit costs, and annual costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle crash injuries in the United States. It includes medical care costs, household and wage work losses, and the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life. The estimates are broken down by body region and severity. They rely heavily on data from the health care system. Costs of pedestrian and pedalcycle injuries in 2000 will total $40 billion over the lifetimes of the injured. Most pedalcyclist injury costs and half of pedestrian injury costs do not involve motor vehicles. Youth ages 5–14 face greater annual risks when walking or driving their own pedaled vehicles than when being driven. Children under age 5 experience higher costs than their elders when injured as pedestrians. Our results suggest European and Japanese component tests used to design pedestrian injury countermeasures for motor vehicles are too narrow. Separate lower limb testing is needed for younger children. Testing for torso/vertebral column injury of adults also seems desirable.

Child and Adult Pedestrian Impact: The Influence of Vehicle Type on Injury Severity

Henary, Basem Y.; Crandall, Jeff; Bhalla, Kavi; Mock, Charles N.; Roudsari, Bahman S.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
In the United States, the vehicle fleet is shifting from predominantly passenger cars (automobiles) to SUVs, light trucks, and vans (LTV). This study investigates how pedestrian severe injury and mortality are associated with vehicle type and pedestrian age. The Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database for years 1994–1998 was used for a cross-sectional study design. Outcome measures were Injury Severity Score, Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale, Pedestrian Mortality, Functional Capacity Index and Life Years Lost to Injury. Compared to children, adult pedestrians were more likely to sustain severe injury (OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.56–5.06) or mortality (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.10–7.74) when examining all vehicle types. However, after adjusting for vehicle type and impact speed, this association was not statistically significant at p < 0.05. Compared to passenger cars, pedestrians struck by LTV were more likely to have severe injuries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.88–1.94) or mortality (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 0.84–2.34) for all pedestrians. Adjusting for pedestrian age, this association was more obvious and significant at lower impact speeds (≤ 30 km/h); odds ratios of severe injury and mortality were 3.34 (p< 0.01) and 1.87 (p= 0.07)...

A Field Data Analysis of Risk Factors Affecting the Injury Risks in Vehicle-To-Pedestrian Crashes

Zhang, Guanjun; Cao, Libo; Hu, Jingwen; Yang, King H.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
The head, torso, and lower extremity are the most commonly injured body regions during vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. A total of 312 cases were selected from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database to investigate factors affecting the likelihood of sustaining MAIS 3+, AIS 3+ head, AIS 3+ torso, and AIS 2+ lower extremity injuries during vehicle-to-pedestrian frontal crashes. The inclusion criteria were pedestrians: (a) aged 14 years or older, (b) with a height of 1.5 m and taller, and (c) who were injured in an upright standing position via vehicle frontal collision. The injury odds ratios (ORs) calculated from logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between selected injury predictors and the odds of sustaining pedestrian head, torso, and lower extremity injuries. These predictors included a crash factor (impact speed), pedestrian factors (age, gender, height, and weight), and vehicle factors (front bumper central height, front bumper lead, ground to front/top transition point height (FTTPH), and rear hood opening distance (RHOD)). Results showed that impact speed was a statistically significant predictor for head, torso, and lower extremity injury odds, as expected. Comparison of people 65 years of age and older to young adults aged 14 to 64 showed that age was also a significant predictor for torso (p<0.001...

A Methodology for the Geometric Standardization of Vehicle Hoods to Compare Real-World Pedestrian Crashes

Koetje, Bethany D.; Grabowski, Jurek G.
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This paper describes a standardization method that allows injury researchers to directly compare pedestrian hood contact points across a variety of hood sizes and geometries. To standardize hood contact locations a new coordinate system was created at the geometric center of the hood. Standardizing hood contact locations was done by turning each coordinate location into a ratio of the entire length or width of the hood. The standardized pedestrian contact locations could then be compared for various hood sizes. The standardized hood was divided into a three-by-three grid to aggregate contact points into hood regions. Data was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Pedestrian Crash Data Study from 1994 to 1998. To understand injury severity with respect to pedestrian hood contact location, the injuries were narrowed to the single most severe Abreviated Injury Scale injury to the pedestrian and hood location at which that injury was sustained. Of the 97 pedestrian/vehicle cases, pedestrians received 270 injuries from 141 unique hood contact locations. After standardization, 36%, 28%, 36% of all contact points were located on the left, center and right side of the hood respectively. Vertically, 26%, 45%, 28% of contacts occurred at the front...

Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions.

Pedestrian injury risk functions based on contour lines of equal injury severity using real world pedestrian/passenger-car accident data

Niebuhr, Tobias; Junge, Mirko; Achmus, Stefanie
Fonte: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Publicador: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Injury risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the assessment of the effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) as they specify the injury reduction potential of the system. The usual way to describe injury risks is by use of injury risk functions, i.e. specifying the probability of an injury of a given severity occurring at a specific technical accident severity (collision speed). A method for the generation of a family of risk functions for different levels of injury severity is developed. The injury severity levels are determined by use of a rescaled version of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) namely the ISSx. The injury risk curves for each collision speed is then obtained by fixing the boundary conditions and use of a case-by-case validated GIDAS subset of pedestrian-car accidents (N=852). The resultant functions are of exponential form as opposed to the frequently used logistic regression form. The exponential approach in combination with the critical speed value creates a new injury risk pattern better fitting for high speed/high energy crashes. Presented is a family of pedestrian injury risk functions for an arbitrary injury severity. Thus, the effectiveness of an ADAS can be assessed for mitigation of different injury severities using the same injury risk function and relying on the internal soundness of the risk function with regard to different injury severity levels. For the assessment of emergency braking ADAS...

Pedestrian subsystem head impact results reflect the severity of pedestrian head injuries

Anderson, R.; Streeter, L.; Ponte, G.; van de Griend, M.; Lindsay, V.; McLean, A.
Fonte: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd Publicador: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Ten head impacts between pedestrians and cars were reconstructed to compare the head injuries sustained by pedestrians with the results of reconstruction tests using the headform impactors designated by the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) Working Group 10 for assessing pedestrian head protection. The methodology of this study included at-scene accident investigation, computer simulation, and physical reconstruction in a laboratory of the head impacts that occurred in the accident cases that were investigated. The main finding was that the results from using the EEVC headform impactors test correlate well with the severity of any head injury, as measured by the Abbreviated Injury Scale, in actual pedestrian accidents. Head impacts that exceeded a HIC value of 1000 were positively associated with head injuries that were AIS3 or above.; Robert Anderson, Luke Streeter, Giulio Ponte, Marleen Van de Griend, Tori Lindsay, Jack McLean; Copyright © 2003 Inderscience Enterprises Limited. All rights reserved.

The influence of test conditions on the results of pedestrian headform impact tests.

Searson, Daniel Jeffrey
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Pedestrian headform impact tests are used to assess the relative level of danger that a vehicle poses to the head of a struck pedestrian. The tests are conducted using a dummy headform that is launched at specific locations on the front of a stationary vehicle. The conditions of the test are specified in the relevant test protocol, and include the mass of the headform, the impact speed, and the impact angle. There are test protocols for vehicle design regulations and for new car assessment programs, each of which may specify different test conditions. Previous studies have not examined in detail the influence of the test conditions on the result of the test, as measured via the Head Injury Criterion (HIC). HIC is proportional to the duration and magnitude of the acceleration of the headform during the impact. In this thesis, a theoretical model of a linear spring is used to examine, in the simplest case, the influence that headform mass and impact speed have on HIC and peak dynamic displacement. These relationships were also studied empirically using real test data. The empirical effect of impact speed on HIC was found to be similar to that predicted by the linear spring model, and the influence of headform mass was found to be slightly weaker than what was predicted theoretically. An effect of headform diameter was also found in the test data. In summary: HIC was found to increase with impact speed...

Integrating the assessment of pedestrian safety in vehicles with collision detection and mitigation systems

Anderson, R.; Searson, D.; Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: IRCOBI; online Publicador: IRCOBI; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
This paper presents an integrated model to assess pedestrian protection of vehicles that are equipped with collision detection and mitigation systems. Traditionally, impact injury risk is assessed at a single speed, whereas actual pedestrian collisions occur at many speeds. Therefore, the test result is used to represent risk across all crashes even though no information about the speeds of actual crashes is used explicitly in the assessment. When the impact speed of a vehicle is likely to be affected by technology that reduces impact speeds, the average risk must be less than for equivalent vehicles without such a system. A model is presented in this paper that takes such effects into account by using information on how the test result varies with impact speed, and the relationship between the test result and injury risk, to calculate average injury risk. If the effect of a collision detection system on impact speeds is known, then the model can assess the reduction in average risk for any given impact test result. The model is also used to adjust Euro NCAP and GTR assessment criteria for pedestrian head impact protection when vehicles are equipped with effective pedestrian collision avoidance technologies.; http://www.ircobi.org/downloads/irc12/default.htm; Robert W.G. Anderson...

Pedestrian Injury Mitigation by Autonomous Braking

Rosén, E.; Källhammer, J.-E.; Eriksson, D.; Nentwich, M.; Fredriksson, R.; Smith, K.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1949-1957; The objective of this study was to calculate the effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact at reducing fatal and severe injuries. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were used to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the actual crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6g. New impact speeds were calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians that were within the given field of view and not hidden by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, new casualty numbers were obtained. The study documents that the effectiveness of reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40°. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness.

Walk Urban : Demand, Constraints, and Measurement of the Urban Pedestrian Environment

Montgomery, Brittany; Roberts, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
"Overall support for the pedestrian environment," or walk ability, has grown increasingly important as the world urbanizes and motorized modes threaten to displace or constrain travel on foot. This concern encompasses virtually every aspect of the pedestrian experience. Walk ability takes into account the quality of pedestrian facilities, roadway conditions, land use patterns, community support, security, and comfort for walking (Litman). Each of these facets of the pedestrian environment impacts the use of walking as a primary mode of transport. The complexity of the urban pedestrian environment naturally lends itself to micro-level analysis to locate the need for improvements; however, to gain an overview of a city, it is necessary to develop macro-level indicators that can identify the general state of the pedestrian environment. While these indicators cannot diagnose all walk ability problems, they can give a sense of how one urban area compares to another in similar circumstances and they have the potential for becoming an influential aspect of World Bank urban infrastructure diagnosis. Urban Transport indicators are being reviewed as one component of the current Transport Results Initiative which is led by the World Bank's central Transport Unit.

Children's exposure to traffic and risk of pedestrian injury in an urban setting.

Rao, R.; Hawkins, M.; Guyer, B.
Fonte: New York Academy of Medicine Publicador: New York Academy of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
Pedestrian injuries to children represent a major urban health problem in the United States. Thousands of children each year are struck by moving motor vehicles; such collisions result in numerous hospitalizations and deaths. At particular risk are young school-age children between the ages of 5 and 9 years. Using a survey methodology, we collected data regarding the method by which children in an urban setting travel to and from school, in addition to the number of streets they cross in a typical school day. This information was compared with data from police records on street intersection locations of pedestrian collisions. There is a wide variation in the number of streets children cross in 1 day, calculated as the number of streets crossed in the entire day, not only those crossed to and from school. Children whose parents own a car and home cross an average of 3.7 streets per day, whereas children whose parents do not own both a car and home cross an average of 5.4 streets per day; this difference is highly significant (P < 0.0001). The largest differences in traffic exposure are between families reporting car- and-home ownership (x = 3.70 streets) versus those who do not own both a car and home (x = 5.39 streets) (Mann-Whitney = -5.5...

Evaluating Applied Theatre Using Amateur Community Actors as a Modality for Pedestrian Education Among Primary School Students in Moshi, Tanzania

Dideriksen, Chrissy
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%

Background: The WHO estimates that in 2010 there were over 10,000 road traffic injury related fatalities in Tanzania. Pedestrians accounted for a third of those fatalities. Education is essential to improving Tanzanians' road safety. Theatre has been used as a modality for education for many years, though most efficacy research focuses on professionally created and delivered theatre. The act of creating theatre is an inherently collaborative process, making it a good tool for participatory interventions that involve community members. Collaborative, theatre-based interventions have several benefits for global health projects: 1) they are relatively low-cost; 2) they incorporate community ideas encouraging stakeholder investment; and 3) they have potential to be self sustaining after development aid has stepped away. However, there are two main impediments to using collaborative theatre in global health interventions. First, there is little investigation on the efficacy of collaborative theatre to educate. Second, there are few guidelines to help drama-based programs take advantage of collaboration with amateur community members for health topics.

This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to understand how participatory theatre with amateur community participants can convey health topics such as road and pedestrian safety in Tanzania. The study measured local primary students' pedestrian knowledge...

3D Vision Sensing for Improved Pedestrian Safety

Grubb, Grant; Zelinsky, Alex; Nilsson, Lars; Rilbe, Magnus
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE Inc)
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Pedestrian-vehicle accidents account for the second largest source of automotive related fatality and injury worldwide. This paper presents a system which detects and tracks pedestrians in realtime for use with automotive Pedestrian Protection Systems (PPS) aimed at reducing such pedestrian-vehicle related injury. The system is based on a passive stereo vision configuration which segments a scene into 3D objects, classifies each object as pedestrian/non-pedestrian and finally tracks the pedestrian in 3D. Our system was implemented and tested on a Volvo test vehicle. Strong results for the system were obtained over a range of simple and complex environments, with average positive and false positive detection rates of 83.5% and 0.4% respectively.