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El proceso de paz en Irlanda del norte. ¿Ventana al proceso de paz en Colombia?

Puello Suco, Juan Carlos
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Dado el Proceso de Paz que se está llevando a cabo entre el Estado colombiano y la guerrilla de las FARC- EP, y la delicada situación por la que está atravesando, resulta pertinente investigar una referencia histórica y completa de un conflicto que logró concretar un proceso de paz con muchos obstáculos e intereses en disputa. El valor de revisar el caso de Irlanda del Norte yace en revisar y aprender cómo se negoció y se manejó el proceso tanto en la mesa de negociación como fuera de ella y los factores tanto internos como externos que afectaban el desarrollo y el ambiente del proceso de paz. Las continuas comparaciones entre el proceso de paz de Irlanda del Norte y el colombiano despiertan el interés de buscar en sus antecedentes similitudes y diferencias que permitan encontrar en la negociación del Proceso de Paz de Irlanda del Norte, lecciones claves para tener en cuenta en el presente proceso de paz que se está llevando a cabo en Colombia.; Since the peace process that is taking place between the Colombian government and the guerrillas of the FARC-EP and the delicate situation that is facing, it is pertinent to investigate a historical reference and complete of a conflict that managed to make a peace process with many obstacles and competing interests. The value of reviewing the case of Northern Ireland lies to review and learn how the process was negotiated and handled both the negotiating table and outside and both internal and external factors affecting the development environment and peace process. Continuous comparisons between the peace process in Northern Ireland and the Colombian...

Post-Conflict Justice and Sustainable Peace

Lie, Tove Grete; Binningsbø, Helga Malmin; Gates, Scott
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
No systematic study has examined the effect of post-conflict justice on the duration of peace on a global basis. This paper attempts to fill that void by building on a newly constructed dataset (Binningsbo, Elster, and Gates 2005), which reports the presence of various forms of post-conflict justice efforts (trials, purges, reparation to victims, and truth commissions) as well as processes associated with abstaining from post-conflict justice (amnesty and exile). It investigates the long-term effects of post-conflict justice on the duration of peace after conflict. It uses a Cox proportional hazard model to analyze the influence of the various types of post-conflict justice on the length of the peace period before the recurrence of violent conflict. Post-conflict trials as well as other types of justice do lead to a more durable peace in democratic as well as non-democratic societies, but the results are weak and are therefore difficult to generalize. Forms of non-retributive justice (that is, reparations to victims and truth commissions)...

Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of United Nations Peace Operations

Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.32%
Earlier studies have shown that United Nations peace operations make a positive contribution to peacebuilding efforts after civil wars. But do these effects carry over to the period after the peacekeepers leave? And how do the effects of UN peace operations interact with other determinants of peacebuilding in the long run? The author addresses these questions using a revised version of the Doyle and Sambanis dataset and applying different estimation methods to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of UN peace missions. He finds that UN missions have robust, positive effects on peacebuilding in the short term. UN missions can help parties implement peace agreements but the UN cannot fight wars, and UN operations contribute more to the quality of the peace where peace is based on participation, than to the longevity of the peace, where peace is simply the absence of war. The effects of UN missions are also felt in the long run, but they dissipate over time. What is missing in UN peacebuilding is a strategy to foster the self-sustaining economic growth that could connect increased participation with sustainable peace.

The Dynamics of Conflict, Development Assistance and Peace-Building : Sri Lanka 2000-05

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Significant transformations in the socio-political and economic landscape of Sri Lanka in recent years encouraged five development partners-World Bank, Asia Foundation, and the governments of the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Sweden to collaborate on a conflict assessment in 2005. This reflects a growing trend in the development partner community of combining efforts, pooling resources, and taking advantage of comparative strengths to engage in conflict analysis exercises. The multi-donor conflict assessment revisits the underlying structures of conflict, identified in the previous conflict assessment, and explores the current dynamics of conflict factors with a particular focus on the peace process and international engagement. This note presents key findings of the assessment, in particular, the approaches supported by development partners in Sri Lanka. While this is drawn solely from the Sri Lanka experience, it is likely to have a broad relevance to many such countries.

Conflict and recovery in Aceh : an assessment of conflict dynamics and options for supporting the peace process

Barron, Patrick; Clark, Samuel; Daud, Muslahuddin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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On August 15th the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) signed a Memorandum of Understanding aimed at ending almost 30 years of armed conflict in Aceh. This note summarizes the results of a rapid conflict assessment prepared by the Bank to understand conflict dynamics, to analyze possible scenarios after signing of the agreement, and to identify tools and mechanisms that the government, donors, and other stakeholders could use to support the peace process. The assessment was carried out from July 26 to August 19, 2005.

Colombia - Development and Peace in the Magdalena Medio Region

Arboleda, Jairo; Garfield, Elsie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.26%
The Program for Development and Peace in Magdalena Medio, supported by a Bank Learning and Innovation Loan, promotes a community-based participatory approach to development and peace in one of the most conflictive regions of Colombia. With a heavy emphasis on the strengthening of social capital and productive sub-projects, the Project offers important lessons on development interventions in conflict-affected regions.

Peace interventions in the South Pacific: lessons from Bougainville and Solomon Islands

Hegarty, David
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 159919 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction: Internal conflict has become the predominant threat to the security and stability of many of the small island nations of the Southwest Pacific and particularly in the countries of Melanesia. Since the late 1980s, conflicts of varying causes and degrees of intensity have occurred in Papua New Guinea (Bougainville secession attempt), Fiji (coups and attempted coups), Vanuatu (police rebellion) and Solomon Islands (ethnic conflict and coup). These events have seriously debilitated the already fragile national economies and polities of all countries, so much so in the Solomon Islands that that country is now being described by many analysts as a failing, if not failed, state. While most of these countries have so far been able (not without difficulty) to maintain a measure of state integrity, the situation in Solomon Islands has become so precarious that Australia and New Zealand (with the support of most Pacific Island governments and anticipating a request from the Solomons parliament) are preparing to intervene in an attempt to restore the rule of law and rebuild administrative institutions. The form of that intervention is not yet clear - it is thought likely to include up to 2,000 armed military and police with a large team of civilian technical personnel nor has a mandate been determined. In this context a host of questions arises as to how best to resolve...

Die Bedeutung der Art der Konfliktbearbeitung für die Befriedung von Bürgerkriegsgesellschaften am Beispiel von Angola und El Salvador; The significance of the kind of the treatment of conflicts for the pacification of civil war societies by the example of Angola and El Salvador

Reiber, Tatjana
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: ResearchPaper
DE_DE
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Die Studie versucht, die Hypothese eines kausalen Zusammenhanges zwischen der Art der Konfliktbearbeitung und dauerhaftem Frieden anhand der Fälle Angola und El Salvador zu plausibilisieren werden. Sie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass eine Kovarianz zwischen unabhängiger und abhängiger Variable vorliegt: Während die abkommensorientierte Konfliktbearbeitung in Angola zu keinem dauerhaften Frieden führte, folgte eben dieser auf die transformationsorientierte Konfliktbearbeitung in El Salvador. Diese Annahme konnte durch die Darstellung kausaler Zusammenhänge sowie die ansatzweise durchgeführte Prozessanalyse weiter gestützt werden, die zeigte, dass einige der aufgeführten Kausalmechanismen in Angola und El Salvador zu beobachten waren.; The paper explores the question why peace processes succeed or fail. As a starting point for answering this puzzle, I argue that the form of an intervention is a crucial factor to explain the success or failure of a peace agreement. Thus, approaches focussing on conflict settlement are considered to be less likely to lead to an enduring peace than approaches focussing on conflict transformation. In order to enhance the plausibility of this hypothesis, I examine two cases of civil wars which were managed in different ways: (1) the civil war in Angola; (2) the civil war in El Salvador. The result of the comparative case study confirms the hypothesis: the conflict-settlement approach in Angola did not lead to an enduring peace...

Oslo and the Middle East Peace process : the negotiating dilemma; NA

Chatham, Robert L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xi, 75 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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With the increased threat posed by terrorism and the growth of rogue states' the importance of achieving a lasting peace in the Middle East is greater than ever. However, the peace begun in Madrid in 1991 and marked by the historic 1993 Oslo Accord between Israel and the PLO has floundered. This thesis provides a means for understanding the failure of the current peace process by analyzing why Israel and the PLO agreed to the terms of Oslo. While Israel was motivated by the opportunity to solve its security and political dilemmas on acceptable terms, the PLO was motivated primarily by concerns of organizational survival. The Oslo process departs from other successful settlements in two ways. First, Oslo focused on short-term arrangements, without consensus on the nature of the final outcome. An examination of successful settlements shows that the parties agreed to the outlines of a final settlement prior to commencing formal negotiations. Second, the vast imbalance of power between the two parties has made Oslo a hegemonic peace, which itself perpetuates instability in both the weaker and stronger states. Only parties enjoying a relative balance of power have concluded successful peace settlements in the Middle East. Given these structural anomalies...

Squaring the circle: attemptimg peace in Northern Ireland

Marchi, Gina A
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
ENG
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56.26%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle.' During the latest phase of the Troubles, from 1968 to 1996, there have been many attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland by creating a negotiated settlement, but none has worked. This thesis compares two of the most significant attempts, the first in 1973 and the second in 1993, to evaluate prospects for peace in the future. Although the goals of both attempts were the same (a devolved government, economic recovery, and the cessation of terrorist violence), a comparison shows important differences in the political atmosphere and style of the peace process, effected especially by the changing role of the Irish Republican Army's political wing, Sinn Fein, and the intervention of third party mediators; http://archive.org/details/squaringcircleat00marc

Colombia : Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development

Solimano, Andres
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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A purpose of this book is to present recent World Bank analytical work on the causes of violence and conflict in Colombia, highlighting pilot lending programs oriented to promote peace and development. The Bank's international experiences in post-conflict situations in different countries and their relevance for Colombia are also examined in this volume. The identification of socio-economic determinants of conflict, violence, and reforms for peace came about as a key element of the Bank's assistance strategy for Colombia, defined in conjunction with government authorities and representatives of civil society. This report is organized as follows: After the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides a conceptual framework for understanding a broad spectrum of political, economic, and social violence issues; identifies the role played by both the country's history and the unequal access to economic and political power in the outbreak and resilience of political violence; and examines as costs of violence the adverse impact on Colombia's physical...

Colombia - Peace Programmatic I : Demobilization and Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants in Colombia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report presents the results of the study on the demobilization and reinsertion of excombatants from illegal armed groups in Colombia. The report describes and analyzes the Colombian case, compares it with international experience, discusses critical issues of the current program, and presents options to improve its design and implementation. The study responds to a request by the Colombian government to conduct an assessment of the previous and current approaches to demobilization and reinsertion in Colombia and, in light of national and international experience, to present options to improve the program. This study relied principally on secondary data and information from existing studies, essays, and press articles produced by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, United Nations and bilateral agencies, specialized analysts, and media. The analysis also used primary information collected for the study, including: (1) information from interviews with government and non-government sources about the current condition of individuals demobilized during the 1990s; (2) the profiles of a sample of young excombatants (18-26 years old) enrolled in the current reinsertion program in Medellin and Bogota; (3) the assessment of the demobilization and reinsertion experience of the 1990s as viewed by leaders of existing foundations from four of the demobilized groups; and (4) a special work session held with 50 representatives from diverse private-sector associations and businesses. This study assesses Colombia's experience using a framework of five interwoven phases from armed conflict to peace: prevention...

Partial Peace Rebel Groups Inside and Outside Civil War Ssettlements

Nilsson, Desirée
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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46.33%
Previous research proposes that peace is more likely to become durable if all rebel groups are included in the settlement reached. The argument implies that if actors are excluded and continue to pursue the military course, this could have a destabilizing effect on the actors that have signed an agreement. This article argues that all-inclusive peace deals - signed by the government and all rebel groups - are not the panacea for peace that many seem to believe. Given that the parties are strategic actors who are forward-looking when making their decisions, the signatories should anticipate that the excluded parties may continue to fight. Therefore, the risk of violent challenges from outside actors is likely to already be factored into the decision-making calculus when the signatories decide to reach a deal, and so does not affect their commitment to peace. Implications from this theoretical argument are tested using unique data on the conflict behavior of the government and each of the rebel groups in internal armed conflicts during the post-Cold War period. The results are well in line with the theoretical expectations and show that whether an agreement leaves out some actor does not affect whether the signatories stick to peace. The results demonstrate that even when excluded rebel groups engage in conflict...

Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration : Somalia Militia

Morse, Ted
Fonte: World Bank, Nairobi Publicador: World Bank, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Somalia has been plagued by instability for most of its 45-year history. After more than fourteen failed attempts at peace to build a new central government, the current (2002-2005) National Reconciliation and Peace Process, Somalia is still fractured. Multiple militias make the capital, Mogadishu and several key regional centers, insecure. However, there is great pressure to succeed at peace this time. Negotiations of differences continue and self-help is evident. The transition to a new central government is a fluctuating work in progress. Continued existence of an estimated 53,000 militia constrains state building and sets the requirement for (Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration) DDR. The usual application of the DDR concept does not fit Somalia's unique situation in regard to militias. Few will be totally disarmed and important types of militia probably will not be disbanded. Many militiamen do not need to be reintegrated into their home communities, as they are already by the very nature of the fighting...

La sociedad civil en la disputa por la paz Balance de su participación en el proceso de paz de San Vicente del Caguán

Benavides Torres, Javier Andrés
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
A propósito de la Mesa de Diálogos en la Habana, Cuba entre las FARC-EP y el Gobierno colombiano y los posibles acercamientos con otras fuerzas insurgentes (ELN Y EPL), es necesario hacer un balance de experiencias anteriores, esclareciendo aciertos y dificultades, por lo cual, este trabajo analiza los antecedentes y desarrollo de la participación popular en los diálogos de paz en San Vicente del Caguán (1998-2000). Partiendo por caracterizar y problematizar el concepto de sociedad civil como campo de disputa, así como también, dilucidando su papel y relacionamiento con diversos actores y contextos del conflicto armado colombiano, para con ello, evaluar críticamente su participación en el marco del acercamiento y la negociación como tal, desarrollada durante dicho escenario de conversaciones. Considerando así, el papel del estamento militar y la cercanía institucional de diversos actores, que componen la denominada sociedad civil, como aquellos limitantes de la actuación de un parangón diverso de actores en el proceso. Tal cuestión permite en buena medida, abonar terreno para la discusión continúa sobre la naturaleza y el quehacer de la sociedad civil antes, durante y después de un proceso de paz como el que actualmente se encuentra en curso.; Within the framework of the peace process wich is developing in Cuba between FARC-EP and the colombian government and the possible approaches with other insurgent forces as ELN and EPL...

Análisis de la incidencia de los factores militares y los factores políticos en el fallo del proceso de paz del Caguán entre el gobierno colombiano y las Farc-Ep, periodo 1998-2002

López Narváez, Yeinner Andrés
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno Publicador: Facultad de Ciencia Política y Gobierno
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2013 SPA
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Esta monografía ofrece un análisis encaminado a revisar la incidencia de factores militares y políticos en el fallo del proceso de negociación del Caguán. Considera que la relación entre estos dos elementos y el fallo del proceso no han sido suficientemente estudiados por los analistas, ya que el examen de otros fenómenos ha desviado la atención de los analistas acerca de la importancia de estos elementos contextuales en la respuesta positiva o negativa de un proceso de paz. La primera parte de la monografía estará enfocada en estudiar las condiciones militares relacionadas con el escalonamiento del conflicto en el fallo del proceso de paz. La segunda parte evaluará las condiciones políticas, asociadas a la legitimidad, incidentes en el fallo del proceso. El artículo encuentra que hay una relación intrínseca entre la decisión de cancelar las negociaciones y las condiciones en las cuales esta se presenta. Finalmente, la conclusión da un marco contextual de análisis del fallo del proceso de paz.; This monograph provides an analysis aimed at reviewing the impact of political and military factors in the failure of the peace process Caguán. It considers the relationship between these two elements and the failure of the process have not been sufficiently studied by analysts. The focus onother phenomena or elements has diverted attention from analysts about the importance of these contextual elements in the positive or negative response to a peace process.The first part of the monograph will focus on studying these political conditions associated with the legitimacy in the failure incidents in the process. The second part will assess the relationship of the military conditions related to the “escalating conflict” with the failure of the peace process. It finds that there is an intrinsic relationship between the president's decision to finish the negotiations and the conditions under which it is presented. Finally...

Supporting Nepal?s Peace Process: From Conflict to Constituent Assembly; Special evening lecture for the Britain-Nepal Academic Council

Martin, Ian
Fonte: Britain-Nepal Academic Council Publicador: Britain-Nepal Academic Council
Tipo: Áudio
EN
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66.38%
The Britain-Nepal Academic Council was established on 23 May 2000 at a large meeting at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London of British academics and researchers interested in various aspects of Nepal.; Nepal?s political and civil society leaders are rightly credited with a remarkable nationally-owned peace process. From 2003 onwards, the United Nations began its support through a low-key good offices role to encourage an end to the armed conflict. In 2005, the UN role expanded with the establishment of a large human rights monitoring operation (OHCHR-Nepal), which sought to mitigate abuses on both sides of the war and to defend democratic rights as the people?s movement intensified. After the ceasefire, the first interim government and the Maoists asked the UN to monitor commitments regarding arms and armed personnel under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and to assist in holding the election of a Constituent Assembly. To this end, the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) was established in January 2007 by the UN Security Council. As consensus among the parties broke down after the Maoists? electoral success, the UN role was drawn into increasing controversy, and today Nepal and the UN face a possible crisis around the imminent deadline for the new constitution. In his talk...

(Un)settlement: political parody and the Northern Irish peace processDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n58p191

Phelan, Mark; Queen's University Belfast
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR
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This essay examines Tim Loane's political comedies, Caught Red-Handed and To Be Sure, and their critique of the Northern Irish peace process. As "parodies of esteem", both plays challenge the ultimate electoral victors of the peace process (the Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Féin) as well as critiquing the cant, chicanery and cynicism that have characterised their political rhetoric and the peace process as a whole. This essay argues that Loane's transformation of these comedic pantomime horses into Trojan ones loaded with a ruthless polemical critique of our ruling political elites is all the more important in the context of a self-censoring media that has stifled dissent and debate by protecting the peace process from inconvenient truths. From these close and contextual readings of Loane's plays, wider issues relating to the political efficacy of comedy and its canonical relegation below 'higher forms' in Irish theatre historiography will also be considered.

European Union foreign policy and the Middle East peace process: 1991-2002.

Musu, Costanza
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis analyses European Union foreign policy towards the Middle East peace process in the years between 1991-2002: it examines in which measure disagreement has characterised relations among Member States in the context of the formulation of a European Middle East policy, and if it's possible to detect a trend towards the attainment of a broadly speaking "European perception" of the Arab-Israeli problem and of the policy Europe should adopt. The question at the heart of the thesis is: why has the EU spent so much time on Middle East policy, to so little effect. A set of possible answers has been tested: o due to the failure in reaching a sufficiently convergent approach among EU members o the EU lacks the relevant levers and instruments to affect the Middle East peace process o strategic US interests in the Middle East and the dynamics of EU-US relations have relegated the EU to a secondary role in the Middle East peace process The thesis argues that Member States' policy differences are being watered down through the practice of discussions aimed at the elaboration of a common European foreign policy, but that at the same time the Member States have only occasionally been able to identify common interests in a number sufficient to encourage the implementation of a collective European policy...

The transition from war to peace: politics, political space and the peace process industry in Mozambique, 1992-1995

Ebata, Joanne Michi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 EN
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The 'peace process' is a common expression in international politics. It describes and explains events in seemingly disparate locations as Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Southern Africa, which share only the common occurrence of violent conflict. One outstanding feature of these peace processes is the active participation of international actors or external 'third parties'. Whether they are states, international organisations or nongovernmental organisations, these external actors comprise an industry focussed on the peace process. However, in providing assistance to countries making the transition from war to peace, as an industry these external third parties often reconfigure the political space of host societies in a manner which frustrates the intended goal of attaining peace. The following analysis focuses on the process of implementing a comprehensive peace settlement to show how the peace process industry operates, using the case of Mozambique. The Mozambican peace process was selected because it is generally presented as a success which justifies similar activities in future cases. Therefore it is crucial to examine whether the intervention was a success, what kind of success and a success for whom. As Mozambique was inundated with international actors engaged in all kinds of activities...