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Dinâmica das relações entre Ciência e Tecnologia: estudo Bibliométrico e Cientométrico de múltiplos indicadores de artigos e patentes em biodiesel; Dynamics of the connection between science and technology: a study bibliometric and scientometric of multiple indicators of papers and patents in biodiesel.

Maricato, João de Melo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2010 PT
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37.37%
Analisa as relações entre a Produção Científica (artigos) e Produção Tecnológica (patentes) em biodiesel, por meio de métodos e técnicas bibliométricas e cientométricas, investigando interações entre a Ciência e a Tecnologia (C&T). Objetivo: compreender a dinâmica das relações entre a Ciência e a Tecnologia em biodiesel e investigar o potencial de contribuição da Bibliometria e da Cientometria para a análise integrada de indicadores de Produção Científica (artigos) e de Produção Tecnológica (patentes). Método: Recuperação de artigos científicos nas bases de dados SciELO e SCI e documentos de patentes na DII, relacionados ao biodiesel, abrangendo o período entre 2000 e 2007. Construção de múltiplos indicadores bibliométricos e cientométricos (produtividade, assuntos, matérias-primas, atividades colaborativas, citações) segmentando-os por países, organizações e suas tipologias: Instituições de Ensino e Institutos Públicos de Pesquisa (IEIPPs) e Empresas e Institutos Privados de Pesquisa (EIPP). Análise isolada da Produção Científica e da Produção Tecnológica e proposta de análise integrada entre as mesmas. Resultados: Foram publicados 885 artigos e registradas 612 patentes no período. Com a análise isolada de cada uma das produções foi possível identificar relações entre a Ciência e a Tecnologia. Quanto a Produção Científica constatou-se: 13% das organizações da categoria EIPPs publicaram artigos; todos os assuntos que ocorrem em IEIPPs também ocorrem em EIPPs; 32% das matérias-primas ocorrem em ambos os tipos de organizações (IEIPPs e EIPPs); houve 6...

A regulamentação internacional das patentes e sua contribuição para o processo de desenvolvimento do Brasil: análise da produção nacional de novos conhecimentos no setor farmacêutico; The international regulation of patents and its contribution to the development of Brazil: analysis of the local production of knowledge in the pharmaceutical sector.

Rosina, Monica Steffen Guise
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Uma das características mais marcantes da propriedade intelectual é a tensão existente entre interesses público e privado. Na seara das patentes, essa tensão se torna ainda mais evidente quando o objeto da propriedade privada é essencial à consecução de objetivos sociais, como é o claro caso dos medicamentos. Concebida para fomentar a inovação, oferecendo um crescente número de soluções aos problemas enfrentados pela sociedade, a patente deve servir de incentivo à atividade inventiva. Isso ocorre por meio do período de exclusividade concedido ao inventor, durante o qual somente ele está autorizado a explorar comercialmente o produto de seus esforços. Quando se trata de bens essenciais à manutenção da vida dos indivíduos, entretanto, a análise se torna mais complexa. Preços monopolísticos podem impedir o acesso a determinadas drogas e inviabilizar políticas de saúde pública, por exemplo. É o custo social de um sistema de proteção fundado no monopólio de exploração. A ausência de incentivos, entretanto, leva à ausência de investimentos em produtos inovadores (veja-se o claro exemplo das doenças negligenciadas), o que, por sua vez, também gera um custo social. Existe equilíbrio possível a essa equação? Ao regular como o conhecimento é compartilhado...

The Negatvity of Patents on R&D Investment. A Panel Data Analysis

Almeida, Alexandre Filipe Silveira de
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The relationship between patents and R&D involves different levels besides the ones most obvious to us. Throughout the history of economics, patents have arisen as the core of a system of incentives to private pursue of R&D investments, providing the mechanism that guaranteed the appropriability of the output of the knowledge produced. The seminal work of Romer (1990) demonstrated the need to develop a system to assure the necessary return on innovative efforts and thus privately sustain a model of continuous technological improvement and economic growth. Patenting would result in imperfect competition and legally establish the monopoly over the use of the knowledge produced. This led to patents being perceived as an intermediate output of R&D efforts. Though this relationship has been subject of intensive study by economists, the reverse causality issue remains to be thoroughly analyzed, particularly in a negative sense. Can more patents have a negative effect on R&D investment? In the present thesis we address this question, synthesizing the theoretical and empirical studies concerning both the conventional R&D-patents relationship and the reverse causality, in particular, the potential for a negative impact of patents over R&D. The theoretical survey on this issue uncovered several gaps in the literature...

Putting Patents in Context:Exploring Knowledge Transfer from MIT

Agrawal, Ajay; Henderson, Rebecca
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 203587 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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In this paper we explore the degree to which patents are representative of the magnitude, direction, and impact of the knowledge spilling out of the university by focusing on MIT, and in particular on the departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Drawing on both qualitative and quantitative data, we show that patenting is a minority activity: a majority of the faculty in our sample never patent, and publication rates far outstrip patenting rates. Most faculty members estimate that patents account for less than 10% of the knowledge that transfers from their labs. Our results also suggest that in two important ways patenting is not representative of the patterns of knowledge generation and transfer from MIT: patent volume does not predict publication volume, and those firms that cite MIT papers are in general not the same firms as those that cite MIT patents. However, patent volume is positively correlated with paper citations, suggesting that patent counts may be reasonable measures of research impact. We close by speculating on the implications of our results for the difficult but important question of whether, in this setting, patenting acts as a substitute or a complement to the process of fundamental research.; MIT Center for Innovation in Product Development under NSF Cooperative Agreement Number EEC-9529140 and the Center for Knowledge-Based Enterprises at Queen’s University

How Gene Patents May Inhibit Scientific Research

Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Chan, Tiffany
Fonte: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM) Publicador: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dans cet article, nous mettons en évidence trois façons dont les brevets sur les gènes pourraient nuire à la recherche scientifique. Premièrement, les lois relatives aux brevets sur les gènes risquent d’exacerber la culture du secret omniprésente en science. Deuxièmement, sans un accès à toutes les étiologies génétiques, les brevets sur les gènes peuvent limiter la capacité des chercheurs à étudier les maladies poly ou multigénétiques. Troisièmement, les brevets sur les gènes pourraient aboutir à un « maquis de brevets ».; In this paper, we point out three possible ways gene patents could impede scientific research. First, gene patent laws might exacerbate the culture of secrecy ubiquitous in science. Second, gene patents may limit researchers’ ability to study poly or multigenic diseases without access to all genetic etiologies. Third, gene patents could result in a “patent thicket”.; Commentaire / Commentary

Pharmaceutical Patents and Prices : A Preliminary Empirical Assessment Using Data from India

Duggan, Mark; Goyal, Aparajita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The enforcement of stringent intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical sector of developing countries generates considerable controversy, due to both the extensive research investment and the public policy importance of this sector. This paper explores the likely effects of enforcing product patents on prices and utilization of drugs in the Central Nervous System market in India. The Central Nervous System segment is the second largest therapeutic category in terms of retail sales in the world and is one of the fastest growing segments in India. Using information on product patents granted by the government and panel data on pharmaceutical prices and utilization from 2003-2008, the paper finds limited evidence of overall price increase following the introduction of product patents. However, there appear to be heterogeneous effects on prices by the type of product patent granted on drugs, implying the need for a careful examination of the product patent portfolio.

Do Patent Systems Improve Economic Well-Being? An Exploration of the Inventiveness of Business Method Patents

Moir, Hazel V J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
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The reach of the patent system has substantially broadened in recent decades. Subject matter extensions were not introduced by parliaments, but by individual judges considering specific cases, often between private parties. The focus in this thesis is whether these changes create a net economic benefit to society. Because of the lack of data on patents, it is not possible to address this question directly. The thesis therefore focuses on a critical aspect of patents: their inventiveness. ¶ The main contribution of this thesis is a detailed empirical assessment of the inventiveness of patents. This assessment breaks new ground by using the actual claims in the patent specification as the basis for a qualitative assessment against the yardstick of whether there is any new contribution to knowledge. This yardstick is used because a key social benefit from private invention is the spillovers from new knowledge. In addition a low inventive threshold encourages monopoly grants for inventions that would have occurred absent patents, and thus increases social costs without any offsetting benefits. ¶ ...

Knowledge spillovers in U.S. patents: a dynamic patent intensity model with secret common innovation factors

Blazsek, Szabolcs; Escribano, Álvaro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
During the past two decades, innovations protected by patents have played a key role in business strategies. This fact enhanced studies of the determinants of patents and the impact of patents on innovation and competitive advantage. Sustaining competitive advantages is as important as creating them. Patents help sustaining competivite advantages by increasing the production cost of competitors, by signaling a better quality of products and by serving as barriers to entry. If patents are rewards for innovation, more R&D should be reflected in more patents applications but this is not the end of the story. There is empirical evidence showing that patents through time are becoming easier to get and more valuable to the firm due to increasing damage awards from infringers. These facts question the constant and static nature of the relationship between R&D and patents. Furthermore, innovation creates important knowledge spillovers due to its imperfect appropriability. Our paper investigates these dynamic effects using U.S. patent data from 1979 to 2000 with alternative model specifications for patent counts. We introduce a general dynamic count panel data model with dynamic observable and unobservable spillovers, which encompasses previous models...

Innovation through pertinent patents research based on physical phenomena involved

VALVERDE, Ulises; NADEAU, Jean-Pierre; SCARAVETTI, Dominique; LEON, Jean-François
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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One can find innovative solutions to complex industrial problems by looking for knowledge in patents. Traditional search using keywords in databases of patents has been widely used. Currently, different computational methods that limit human intervention have been developed. We aim to define a method to improve the search for relevant patents in order to solve industrial problems and specifically to deduce evolution opportunities. The non-automatic, semi-automatic, and automatic search methods use keywords. For a detailed keyword search, we propose as a basis the functional decomposition and the analysis of the physical phenomena involved in the achievement of the function to fulfill. The search for solutions to design a bi-phasic separator in deep offshore shows the method presented in this paper.

Have Business Method Patents Gotten a Bum Rap? Some Empirical Evidence

Hunter, Starling David, III
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 239476 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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This study presents the results of an empirical test of two hypotheses concerning the quality of a group of data processing patents on methods of doing business. The hypotheses are motivated by two frequently voiced criticisms of these patents: that their scope is overly broad and that they cite too little "prior art" (the extant body of knowledge or the array of prior solutions to the problem which the patented invention purports to solve). Using a sample of over 3,500 data processing, software, and internet patents granted between 1975-1999, I tested the two hypotheses with three patent statistics - the number of patent and non-patent prior art citations and the number of claims. In short, I find little support for the "conventional wisdom" concerning patents on methods of doing business. More specifically, I find that these patents neither cite less patent or non-patent prior nor make more claims While these findings don't completely exonerate business method patents of the charges of inferior quality...

Patents and Trademarks: empirical evidence on 'evergreening' from Australia

Moir, Hazel V J; Palombi, Luigi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 55 pages
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Evergreening is a strategy employed by pharmaceutical companies to extend patent protection around their branded medicines beyond 25 years. It involves claiming modifications to the original active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as separate "inventions" to extend the period during which pharmaceutically equivalent products are denied market entry. Evergreening refers only to patents taken out by the company owning the original API. Similar improvement/modification patents taken out by other entities are referred to as secondary patents. Such delayed or reduced competition translates into an increase in the cost of healthcare. Brand pharmaceutical companies, of course, argue that these "lifecycle management" patents provide improved health outcomes to the community. They meet the (low) patentability thresholds of novelty, inventiveness and utility. Critics argue that the claimed improved health outcomes are usually either very small or non-existent. If the improved health outcome is negligible the evergreening patents incur a social cost rather than providing a social benefit, as the healthcare costs associated with delayed generic entry are large. This paper complements the existing empirical evidence by providing an in-depth analysis of a small number of Australian cases where evergreening of brand medicines has occurred. With two exceptions...

A contentious business : industrial patents and the production of isotopes, 1930-1960

Turchetti, Simone
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper analyses the role that patents played in the establishment of the isotope industry. In the first part I survey the number of issued patents on the production of isotopes, also arguing that the isotope industry was typified by inadequate patenting activities. Then I examine the factors that hindered these activities by looking at the history of industrial patents in the establishment of the isotope industry. I especially focus on the consequences of the Manhattan Project on patent legislation. As the Atomic Energy Act (1946) made the isotope industry a monopoly of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), it contributed to transform the trading of its relevant patents in a «contentious» business. Since then, inventors and assignors already in possession of isotope production patents could only claim compensation to the AEC, which was authorised to seize them. And those who might have outlined new inventions were now deprived of the economic incentive to do so, being prohibited from free-trading them in the international market.

Regulation and the circulation of knowledge : Penicillin patents in Spain

Romero de Pablos, Ana
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

La Radioactivitat a les patents d'invenció espanyoles, 1900-1929

Herran, Néstor
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 CAT
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This paper explores the use of patents as a source for the history of science by focusing on radioactivity-related patents issued in Spain in the period 1900-1936. The relevance of this source and its coherence with other historical records is particularly assessed, as well as practical aspects related to its access, analysis and interpretation. The study, mainly based on the analysis of the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) database, reveals major trends in the uses of radioactive elements as industrial products and confirms the lack of a national industry of radium

Information extraction from chemical patents

Jessop, David M
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemistry; Fitzwilliam College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemistry; Fitzwilliam College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
The automated extraction of semantic chemical data from the existing literature is demonstrated. For reasons of copyright, the work is focused on the patent literature, though the methods are expected to apply equally to other areas of the chemical literature. Hearst Patterns are applied to the patent literature in order to discover hyponymic relations describing chemical species. The acquired relations are manually validated to determine the precision of the determined hypernyms (85.0%) and of the asserted hyponymic relations (94.3%). It is demonstrated that the system acquires relations that are not present in the ChEBI ontology, suggesting that it could function as a valuable aid to the ChEBI curators. The relations discovered by this process are formalised using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to enable re-use. PatentEye ? an automated system for the extraction of reactions from chemical patents and their conversion to Chemical Markup Language (CML) ? is presented. Chemical patents published by the European Patent Office over a ten-week period are used to demonstrate the capability of PatentEye ? 4444 reactions are extracted with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra are extracted from the text using OSCAR3...

O instituto de patentes Pipeline e o acesso a medicamentos: aspectos econômicos e jurídicos deletérios à economia da saúde; Pipeline patents and access to drugs: economic and legal aspects deleterious to health economy

Hasenclever, Lia; Lopes, Rodrigo; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Reis, Renata; Vieira, Marcela Fogaça
Fonte: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Direito Sanitário da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Núcleo de Pesquisa em Direito Sanitário da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; AVALIADOS PELOS PARES; ; ; ; ; Peer-reviewed Article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
A criação da OMC trouxe consigo uma série de acordos multilaterais, entre os quais o Acordo TRIPS que regula temas relacionados à propriedade intelectual. A partir de sua adoção, estabeleceu-se um "padrão mínimo" de proteção, incluindo a ampliação do escopo de patenteabilidade para todos os campos tecnológicos. O Brasil, ao buscar adequar-se ao TRIPS, foi além das obrigações assumidas ao incluir o instituto conhecido como patentes pipeline: um dispositivo temporário por meio do qual foram aceitos depósitos de patentes em campos tecnológicos não reconhecidos anteriormente, entre os quais o setor farmacêutico. Por este instituto, foram realizados 1.182 pedidos, entre os quais se encontram vários medicamentos que hoje são fundamentais para o enfrentamento de problemas de saúde pública. O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir patentes pipeline a partir de duas perspectivas: da economia da saúde e do direito. Do lado econômico, o artigo traz um estudo do cálculo econômico de um sobrepreço que o Brasil pagou por medicamentos de AIDS, sem contrapartida de aumento de investimento em P&D. Do lado do direito, observa-se que o instituto das patentes pipeline viola uma série de princípios constitucionais e também tratados internacionais dos quais o Brasil é signatário. Ao final...

A contentious business: Industrial patents and the production of isotopes, 1930-1960

Turchetti,Simone
Fonte: Dynamis Publicador: Dynamis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
This paper analyses the role that patents played in the establishment of the isotope industry. In the first part I survey the number of issued patents on the production of isotopes, also arguing that the isotope industry was typified by inadequate patenting activities. Then I examine the factors that hindered these activities by looking at the history of industrial patents in the establishment of the isotope industry. I especially focus on the consequences of the Manhattan Project on patent legislation. As the Atomic Energy Act (1946) made the isotope industry a monopoly of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), it contributed to transform the trading of its relevant patents in a "contentious" business. Since then, inventors and assignors already in possession of isotope production patents could only claim compensation to the AEC, which was authorised to seize them. And those who might have outlined new inventions were now deprived of the economic incentive to do so, being prohibited from free-trading them in the international market.

Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: Penicillin patents in Spain

Romero de Pablos,Ana
Fonte: Dynamis Publicador: Dynamis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

Research-tool patents: issues for health in the developing world

Barton,John H.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The patent system is now reaching into the tools of medical research, including gene sequences themselves. Many of the new patents can potentially preempt large areas of medical research and lay down legal barriers to the development of a broad category of products. Researchers must therefore consider redesigning their research to avoid use of patented techniques, or expending the effort to obtain licences from those who hold the patents. Even if total licence fees can be kept low, there are enormous negotiation costs, and one "hold-out" may be enough to lead to project cancellation. This is making it more difficult to conduct research within the developed world, and poses important questions for the future of medical research for the benefit of the developing world. Probably the most important implication for health in the developing world is the possible general slowing down and complication of medical research. To the extent that these patents do slow down research, they weaken the contribution of the global research community to the creation and application of medical technology for the benefit of developing nations. The patents may also complicate the granting of concessional prices to developing nations - for pharmaceutical firms that seek to offer a concessional price may have to negotiate arrangements with research-tool firms...

Ownership of knowledge: the role of patents in pharmaceutical R&D

Correa,Carlos María
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Both the public and the private sectors contribute to research and development (R&D) in pharmaceuticals. The public sector originates many of the discoveries of new drugs. The private sector, which focuses on development, is heavily reliant on patents. Though patents are presumed to reward genuine inventions, lax rules on patentability and shortcomings in procedures permit protection to be obtained on a myriad of minor developments. These patents, though weak and possibly invalid in many cases, are used to restrain competition and delay the entry of generic competition. Developing countries should design and implement their patent laws so as to prevent strategic patenting and promote competition and access to medicines.