Página 1 dos resultados de 297 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Profile of medicinal plants utilization through patent documents: the andiroba example

Amaral,Luciene F. Gaspar; Fierro,Iolanda M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Today, one of the trends of the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food market is the development of products with components of natural origin, rationally exploiting biodiversity. Brazilian population makes secular use of medicinal plants including andiroba, whose oil is used in folk medicine as febrifuge, pain-relieving, anti-parasitic, anti-allergic as well as insect repellant. The present study attempts to evaluate the profile of utilization of andiroba by analyzing the patenting trends based on information collected on the databases of the World Intellectual Property Organization, European Patent Office and Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property in the period from 1990 to 2011. The following parameters were analyzed: chronological aspect of the applications, countries of priority, international patent classification, technologies and actors in the technological platform. The temporal analysis of the applications shows an evident increase despite a discontinuous evolution of the number of applications. Pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic areas were identified as the main areas for commercial application of the plant. Brazil is the country with the largest number of applications even though the majority of the patent technologies are already in public domain...

Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

Lira,Luiz Marcelo; Lourenço,Alexandre Lopes; Neves,Guilherme Ferreira; Sousa,Valéria Pereira de; Rodrigues,Carlos Rangel; Cabral,Lúcio Mendes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i) the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii) the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i) the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii) use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii) the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

Patome: a database server for biological sequence annotation and analysis in issued patents and published patent applications

Lee, Byungwook; Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Lee, Kwang H.; Lee, Doheon
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
With the advent of automated and high-throughput techniques, the number of patent applications containing biological sequences has been increasing rapidly. However, they have attracted relatively little attention compared to other sequence resources. We have built a database server called Patome, which contains biological sequence data disclosed in patents and published applications, as well as their analysis information. The analysis is divided into two steps. The first is an annotation step in which the disclosed sequences were annotated with RefSeq database. The second is an association step where the sequences were linked to Entrez Gene, OMIM and GO databases, and their results were saved as a gene–patent table. From the analysis, we found that 55% of human genes were associated with patenting. The gene–patent table can be used to identify whether a particular gene or disease is related to patenting. Patome is available at ; the information is updated bimonthly.

Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991–2008 have been examined using the “title–abstract” keyword search on esp@cenet “worldwide” database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People’s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant “home advantage.” The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices...

Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property

Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.

Patents on Technologies of Human Tissue and Organ Regeneration from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Parsons, Xuejun H; Teng, Yang D; Moore, Dennis A; Snyder, Evan Y
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are genetically stable with unlimited expansion ability and unrestricted plasticity, proffering a pluripotent reservoir for in vitro derivation of a large supply of disease-targeted human somatic cells that are restricted to the lineage in need of repair. There is a large healthcare need to develop hESC-based therapeutic solutions to provide optimal regeneration and reconstruction treatment options for the damaged or lost tissue or organ that have been lacking. In spite of controversy surrounding the ownership of hESCs, the number of patent applications related to hESCs is growing rapidly. This review gives an overview of different patent applications on technologies of derivation, maintenance, differentiation, and manipulation of hESCs for therapies. Many of the published patent applications have been based on previously established methods in the animal systems and multi-lineage inclination of pluripotent cells through spontaneous germ-layer differentiation. Innovative human stem cell technologies that are safe and effective for human tissue and organ regeneration in the clinical setting remain to be developed. Our overall view on the current patent situation of hESC technologies suggests a trend towards hESC patent filings on novel therapeutic strategies of direct control and modulation of hESC pluripotent fate...

US Alien Property Custodian patent documents: A legacy prior art collection from World War II - Part 2, statistics

White, Michael J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 183296 bytes; application/msword
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
This is the second part of a two-part article on the origins, history and profile of Alien Property Custodian (APC) documents during World War II. The APC was responsible for administering American property, including patents, seized from nationals of enemy and enemy-occupied countries. Part one covered the wartime organization and activities of the APC, vesting orders and the agency’s patent portfolio. Part two describes APC documents (patent applications published by U.S. Patent Office at the request of the APC), the national and technological profiles of these documents and snapshots of the inventors who lost and, in some cases, regained their patent rights. APC documents are a small and little known but historically important collection of prior art documents.

US Alien Property Custodian patent documents: A legacy prior art collection from World War II - Part 1, history.

White, Michael J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 76673 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
In 1943, at the height of World War II, the U.S. Patent Office, by the authorization of the Alien Property Custodian (APC), published 2,964 pending patent applications that had been seized from nationals of enemy and enemy-occupied countries. This unusual act—only in 2001 did the USPTO begin publishing some pending patent applications—was prompted by the APC’s wartime mandate to make enemy technology available to American industry. During and after the war many of these applications were issued as patents assigned to the APC. However, up to 58 percent were abandoned, becoming, in effect, orphan documents. APC documents, although they resemble contemporary patents and are granted prior art status by the USPTO, are virtually unknown today, even among patent professionals. This two-part paper investigates the origins, history and profile of this unique collection of prior art documents. Part one reviews the wartime organization and activities of the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, the agency responsible for the creation of APC documents, the use of vesting orders to seize patents and the APC’s patent portfolio. Part two describes applications published by the APC, their national and technological profiles, and snapshots of the inventors and companies who lost and...

Closed-loop compensation for kinematic error in harmonic driver for precision control applications

Ghorbel, Fathi Hassan; Ghandi, Prasanna S.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Nonlinear control algorithms to compensate for kinematic error in harmonic drives provide a solid basis to improve their performance of harmonic drives in precision positioning applications. The present closed loop control algorithms compensate for kinematic error irrespective of its form in both set-point and trajectory tracking applications.

Metal nanoshells for biosensing applications

West, Jennifer L.; Halas, Nancy J.; Oldenburg, Steven J.; Averitt, Richard D.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The present invention provides nanoshell particles (“nanoshells”) for use in biosensing applications, along with their manner of making and methods of using the nanoshells for in vitro and in vivo detection of chemical and biological analytes, preferably by surface enhanced Raman light scattering. The preferred particles have a non-conducting core and a metal shell surrounding the core. For given core and shell materials, the ratio of the thickness (i.e., radius) of the core to the thickness of the metal shell is determinative of the wavelength of maximum absorbance of the particle. By controlling the relative core and shell thicknesses, biosensing metal nanoshells are fabricated which absorb light at any desired wavelength across the ultraviolet to infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The surface of the particles are capable of inducing an enhanced SERS signal that is characteristic of an analyte of interest. In certain embodiments a biomolecule is conjugated to the metal shell and the SERS signal of a conformational change or a reaction product is detected.

Propensity to patent, R&D and market competition : dynamic spillovers of innovation leaders and followers

Blazsek, Szabolcs; Escribano, Álvaro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Dynamic interactions among stock return, Research and Development (R&D) expenses, patent applications based on R&D investment, and the propensity to patent are studied in this work for a panel of firms from the United States. The panel includes technologically similar firms, neck-to-neck, mostly from the drugs product-market sector. Firms’ propensity to patent is modeled by a dynamic latent-factor patent count data model that separates patented and non patented R&D. Patent innovation leader and follower firms are identified according to their knowledge stock. Significant and positive dynamic spillover effects are obtained among patent application leaders and followers. We observe that neck-to-neck firms in patent innovation activity produce an inverted-U relationship between market competition and innovation. Furthermore, firms’ propensity to patent is positively correlated with market competition and there is a positive feedback in both directions. Increasing the degree of competition in the market enhances innovation and patent applications, in order to help firms to appropriate part of the benefits of their R&D investments. On the other hand, firms by increasing their patent applications defend themselves from competitors, trying to improve their market share. However...

Does the Patent Cooperation Treaty work? A global analysis of patent applications by non-residents

NEPELSKI DANIEL; DE PRATO GIUDITTA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
We study drivers of international patent applications by non-residents and assess the importance of the PCT membership in their motivations. We construct bilateral measures of foreign patent applications for all countries active as both a source of patents and a destination of applications filed between 1970 and 2009. The data used originates from the EPO Patstat database. Applying a gravity model to explain the determinants of seeking patent protection in foreign markets, we find that there is a negative relationship between PCT membership and a country's attractiveness for foreign applicants. It is mainly the size of the market and a country's inventive capacity that attract foreign applicants to seek for patent protection in foreign countries.; JRC.J.3-Information Society

India's Journey Toward an Effective Patent System

Abramson, Bruce
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The decade following India's accession to the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property ushered in numerous changes to the country's patent system, culminating in a series of amendments in 2005. But a functioning patent system is more than a statute. This paper discusses the steps that India must still take to develop an effective, functioning patent system capable of attracting foreign direct investment, motivating domestic innovation and education, and filtering its benefits to all elements of Indian society, including the poor and the possessors of traditional knowledge. The analysis combines data studies of historical and recent patenting activity in India and by Indians, interviews with Indian government officials, intellectual property attorneys, industrialists, and researchers, and lessons gleaned from patent systems abroad. It identifies critical needs and concrete steps to meet them. Improving public awareness of the revenue-generating potential of patents will enhance incentives for the participation of individuals and small and medium enterprises in the patent system. Formalizing guidelines for patents derived through government research funds-coupled with needed changes in institutional governance-will enhance prospects for technology transfer from laboratories to commercial markets. Compensation schemes for traditional knowledge will extend the benefits of intellectual property rights to the poorest members of society. This paper's recommendations would help India achieve both a fully functioning patent system and a mechanism for ensuring that poor people living traditional lifestyles receive their share of the social gains that a working innovation system can confer.

US Alien Property Custodian patent documents: A legacy prior art collection from World War II - Part 1. History

White, Michael J.
Fonte: Elsevier, Publicador: Elsevier,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
In 1943, at the height of World War II, the US Patent Office, by the authorization of the Alien Property Custodian (APC), published 2964 pending patent applications that had been seized from nationals of enemy and enemy-occupied countries. This unusual act - only in 2001 did the USPTO begin routinely publishing some pending patent applications - was prompted by the APC's wartime mandate to make enemy technology available to American industry. During and after the war many of these applications were issued as patents assigned to the APC. However, up to 58% were abandoned, becoming, in effect, orphan documents. APC documents, although they resemble contemporary patents and are granted prior art status by the USPTO, are virtually unknown today, even among patent professionals. This two-part paper investigates the origins, history and profile of this unique collection of prior art documents. Part one reviews the wartime organization and activities of the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, the agency responsible for the creation of APC documents, the use of vesting orders to seize patents and the APC's patent portfolio. Part two describes applications published by the APC, their national and technological profiles, and snapshots of the inventors and companies who lost and...

Patenteamento em nanotecnologia no Brasil: desenvolvimento, potencialidades e reflexões para o meio ambiente e a saúde humana

Sant'Anna,Leonardo da Silva; Alencar,Maria Simone de Menezes; Ferreira,Aldo Pacheco
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Nanotechnology developments continue to be produced at exponential rates for a wide and diverse range of applications. In this paper was done a study of technological forecasting in nanotechnology applied to health, based on information drawn in Brazil from 1991 to 2010. The longitudinal evolutions of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for the total global activity. There were obtained 1352 patent applications in this period. It were analyzed the legal nature of the depositors, the year of deposit, depositors' home countries and processes. It has been a goal subsidizes the policy-makers to adapt and modernize the regulatory framework on nanotechnology and risks involving health as a strategic area in the politics of Science.

The Lone Inventor: Low Success Rates and Common Errors Associated with Pro-Se Patent Applications

Gaudry, Kate S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing (“prosecuting”) a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications (“represented applications”) but not in the other 250 (“pro-se applications”). 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent), as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application.

Dynamic conditional score patent count panel data models

Blazsek, Szabolcs; Escribano, Álvaro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/submitedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em 01/11/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
We propose a new class of dynamic patent count panel data models that is based on dynamic conditional score (DCS) models. We estimate multiplicative and additive DCS models, MDCS and ADCS respectively, with quasi-ARMA (QARMA) dynamics, and compare them with the finite distributed lag, exponential feedback and linear feedback models. We use a large panel of 4,476 United States (US) firms for period 1979 to 2000. Related to the statistical inference, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative estimation methods: maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), pooled negative binomial quasi-MLE (QMLE) and generalized method of moments (GMM). For the count panel data models of this paper, the strict exogeneity of explanatory variables assumption of MLE fails and GMM is not feasible. However, interesting results are obtained for pooled negative binomial QMLE. The empirical evidence shows that the new class of MDCS models with QARMA dynamics outperforms all other models considered.

An Analysis of Transaction and Joint-patent Application Networks

Inoue, Hiroyasu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Many firms these days are opting to specialize rather than generalize as a way of maintaining their competitiveness. Consequently, they cannot rely solely on themselves, but must cooperate by combining their advantages. To obtain the actual condition for this cooperation, a multi-layered network based on two different types of data was investigated. The first type was transaction data from Japanese firms. The network created from the data included 961,363 firms and 7,808,760 links. The second type of data were from joint-patent applications in Japan. The joint-patent application network included 54,197 nodes and 154,205 links. These two networks were merged into one network. The first anaysis was based on input-output tables and three different tables were compared. The correlation coefficients between tables revealed that transactions were more strongly tied to joint-patent applications than the total amount of money. The total amount of money and transactions have few relationships and these are probably connected to joint-patent applications in different mechanisms. The second analysis was conducted based on the p* model. Choice, multiplicity, reciprocity, multi-reciprocity and transitivity configurations were evaluated. Multiplicity and reciprocity configurations were significant in all the analyzed industries. The results for multiplicity meant that transactions and joint-patent application links were closely related. Multi-reciprocity and transitivity configurations were significant in some of the analyzed industries. It was difficult to find any common characteristics in the industries. Bayesian networks were used in the third analysis. The learned structure revealed that if a transaction link between two firms is known...

Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

Lira, Luiz Marcelo; Lourenço, Alexandre Lopes; Neves, Guilherme Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Pereira de; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i) the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii) the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i) the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii) use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii) the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.; Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar dois aspectos importantes em um pedido de patente de formas cristalinas de fármacos: (i) caracterização físico-química das formas cristalinas e (ii)o procedimento de preparo da forma II do fármaco clopidogrel, um blockbuster de vendas. Realizaram-se buscas em bancos de dados patentários on line. Os resultados mostraram que (i) a maioria dos pedidos de patente de formas cristalinas do clopidogrel não se adequam com proposta do INPI devido ao número insuficiente de técnicas analíticas utilizadas na caracterização da fase cristalina. Ainda...

Fast-tracking 'green' patent applications: an empirical analysis

Dechezlepretre, Antoine
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
This paper presents the first empirical analysis of programmes to fast-track ‘green’ patent applications in place in seven Intellectual Property offices around the world. We find that only a small share of green patent applications (between 1% and 20% depending on the patent office) request accelerated examination, suggesting that patent applicants have a strong incentive to keep their patent applications in the examination process for as long as possible. Fast-tracking programmes reduce the examination process by several years compared to patents going through normal examination procedure and have seemingly accelerated the diffusion of technological knowledge in green technologies. In addition, we find that applicants require accelerated examination for patents of relatively higher value and that fast-tracking programmes seem to be particularly appealing to start-up companies in the green technology sector that are currently raising capital but still generate small revenue.