This study examined ethnic and language group differences on dimensions of parent-rated and teacher-rated parent involvement after adjusting for the influence of family socioeconomic factors. A total of 179 teachers and 481 parents provided information on parent school involvement for a sample of ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade children attending one of three school districts in Texas. Four groups were examined: White, Black, Hispanic-English speaking, and Hispanic-Spanish speaking. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported four parent-reported involvement dimensions (positive perceptions about school, communication, parent-teacher shared responsibility, and parent school-based involvement) and three teacher-reported dimensions (alliance, general parent involvement, and teacher initiation of involvement). Data generally supported the hypothesized ethnic and language group differences in parent involvement and the moderating effect of dimension of parent involvement on group differences. Implications for school psychologists are discussed.
Motor vehicle crashes remain elevated among novice teen drivers for at least several years after licensure. Licensing policies and driver education are the two primary countermeasures employed to decrease young driver crash risks. Graduated driver licensing policies have proved to be effective in reducing crash rates where evaluated. Driver education is an essential part of teaching teens the rules of the road and operating a vehicle, but requires few hours of professional driver training, relying mainly on parents to provide most of the supervised practice driving teens obtain before independent driving licensure. The few studies that have been conducted to increase parent supervised practice driving have not shown positive results. Moreover, it is unclear that increases in practice would improve independent driving safety. Recent research has shown that parent management of the early independent driving experience of novice teens improves safety outcomes, and other research has shown that it is possible to increase parent management practices. This paper provides a review of the literature on parent involvement in supervised practice and independent driving, and efforts to increase parental management.
Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent—Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent—Teacher Relationship, Teacher’s Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors—parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status—and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations.
Parent involvement in the treatment of childhood disruptive behavior problems is a critical component of effective care. Yet little is known about the amount of time therapists are involving parents in treatment and factors that predict therapists’ efforts to involve parents in routine care. The purpose of this study is to examine therapists’ within-session involvement of parents in community-based outpatient mental health treatment. The data are from a larger longitudinal observational study of psychotherapy for children ages 4–13 with disruptive behavior problems and include videotaped psychotherapy sessions coded for the therapeutic strategies delivered as well as measures of child, parent/family, and therapist characteristics at baseline. Parent involvement is defined as the proportion of time in the session that therapists direct treatment strategies towards parents. Results indicated that therapists directed treatment strategies towards parents an average of 44% of the time within a session. Multilevel modeling was used to examine client-level (child, parent, and family functioning) and provider-level (therapist experience and background) predictors of parent involvement. Therapists involved parents more when the child had higher levels of behavior problems...
Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children’s socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children’s adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children’s social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of diabetes-specific parenting goals for parents of children with type 1 diabetes and to examine whether parenting goals predict a change in parenting involvement in disease management. An independent sample of primary caretakers of 87 children aged 10 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes completed the measure of parenting goals (diabetes-specific and general goals); both parent and child completed measures of parent responsibility for diabetes management at baseline and 6 months. Parents ranked diabetes-specific parenting goals as more important than general parenting goals, and rankings were moderately stable over time. Parenting goals were related to parent responsibility for diabetes management. The relative ranking of diabetes-specific parenting goals predicted changes in parent involvement over 6 months, with baseline ranking of goals predicting more parental involvement at follow-up. Parenting goals may play an important role in family management of type 1 diabetes.
This study sought to determine if participation in a home education learning program would impact the perceived levels of parental self-efficacy of parents/caregivers who participate in the completion of home-learning assignments and increase their levels of home-learning involvement practices. Also, the study examined the relationship between the parental involvement practice of completing interactive home-learning assignments and the reading comprehension achievement of first grade students.
A total of 146 students and their parents/caregivers representing a convenience sample of eight first grade classes participated in the study. Four classes (n=74) were selected as the experimental group and four classes (n=72) served as the control group. . There were 72 girls in the sample and 74 boys and the median age was 6 years 6 months.
The study employed a quasi-experimental research design utilizing eight existing first grade classes. It examined the effects of a home-learning support intervention program on the perceived efficacy levels of the participating parents/care¬givers, as measured by the Parent Perceptions of Parent Efficacy Scale (Hoover-Dempsey, Bassler, & Brissie, 1992) administered on a pre/post basis. The amount and type of parent involvement in the completion of home assignments was determined by means of a locally developed instrument...
Increasing parental involvement was made an important goal for all Florida schools in educational reform legislation in the 1990's. A forum for this input was established and became known as the School Advisory Council (SAC). To demonstrate the importance of process and inclusion, a south Florida school district and its local teacher's union agreed on the following five goals for SACs: (a) to foster an environment of professional collaboration among all stakeholders, (b) to assist in the preparation and evaluation of the school improvement plan, (c) to address all state and district goals, (d) to serve as the avenue for authentic and representative input from all stakeholders, and (e) to ensure the continued existence of the consensus-building process on all issues related to the school's instructional program. ^ The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent and in what ways the parent members of one south Florida middle school's SAC achieved the five district goals during its first three years of implementation. The primary participants were 16 parents who served as members of the SAC, while 16 non-parent members provided perspective on parent involvement as “outside sources.” Being qualitative by design, factors such as school climate...
Increasing parental involvement was made an important goal for all Florida schools in educational reform legislation in the 1990's. A forum for this input was established and became known as the School Advisory Council (SAC). To demonstrate the importance of process and inclusion, a south Florida school district and its local teacher's union agreed on the following five goals for SACs: (a) to foster an environment of professional collaboration among all stakeholders, (b) to assist in the preparation and evaluation of the school improvement plan, (c) to address all state and district goals, (d) to serve as the avenue for authentic and representative input from all stakeholders, and (e) to ensure the continued existence of the consensus-building process on all issues related to the school's instructional program.
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent and in what ways the parent members of one south Florida middle school's SAC achieved the five district goals during its first three years of implementation. The primary participants were 16 parents who served as members of the SAC, while 16 non-parent members provided perspective on parent involvement as "outside sources." Being qualitative by design, factors such as school climate...
This study evaluated a preschool parent enrichment
programme to assess if child and parent involvement in
the programme facilitated the children's subsequent
school adjustment. Also examined were the programme's
effects on parent-child relationships. Participants
were 56 Junior-Senior Kindergarten and Grade One
students from one elementary school. Parent
participants were 12 parents from the preschool parent
enrichment programme, 6 parents whose children had
attended other preschool programmes, and 6 parents
whose children had remained at home prior to school.
Five elementary teachers and both nursery school
teachers from the parent enrichment programme also
participated. Measures used included the Florida Key
to assess children's inferred self-concept as learner
and four subscales (relating, asserting, coping and
investing), and interviews to assess parent and teacher
perceptions. Findings indicated that there was little
difference between parent and teacher perceptions about
children who had attended a preschool programme. Both
groups showed improved social, emotional, and
behavioural skill development, together with increased
self-esteem, and the ability to cope with separation
from their parents. This enabled children to make the
transition from preschool to primary school more
successful. Children from the parent enrichment
programme were not readily identifiable in terms of the
profile promulgated for disadvantaged children. The
Florida Key showed a main effect for the coping
ADeweyan (1916) democratic theoty ofeducation called for the participation ofall
citizens in deliberating important educational issues to improve overall student learning.
Thus, the move to include parents in educational decision making can be considered to be
rooted in democratic principles. To gain greater insight into the issue ofparent
involvement in educational decision making, one elementary school was studied and a
triangulization method was employed in an attempt to clarify the important issues
surrolUlding the move to include parents in the governance ofschools. The three methods
to gain information included surveys, interviews, and documentation ofsignificant school
events and related work. All ofthe parents and teachers ofthe school were surveyed, 10
parents and 6teachers were interviewed, and related school events were recorded. The
survey design was modeled on the Parent Involvement Questionnaire (PIQ) created and
reported on by Chavkin and Williams (1987). The results ofthe surveys were used as a
guide for the interview questions. An interview outline was developed based on
Seidman's (1991) open-ended approach and Patton's (1980) standardized open-ended
interview style in which parents and teachers were asked about their experiences and
opinions on anmnber ofparent involvement issues. Parents and teachers in this school
indicated agreater interest in becoming more aware ofeducational issues such as school
budget and school discipline policies. Although the parents indicated agreater interest in
school matters and the teachers indicated awillingness to include parents in school
As Ontario is home to more than half of Canada’s immigrants (Statistics Canada, 2006), Ontario’s school enrolment is very diverse. Levin (2008) provided some statistics: 27 percent of the population of Ontario was born outside of Canada; 20 percent are visible minorities. Toronto, with approximately 40 percent of the province’s population, is one the most diverse urban areas in the world, and receives approximately 125,000 new immigrants each year from dozens of different countries. Accordingly, as the number of immigrant families in Toronto increases, it is increasingly important that teachers and administrators understand how immigrant parents want to be involved in their children’s education, and how to best support these parents’ needs and the needs of their children. The purpose of this case study was to examine the involvement of immigrant parents in one classroom. Specifically I examine: (a) how one school involved immigrant parents in their children’s education; (b) how immigrant parents perceive they have been involved; and (c) how immigrant parents want to be involved in their children’s education. This constructivist case study examined immigrant parent involvement from the perceptions of different stakeholders--the vice-principal...
The premise of parent-centered programs for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement however, does not address the systemic, parent, or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one’s child in one’s home. A grounded theory goes beyond the description of a process, offering an explanatory theory that brings taken-for-granted meanings and processes to the surface. The theory that emerged from the analysis suggests that CBT implementation by mothers of anxious children is characterized by the evolution of mothers’ perception of their child from being ‘held back’ to being ‘mostly independent with ongoing needs’ and mothers’ perception of their role from being a ‘comforter/protector’ to being a ‘supporter/advocate’. This process allows a strategic shift in parenting strategies from reacting with emotion to responding pragmatically to the child. Changes occur as mothers recognize the crisis...
Data from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development (N= 1364) were used to investigate children's trajectories of academic and social development across first, third and fifth grade. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine within- and between-child associations among maternal- and teacher-reports of parent involvement and children's standardized achievement scores, social skills, and problem behaviors. Findings suggest that within-child improvements in parent involvement predict declines in problem behaviors and improvements in social skills but do not predict changes in achievement. Between-child analyses demonstrated that children with highly involved parents had enhanced social functioning and fewer behavior problems. Similar patterns of findings emerged for teacher- and parent-reports of parent involvement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Parent involvement in a child's education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that explain this association. The present study examines two potential mechanisms of this association: the child's perception of cognitive competence and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. This study used a sample of 158 seven-year old participants, their mothers, and their teachers. Results indicated a statistically significant association between parent involvement and a child's academic performance, over and above the impact of the child's intelligence. A multiple mediation model indicated that the child's perception of cognitive competence fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and the child's performance on a standardized achievement test. The quality of the student-teacher relationship fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and teacher ratings of the child's classroom academic performance. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for public policy initiatives were discussed.
Objective To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Methods Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's α, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regression analyses examining associations with quality of life, adherence, and glycemic control were conducted to assess concurrent validity. Results The measure demonstrated strong internal consistency. It was modestly associated with parenting style, but not with parent responsibility for diabetes management. A consistent pattern of associations with quality of life and adherence provide support for the measure's concurrent validity. Conclusions This brief youth-report measure of parent collaborative involvement assesses a unique dimension of parent involvement in diabetes management associated with important youth outcomes.
Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2564 grade 10 students and their parents in The Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention which should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.
El tema central de este artículo es la participación familiar. El artículo se centra en cuatro áreas: 1) La definición del concepto de la implicación de los padres como factor de calidad en la educación y como una exigencia de la democracia social. 2) Las políticas que permiten a los padres hacer efectiva su participación en la escuela. 3) Los ámbitos de actuación o dimensiones de la educación escolar: planificación de la actuación pedagógica en función de las necesidades individuales y sociales; materialización de los procesos escolares de enseñanza-aprendizaje, evaluación de los resultados, orientación pedagógica personal. 4) Posible crisis de la participación de la familia en la educación y sus implicaciones, según el grado de implicación de los padres en la escuela; The central theme of this article is parent involvement. This article focuses on four areas: 1) the definition of the concept of parent involvement as a quality factor in education and as an exigency of social democracy. 2) Policies that enable parents to find time to participate in school activities. 3) The interactions between parents and the school system are examined on different levels: educational performance planning; materialization of the school teaching-learning processes; outcome-based-evaluation; and pedagogical and personal counselling. 4) Possible crisis in family involvement in education and their implications...
Research in the area of parent involvement indicates that parent involvement is of critical importance to student achievement (and behavior) and has benefits for parents, teachers, ands chools as well as students.
Each year the Delaware Education Research and Development Center (R&D Center) of the University of
Delaware conducts a telephone poll surveying citizens on their impressions regarding the condition of
education in Delaware. This report presents the comprehensive results of the poll, in tabular and graphic
formats, for the statewide Public Poll conducted in the spring of 2005. This report discusses gifted education, finance reform, and parent involvement.; Delaware State Legislature