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A Novel Organotellurium Compound (RT-01) as a New Antileishmanial Agent

LIMA, Camila Barbara Cantalupo; ARRAIS-SILVA, Wagner Welber; CUNHA, Rodrigo Luiz Oliveira Rodrigues; GIORGIO, Selma
Fonte: KOREAN SOC PARASITOLOGY, SEOUL NATL UNIV COLL MEDI Publicador: KOREAN SOC PARASITOLOGY, SEOUL NATL UNIV COLL MEDI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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26.55%
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease and endemic in developing countries. A lack of adequate and definitive chemotherapeutic agents to fight against this infection has led to the investigation of numerous compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RT-01, an organotellurane compound presenting biological activities, in 2 experimental systems against Leishmania amazonensis. The in vitro system consisted of promastigotes and amastigotes forms of the parasite, and the in vivo system consisted of L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice, an extremely susceptible mouse strain. The compound proved to be toxic against promastigotes and amastigotes. The study also showed that treatment with RT-01 produces an effect similar to that treatment with the reference antimonial drug, Glucantime, in L. amazonensis infected mice. The best results were obtained following RT-01 intralesional administration (720 mu g/kg/day); mice showed significant delay in the development of cutaneous lesions and decreased numbers of parasites obtained from the lesions. Significant differences in tissue pathology consisted mainly of no expressive accumulation of inflammatory cells and well-preserved structures in the skin tissue of RT-01-treated mice compared with expressive infiltration of infected cells replacing the skin tissue in lesions of untreated mice. These findings highlight the fact that the apparent potency of organotellurane compounds...

Tick saliva inhibits the chemotactic function of MIP-1 alpha and selectively impairs chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells by down-regulating cell-surface CCR5

OLIVEIRA, Carlo Jose F.; CAVASSANI, Karen A.; MORE, Daniela D.; GARLET, Gustavo P.; ALIBERTI, Julio C.; SILVA, Joao S.; FERREIRA, Beatriz R.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that secrete immunomodulatory molecules through their saliva to antagonize host inflammatory and immune responses. As dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in host immune responses, we studied the effects of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva on DC migration and function. Bone marrow-derived immature DCs pre-exposed to tick saliva showed reduced migration towards macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) chemokines in a Boyden microchamber assay. This inhibition was mediated by saliva which significantly reduced the percentage and the average cell-surface expression of CC chemokine receptor CCR5. In contrast, saliva did not alter migration of DCs towards MIP-3 beta, not even if the cells were induced for maturation. Next, we evaluated the effect of tick saliva on the activity of chemokines related to DC migration and showed that tick saliva per se inhibits the chemotactic function of MIP-1 alpha, while it did not affect RANTES, MIP-1 beta and MIP-3 beta. These data suggest that saliva possibly reduces immature DC migration, while mature DC chemotaxis remains unaffected. In support of this, we have analyzed the percentage of DCs on mice 48 h after intradermal inoculation with saliva and found that the DC turnover in the skin was reduced compared with controls. Finally...

Neospora caninum excreted/secreted antigens trigger CC-chemokine receptor 5-dependent cell migration

MINEO, Tiago W. P.; OLIVEIRA, Carlo J. F.; SILVA, Deise A. O.; OLIVEIRA, Leandro L.; ABATEPAULO, Antonio R.; RIBEIRO, Damaso P.; FERREIRA, Beatriz R.; MINEO, Jose R.; SILVA, Joao S.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is an obligate intracellular parasite considered to be a major cause of abortion in cattle throughout the world. Most studies concerning N. caninum have focused on life cycle, seroepidemiology, pathology and vaccination, while data on host-parasite interaction, such as host cell migration, mechanisms of evasion and dissemination of this parasite during the early phase of infection are still poorly understood. Here we show the ability of excreted/secreted antigens from N. caninum (NcESAs) to attract monocytic cells to the site of primary infection in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Molecules from the family of cyclophilins present on the NcESAs were shown to work as chemokine-like proteins and NcESA-induced chemoattraction involved G(i) protein signaling and participation of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Additionally, we demonstrate the ability of NcESAs to enhance the expression of CCR5 on monocytic cells and this increase occurred in parallel with the chemotactic activity of NcESAs by increasing cell migration. These results suggest that during the first days of infection, N. caninum produces molecules capable of inducing monocytic cell migration to the sites of infection, which will consequently enhance initial parasite invasion and proliferation. Altogether...

Bursts of transposition from non-long terminal repeat retrotransposon families of the RTE clade in Schistosoma mansoni

VENANCIO, Thiago M.; WILSON, R. Alan; VERJOVSKI-ALMEIDA, Sergio; DEMARCO, Ricardo
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The genus Schistosoma is composed of blood flukes that infect vertebrates, from which three species are major causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people. Current models of the recent evolution of Schistosoma indicate multiple events of migration and speciation from an Asian ancestral species. Transposable elements are important drivers of genome evolution and have been hypothesised to have an important role in speciation. In this work, we describe a comprehensive inventory of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum retrotransposons, based on their recently published genomic data. We find a considerable difference in retrotransposon representation between the two species (22% and 13%, respectively). A large part of this difference can be attributed to higher representation of two previously described families of S. mansoni retrotransposons (SR2 and Perere-3/SR3), compared with the representation of their closest relative families in S. japonicum. A more detailed analysis suggests that these two S. mansoni families were the subject of recent bursts of transposition that were not paralleled by their S. japonicum counterparts. We hypothesise that these bursts could be a consequence of the evolutionary pressure resulting from migration of Schistosoma from Asia to Africa and their establishment in this new environment...

Occurrence of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the municipality of Goiatins, Tocantins

MARTINS, Thiago F.; SPOLIDORIO, Mariana G.; BATISTA, Twiggy C. A.; OLIVEIRA, Iza. A. S.; YOSHINARI, Natalino. H.; LABRUNA, Marcelo. B.
Fonte: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY Publicador: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Due to a suspected human case of Brazilian Lyme-like disease in the city of Goiatins, Tocantins State, an epidemiological survey was carried out in eight counties in this region during September 2007 and February 2008, where 1,890 ticks were collected from domestic animals and from the environment. A total of eight tick species were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum. The last four species were described for the first time in this region. Although human parasitism by ticks is frequently described in Goiatins, no ticks collected from humans were analyzed. The Study of ixodids in this region contributes with the survey of Brazilian ticks, as well as the elucidation of the possible transmission of the agent that caused the Brazilian Lyme-like disease case in Goiatins.

Use of the real time RT-PCR for immune related gene expression quantitation in experimentally infected Neospora caninum bovine calves

NISHI, Sandra Mayumi; VIERO, Luciana Mori; SOARES, Rodrigo Martins; MAIORKA, Paulo Cesar; GENNARI, Solange Maria
Fonte: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY Publicador: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. Host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. The real-time RT-PCR technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during N. caninum infection. Holstein and Nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected controls were slaughtered at the sixth day post-infection and popliteal lymph node, liver and brain cortex samples were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR detected gene expression in all tissues. No significant variation of GAPDH gene expression was detected among groups, its amplification efficiency was similar to the other genes tested and it was used as the endogenous control for the analysis. Comparisons between infected and uninfected groups allowed the relative gene expression quantification. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha genes showed increased expression in some samples. iNOS and TGF-beta 1 genes had some non-significant variations and IL-4 and IL-10 stayed pratically inaltered.

Drop off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) of artificially infested dogs

PAZ, Gustavo F.; LABRUNA, Marcelo R.; LEITE, Romario C.
Fonte: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY Publicador: BRAZILIAN COLL VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
The present study evaluated the drop-off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks from two populations from Brazil, one from Monte Negro, state of Rondonia, and another from Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. Artificial infestations with ticks were performed on dogs in the laboratory, held in a light: scotophase regimen of 12:12 h. Larval drop-off rhythm was characterized by similar number of engorged larvae detaching during both periods of light and scotophase, or by a larger number of larvae detaching during the light period. In contrast, most of the engorged nymphs and females detached from dogs during the scotophase period. These results indicate that under natural conditions, most of R. sanguineus engorged nymphs and females detach from dogs during the night period, whereas engorged larvae detach in higher proportions during daytime. Based on these data, tick control measures, encompassing environmental treatments with acaricide, should be indicated. The control measures are especially indicated in places where dogs spend or visit during the night period, since these places possibly harbor most of the free-living stages of R. sanguineus.

Population structure and mouse-virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil

PENA, H. F. J.; GENNARI, S. M.; DUBEY, J. P.; SU, C.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Recent studies found that isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil were biologically and genetically different from those in North America and Europe. However, to date only a small number of isolates have been analysed from different animal hosts in Brazil. In the present study DNA samples of 46 T. gondii isolates from cats in 11 counties in Sao Paulo state, Brazil were genetically characterised using 10 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, STUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PKI and Apico. An additional marker, CS3, that locates on chromosome VIIa and has previously been shown to be linked to acute virulence of T. gondii was also used to determine its association to virulence in mice. Genotyping of these 46 isolates revealed a high genetic diversity with 20 genotypes but no clonal Type I, II or III lineage was found. Two of the 46 isolates showed mixed infections. Combining genotyping data in this study with recent reported results from chickens, dogs and cats in Brazil (total 125 isolates) identified 48 genotypes and 26 of these genotypes had single isolates. Four of the 48 genotypes with multiple isolates identified from different hosts and locations are considered the common clonal lineages in Brazil. These lineages are designated as Types BrI...

Padronização e avaliação de método sorológico ELISA para detecção de anticorpos IgG anti-Cryptosporidium sp; Standardization and evaluation of serological method ELISA for detection of IgG anti-Cryptosporidium sp

Casimiro, Angélica Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2003 PT
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O presente trabalho teve como objetivo padronizar a técnica de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos IgG anti-Cryptosporidium sp para aplicação em estudos epidemiológicos da criptosporidiose em imunocompetentes. Para obtenção de antígeno, bezerros foram oralmente infectados. Os oocistos foram recuperados das fezes doanimal, com a utilização do gradiente de sacarose modificado, técnica de concentração onde se obteve o melhor rendimento. Para preparação do antígeno, os oocistos foram rompidos através de ciclos de congelamento/descongelamento e ultra-som. Soros controle positivo foram escolhidos entre o grupo de funcionários do laboratório de Parasitologia, pois apresentavam anticorpos anti-Cryptosporidium e devido as suas atividades no laboratório era um grupo mais exposto; soros controle negativo foram escolhidos entre aqueles com leituras de densidade óptica menores que 0,300 no ELISA para detecção de anticorpos anti-Cryptosporidium. Diferentes grupos de soros de indivíduos clinicamente normais (funcionários da parasitologia, doadores de sangue, pacientes que fizeram o Pré-Natal) ou outras infecções parasitárias (cisticercose, toxoplasmose, esquistossomose, Doença de Chagas, leishmaniose), foram avaliados para presença de anticorpos anti-Cryptosporidium. A alta freqüência foi observada para o grupo de pacientes com Doença de Chagas (66...

Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.

Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1992 EN
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AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule.

Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿

Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology

Cho, Seung-Yull
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.91%
In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases

Lee, Choon Shil
Fonte: The Korean Society for Parasitology Publicador: The Korean Society for Parasitology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily...

The Problem of Auto-Correlation in Parasitology

Pollitt, Laura C.; Reece, Sarah E.; Mideo, Nicole; Nussey, Daniel H.; Colegrave, Nick
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.77%
Explaining the contribution of host and pathogen factors in driving infection dynamics is a major ambition in parasitology. There is increasing recognition that analyses based on single summary measures of an infection (e.g., peak parasitaemia) do not adequately capture infection dynamics and so, the appropriate use of statistical techniques to analyse dynamics is necessary to understand infections and, ultimately, control parasites. However, the complexities of within-host environments mean that tracking and analysing pathogen dynamics within infections and among hosts poses considerable statistical challenges. Simple statistical models make assumptions that will rarely be satisfied in data collected on host and parasite parameters. In particular, model residuals (unexplained variance in the data) should not be correlated in time or space. Here we demonstrate how failure to account for such correlations can result in incorrect biological inference from statistical analysis. We then show how mixed effects models can be used as a powerful tool to analyse such repeated measures data in the hope that this will encourage better statistical practices in parasitology.

Teaching human parasitology in China

Zhao, Guanghui; He, Shenyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Na; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/04/2012 EN
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27.19%
China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology.

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang
Fonte: Maney Publishing Publicador: Maney Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
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26.91%
Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

Genomics and its impact on parasitology and the potential for development of new parasite control methods

Ellis, J.; Morrison, D.; Reichel, M.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
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26.77%
Parasitic organisms remain the scourge of the developed and underdeveloped worlds. Malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis, for example, still result in a large number of human deaths each year worldwide, while drug resistance among nematodes still poses a major problem to the livestock industries. Genome projects involving parasitic organisms are now abundant, and technologies for the investigations of the parasite transcriptome and proteome are well established. There is no doubt the era of the “omics” is with parasitology, and current trends in the discipline are addressing fundamental biological questions that can make best use of the new technologies, as well as the vast amount of new data being generated. Will this become the “golden age of molecular parasitology,” leading to the control of parasitic diseases that have plagued mankind for hundreds of years? The primary aim of this paper is to review advances in the general area of parasite genomics, and to outline where the application of “omics” technologies can and have impacted on the development of new control methods for parasitic organisms.; http://www.liebertonline.com/toc/dna/22/6; John T. Ellis, David A. Morrison and Michael P. Reichel

Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010

Poonsamy, Bhavani; Dini, Leigh; Frean, John
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 EN
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Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary.

An Australian network to support the understanding and control of parasites

Smith, Nick; Tilley, Leann; Thompson, R C; Ryan, Una; Loukas, Alex; Jenkins, David; McFadden, Geoffrey I
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Australian Research Council (ARC) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Research Network for Parasitology will focus and coordinate the fundamental, strategic and applied parasitology research in Australia. It will raise the standing of Australia in the field, assist in the community understanding of parasitology, and maintain and improve the capacity of Australia to keep its stock, crops, wildlife and people free from disease. On an international scale, the ARC/NHMRC Network will work with other countries to develop new technologies for the detection and control of parasites.

Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation

Krecek,R C; Penzhorn,B L; de Waal,D T; Peter,R J; Prichard,R; Sumption,D
Fonte: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association Publicador: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.