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Optimal irrigation depth for bean crops considering water constraints and farmer`s risk aversion level

FIGUEIREDO, Margarida Garcia de; FRIZZONE, Jose Antonio; PITELLI, Mariusa Momenti; REZENDE, Roberto
Fonte: UNIV ESTADUAL MARINGA, PRO-REITORIA PESQUISA POS-GRADUACAO Publicador: UNIV ESTADUAL MARINGA, PRO-REITORIA PESQUISA POS-GRADUACAO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Nowadays, the rising competition for the use of water and environmental resources with consequent restrictions for farmers should change the paradigm in terms of irrigation concepts, or rather, in order to attain economical efficiency other than to supply water requirement for the crop. Therefore, taking into account the social and economical role of bean activity in Brazil, as well as the risk inherent to crop due to its high sensibility to both deficit and excessive water, the optimization methods regarding to irrigation management have become more interesting and essential. This study intends to present a way to determine the optimal water supply, considering different combinations between desired bean yield and level of risk, bringing as a result a graph with the former associated with the latter, depending on different water depths.

A mediação de conflitos na gestão de recursos hídricos no Brasil; The conflict mediation in Brazilian water resource management

Soares, Samira Iasbeck de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
Nas últimas décadas, iniciou um processo de mudança na gestão pública. Em especial, quanto aos recursos hídricos, pode-se perceber que a reflexão acerca dessa mudança está relacionada com a discussão teórica sobre governança das águas, a qual prevê que a gestão deva ser participativa, integrada, descentralizada, por bacia hidrográfica e com mecanismos de resolução de conflitos de forma rápida, pacífica e satisfatória. As mudanças políticas e os debates teóricos estão reciprocamente implicados nesse processo, o que demonstra o processo de construção da Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos (PNRH) que determina uma gestão através de consensos, nos órgãos colegiados como o Comitê de Bacia Hidrográfica (CBH), formado por diversos setores da sociedade, divergentes em seus interesses, e com a importante função de tomar decisões sobre a gestão da água, bem ambiental vital e escasso. Os conflitos, que são inerentes à condição humana, passam a ser qualificados pelas complexas relações ambientais, sociais e econômicas que envolvem a função do CBH, além da difícil comunicação entre várias visões e linguagens diferentes, todas consideradas legítimas. Torna-se imprescindível o tratamento dos conflitos...

Diagnóstico do uso da água e necessidade de formação de capacidades no meio rural nas regiões administrativas do Brasil; Diagnostic of water use and need for skills training in rural areas of Brazilian administrative regions

Paulino, Janaina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.66%
O Brasil possui uma das maiores reserva de água doce do mundo, em torno de 12% de todo o montante disponível. Entretanto, isto não suficiente para afirmar não há escassez hídrica no país. A distribuição dos recursos hídricos é bem desigual nas diferentes regiões brasileiras. Grande parte dos mananciais, aproximadamente 80%, se encontram localizados na região amazônica, onde reside somente 5% da população. Por isso, mesmo com grande potencial hídrico, o recurso é objeto de conflito em várias regiões do País. O uso da água no meio rural representa pouco mais da metade de toda retirada dos cursos dágua e em se tratando de consumo este número passa para mais de 80% (uso rural, irrigação e animal). Neste sentido, buscar o entendimento de como é a percepção dos usuários da água no meio rural quanto a este recurso e como ocorre o seu uso, torna-se de extrema valia para se tomar qualquer iniciativa de gestão ou implementação de projetos de formação de capacidades. Utilizou-se como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário subdivido em grandes tópicos. As respostas dos questionários foram trabalhadas por região administrativa, buscando levantar as peculiaridades de cada região. Organizou-se um evento nacional para coletar mais informações e avaliar os resultados obtidos até o momento e ainda levaram-se os resultados finais para as entidades participantes da pesquisa...

O regime jurídico das águas minerais na Constituição de 1988; Mineral water juridic regime in the 1988 Constitutional law

Cristina Campos Esteves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
Na atualidade, a regulamentação jurídica das águas minerais no Brasil é realizada pelas normas do Código de Águas Minerais - Decreto-lei nº 7.841, de 8 de agosto de 1945 - que expressamente submete a gestão destas águas ao Código de Mineração - Decreto-lei nº 227, de 28 de fevereiro de 1967. Para a lei vigente, as águas minerais são preponderantemente consideradas um recurso mineral que produz efeitos medicamentosos nos termos do conceito objeto do art.1º do Código de Águas Minerais. O conceito aludido tem origem histórica e foi positivado no Brasil com fundamento na ciência da Crenologia segundo o modelo europeu vigente à época. Todavia, com o advento da Constituição da República de 1988, o conceito em vigência do que seja água mineral e seu regime jurídico deixaram de ser recepcionados. A nova ordem constitucional atribuiu a toda água a natureza jurídica de bem de uso comum do povo, determinando sua inclusão na Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos e gestão por meio do Sistema Nacional de Recursos Hídricos. A alteração do paradigma é sustentada pelas mudanças perpetradas na realidade. Sabe-se atualmente que todas as águas hão de ser compreendidas como parte de um único todo em razão dos mecanismos do ciclo hidrológico. Assim...

Integrated flood management in urban environment : a case study

Ramísio, Paulo J.; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Vieira, J. M. Pereira
Fonte: IWRA Publicador: IWRA
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.53%
During the last decades, the urban creek of the Portuguese city of Guimarães was subjected to strong anthropogenic pressures, resulting in its water quality degradation, and the increasing occurrence of downtown floods. Worldwide, the paradigm of flood protection is changing to one of flood risk management, recognising that managed flooding is essential for a sustainable flood strategy, which success depends on integrating defence structures and early warning systems with improved understanding of the river systems. The Guimarães European Capital of Culture 2012 project supports strategic investments in knowledge, technology and innovation, aiming to improve citizens’ life quality, through the urban requalification of the historic centre; which includes the revitalization of the Couros creek and a new living with floods approach. Hydrological studies were performed to understand the rainfall/runoff process in order to mitigate the uncertainty of flood flows definition of rivers in urban environment. A hydrodynamic model was developed and applied to simulate the creek’s hydraulic behaviour, under different management scenarios, integrating all the main urban constraints. Simulation results allowed to prioritize the chirurgical structural interventions and to assess the impacts of the rehabilitation measures in this urban catchment...

Strategic Environmental Assessment : Improving Water Resources Governance and Decision Making

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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55.72%
The Sustainable Development Network (SDN) calls for elevating the environment into upstream processes such as policy, programmatic, and investment dialogue. In its 2002 environment strategy, the Bank committed to use strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), an environmental planning tool for improving decision-making at the strategic level of decision-making, policies, legislation, strategies, plans, and programs (PLSPP), and as a process for improving public policy design and good governance of natural resources. SEAs share many concepts and characteristics as integrated water resources management (IWRM), the accepted paradigm for efficient, equitable, and sustainable management of water resources since the 1990s. IWRM recognizes the dual nature of the environment as both a water using sector and a provider of services that maintains water resources for all sectors. The overall goal of this report is to help water resources and environment professionals use SEAs to effectively implement the principles of IWRM. It recommends a framework for expanding use of SEAs to mainstream environmental considerations in water resources policy...

Mainstreaming Gender in Water and Sanitation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Gender is a concept that refers to socially constructed roles, behavior, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate and ascribes to men and women. A useful definition of the concept of gender mainstreaming is provided by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (1997), suggests that mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as men, an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. The chapters that follow highlight in a short summary form experiences of mainstreaming gender at various levels in the water and sanitation sector. It begins with a discussion on gender responses to policy and its requirement for analysis and clear policy objectives to guide operations. The second section touches on experiences of mainstreaming gender within sector operations...

Urbanization and water management in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam-issues, challenges and perspectives

Vo, Le Phu
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.78%
The management of water resources is an unfinished effort of the international community. Rapid urbanization has transcended the management capacity of governments in developing countries. Since the renovation policy launched in 1986, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, has experienced the fastest urbanization and industrialization process. This has placed severe constraints on the use of water resources and management capacity of the local government. The abstraction of groundwater has exceeded the limiting volume (520,000 m3/day) and the annual drawdown of water table is 2–3 m. In addition, the quality of urban water bodies is increasingly exacerbated by a huge volume of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater. These are hampering water demand, use and the capacity of the municipal authority in managing water resources. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of urbanization on water resources. Current issues and challenges in the management practices of water resources are discussed. It will propose a new paradigm of water management in Ho Chi Minh City.; Phu Le Vo

Value-driven river management: A Murray River case study

Bean, N.; Jewell, N.
Fonte: Institution of Engineers Australia Publicador: Institution of Engineers Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.69%
This paper outlines a quasi-economic hydrological model and management paradigm geared toward public and not-for-profit regulatory bodies, with particular reference to the southern Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia. This value-oriented model and paradigm bridges the gap between short-range hydrological forecasting and long-range economic planning. Decision-making is assisted by a scenario-based methodology with a clear distinction between baseline and marginal quantities. The paradigm has applications to seasonal planning, commercial water trading, environmental stewardship and structural adjustment. Specific applications to the Murray-Darling Basin include (i) evaluation of options for infrastructure upgrades and licence buybacks intended to address resource over-allocation, and (ii) revival and rationalisation of hydrological exchange rates for temporary and permanent water trades, with the aim of rigorously accounting for third-party effects.; NG Bean and ND Jewell

A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, ‘Decision robustness’ and ‘Learning success’, we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing.

The Green Growth Movement in the Republic of Korea; Option or Necessity?

Choi, Sang Dae
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
To achieve the new national development vision, Korean leadership took a strategic approach in which the government played an active role, similar to the visionary approach used to achieve rapid economic development in the 1960s and 1970s. The government established a legal framework on low carbon and green growth, set up a governance structure to implement green growth initiatives systematically, and established fiscal policies and budget resources to support the initiatives firmly. The purpose of this note is primarily to explain why Korea adopted a green growth strategy as a new national development paradigm and how it was implemented by the government. Section one gives overview; section two illustrates why green growth was a necessity in Korea; section three describes how green growth was implemented by the Korean government, particularly with respect to institutional arrangements and fiscal adjustments for green growth; section four presents the key outcomes thus far; and section five identifies lessons that can be applied in other countries.

Legal Pluralism, Cultural Contestation and Gender (In)justice: An Interpretation of Women?s Rights Cases in the Supreme Court of Nepal; 8th Britain-Nepal Academic Council Annual Lecture

Pradhan, Rajendra
Fonte: Digital Himalaya Project & the Britain-Nepal Academic Council Publicador: Digital Himalaya Project & the Britain-Nepal Academic Council
Tipo: Áudio
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Dr Rajendra Pradhan is currently Dean of Nep? School of Social Sciences and Humanities and was a founding member and the Chair of Social Science Baha (January 2002 - June 2010). He received his PhD from the Department of Sociology, University of Delhi. He has conducted research on several topics, including religion among Hindu Newars of Kathmandu, care of the elderly in a Dutch village, food habits of Tarai inhabitants, water rights in Nepal, legal history of land, forest and water in Nepal, traditional dispute settlement processes, and more recently court cases. He has served as research consultant to various organisations, including the International Water Management Institute, the International Food Policy Research Institute, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. He has conducted several research workshops and training sessions for Nepali and international participants, including on topics such as legal pluralism, ethnography, and water rights. His publications include several edited and co-edited books such as Water Rights, Conflict and Policy (1997), Water, Land and Law: Changing Rights to Land and Water in Nepal (2000), Law, History and Culture of Water in Nepal (2003), Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law in Social, Economic and Political Development (2003) and articles in books and journals on a wide range of topics. He is currently co-editing a book entitled Unpacking Water Rights: A Comparative Reader to be published in 2011 by Sage and is working on a manuscript on Supreme Court cases pertaining to women?s rights and gender justice.; In the nineteen nineties...

Um novo paradigma para a gestão de recursos hídricos; A new paradigm for water resource management

Hespanhol, Ivanildo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
A política de importar água de bacias cada vez mais distantes para satisfazer o crescimento da demanda teve início há mais de dois mil com os romanos, dando origem aos seus famosos aquedutos. Esse é o "velho paradigma" que persiste ainda hoje, resolvendo, precariamente, o problema de abastecimento de água de uma região, em detrimento daquela que a fornece. A transferência sistemática de grandes volumes de água de fontes distantes, gerando volumes adicionais de esgoto, não pode mais ser aceita, tanto do ponto de vista econômico como do ambiental. Um "novo paradigma", baseado nos conceitos de Conservação e Reúso de Água deve evoluir, para minimizar os custos e os impactos ambientais associados a projetos de transposição de bacias. A tecnologia e os fundamentos ambientais, de saúde pública e gerenciais, hoje consagrados, permitem fazer uso dos recursos disponíveis localmente, mediante programas de gestão adequada da demanda, e da implementação da prática de reúso de água.; Watershed transposition is a 2000 years policy developed by the Romans to satisfy their continuous growing water demand, leading to the build up of an extensive network of aqueducts. This is the so called "old paradigm" still prevailing nowadays...

Watershed Management in the Federal Government

Vuxton, Emily
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.69%
Watersheds in the United States are very valuable. Their waters support a wide range of purposes, including irrigation, fisheries, industrial operations, recreational pursuits, aquatic habitat, and drinking water. Efficient and effective watershed management must consider all of these purposes and plan accordingly. Watershed management is conducted by many entities, with one of the largest and most important partners being the federal government. Although many federal agencies conduct watershed management, they often act out of concert with one another, even across the same watersheds. This lack of coordination leads to duplications of efforts as well as gaps in services offered. Among federal agencies, the U.S. Forest Service, in particular, has major responsibilities for protecting water resources because of its position as owner of many of the nation’s headwaters. This paper highlights duplications and gaps which occur across the federal government in watershed management, and offers policy recommendations on how to streamline efforts. It details the history of the U.S. Forest Service in watershed management. It argues how a paradigm shift in resource management within the U.S. Forest Service has negatively affected morale in a manner which hinders successful watershed management. A history of forest planning is provided. Finally...

Impacts of vegetation and landscape management practices in suburban watersheds on runoff water quality

Bachman, Matthew James
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Inamdar, Shreeram; Steadily increasing rates of urbanization over recent years have raised concerns about the negative impacts of urban runoff on receiving surface water quality. These concerns have been further amplified by the current landscaping paradigm in urban/suburban ecosystems that encourages high input, intensive management and larger and more homogenous lawn areas. This study attempts to quantify the water quality benefits that could be attained by managing urban/suburban landscapes, including lawns, less intensively and using more diverse, native vegetation. Our main hypothesis was that stream water in native meadows and forests would exhibit healthier water quality characteristics than in their intensively managed lawn counterparts. The study was conducted at Winterthur Museum and Garden where six different watershed treatments were present including - turf, meadow, two forests, urban and mixed. The watershed sizes ranged from 7.2 -36.1 hectares (ha). Synoptic water quality sampling was performed for baseflow and stormflow from June 2012 through December 2013. Nutrient concentrations in stream baseflow from the turf watershed, representative of a traditional suburban lawn, were lower than expected and were comparable to those measured in the surrounding meadow and forests. Total nitrogen...

Implementation of a water allocation decision support system in the Namoi and Gwydir Valleys

Letcher, Rebecca
Fonte: Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand Inc. Publicador: Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand Inc.
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.61%
Management of water resources often involves significant negotiation with regard to complex social, economic and environmental trade-offs likely to result from changes in policy or access. In NSW, changes to water allocations and access, through the design and implementation of Water Sharing Plans, involved negotiation between stakeholders representing many different interests and concerns. A key gap identified by many stakeholders involved in these negotiations was easy access to integrated, scientifically sound and generally agreed upon information on the socioeconomic trade-offs likely to result from changes in access, allocation and pricing. In addition, estimates of impacts on the flow regime and on river health are also required. This paper describes the Water Allocation Decision Support System (WAdss) developed to consider these types of trade-offs resulting from changes to access and allocation across the three water systems (unregulated, regulated and groundwater), and its implementation to two NSW catchments, the Gwydir and Namoi catchments. The WAdss has been developed in a modeling platform, ICMS, developed by CSIRO Land and Water. This platform allows for development of a model and data base which can be overlaid by custom built Graphical User Interfaces (GUI). This approach allows for rapid development and testing of both models and interfaces. Model development in ICMS uses a semi-object oriented paradigm...

Law and policy for environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria with special reference to water resources development projects.

Ibrahim, Auwal
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.66%
There could hardly be any doubt that the pursuit of development objectives, especially in a developing country such as Nigeria, is a legitimate and in fact necessary path for economic, social and political advancement. Within the decades of the 1970s and 1980s however, increased concern about the adverse environmental and socio-economic effects of certain specific development activities have necessitated a search for appropriate development paradigms that would enable the attainment of development objectives with as little environmental and socio-economic adversity as possible. A concept that has so far become very popular in this quest for a development paradigm is that of "sustainable development" which, in simple terms, could be described as a paradigm which seeks to integrate the objective of protection of the environment with the traditional objectives of development. Furthermore, law is being increasingly considered an important tool in the provision of the framework for the pursuit of development and environmental management as whole; and recent international events, such as the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development for example, have placed a big emphasis on the possible contribution which could be made by law in the move towards the attainment of sustainable development. The development of water resources has for a long time occupied a priority position in the development programmes of Nigerian Government and various water resources projects have in the past resulted in serious environmental...

Catchment management agencies as crucibles in which to develop responsible leaders in South Africa

Dent,MC
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
During the past 17 years in South Africa, far-reaching policy, legislation and institutional changes in water-related governance have occurred. Responsible leaders have ensured that a paradigm of integrated water resource management (IWRM) is firmly entrenched in the above policy, legislation and institutional arrangements. IWRM in turn demands a level of interaction between individuals, disciplines and organisations such that multi-sector, multi-level stakeholders can collectively, timeously, wisely and cost-effectively visit the consequences of their proposed, present and past actions. Such social learning processes demand leadership and the ongoing development of leaders at all levels. This paper is structured around the propositions for leadership development in the field outlined by Scharmer (2009a). The principal aim of the paper is to reveal the extent to which the multi-sector catchment management agency (CMA) phenomenon is an ideal crucible for leadership development in the field. It is argued that the complex adaptive system that embodies the water realm needs to be engaged by developing complex adaptive systems of governance and that the CMAs have the potential to meet this requirement. Furthermore, it is argued that processes to achieve this required leadership are also ideal for developing leadership. At a time when worldwide developments in communication and computer technology have spawned an exponential growth in successful endeavours related to self-organising around common challenges...

Water research paradigm shifts in South Africa

Siebrits,Raymond; Winter,Kevin; Jacobs,Inga
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
We performed a scientometric analysis of water research publications extracted from four decades of South African related papers to identify paradigms and paradigm shifts within water research in South Africa. Between 1977 and 1991, research publications are dominated by research into technical and engineering solutions, as well as designs and plans to secure water supply. From 1992 to 2001, publications on water pollution, water quality, water resource management and planning are prominent. The second major paradigm is observed from 2001 to 2011 in which the emphasis is on planning, modelling, catchment-scale studies and a multidisciplinary approach to research. Another transition period, towards the end of 2011, is characterised by uncertainty, although it also shows the prominence of key concepts such as participation, governance and politics in water management. The second aim of this study was to identify and prioritise current and future water research questions through the participation of a wide range of researchers from across the country, and to relate these questions to research paradigms, issues and concerns in water in South Africa. Over 1600 questions were collected, reduced in number and then prioritised by specialists in the water sector. The majority (78%) of questions offered by respondents in the South African case study dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements with 47% of questions focused on medium-term issues such as supplying water...

Balancing resource protection and development in a highly regulated river: the role of conjunctive use

Still,DA; Dickens,C; Breen,CM; Mander,M; Booth,A
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
The central position of water in social and economic development drives the imperative for water storage, particularly in water-stressed parts of the world. A consequence is that rivers are perceived primarily as locations for water storage as we seek to manage risks to social welfare and development. Assurance of supply becomes the dominant paradigm shaping decisions about allocation of water from impoundments. When this paradigm is deeply ingrained it constrains decision-making around flow management for other purposes, particularly for sustaining ecological systems. Ten years ago South Africa introduced progressive legislation for water resource management (the National Water Act of 1998) which enshrines the ecological Reserve. This requirement for the environment is not considered as a water use, because the environment is the resource. However, due to the very complex Reserve determination process, and perhaps a lack of political will, the ecological Reserve has proved difficult to implement and has only now started to be implemented in some river systems. In the case of the lower uMngeni River in KwaZulu-Natal, besides releases to maintain a minimum river flow (the so called ‘compensation flows', which were never designed as environmental flows)...