A prevenção de resíduos, enquanto estratégia ambiental, tem sido aplicada com sucesso em várias indústrias. Porém, sua aplicação durante a fase de desenvolvimento dos produtos ainda é pouco explorada. A prevenção de resíduos é mais efetiva quando incorporada ao projeto do produto, pois possibilita uma análise dos impactos durante todo o seu ciclo de vida. Os resíduos de embalagens são particularmente preocupantes, pelos materiais utilizados e pelo volume que ocupam nos aterros sanitários. A análise das potencialidades da prevenção de resíduos de embalagens justifica-se pelas características destes resíduos quanto a degradabilidade e volume, e também pela vida reduzida associada às embalagens. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar uma análise das potencialidade da prevenção de resíduos de embalagens com abordagem sobre o seu consumo e seu projeto, através da introdução de considerações ambientais no desenvolvimento de embalagens. Para isso, buscou-se um referencial que permitisse entender os mecanismos do modelo de produção e consumo, as tendências de consumo, o comportamento dos consumidores e sua importância na modificação dos projetos de embalagens. No desenvolvimento de embalagens foram identificadas as alternativas quanto às considerações ambientais durante a fase de projeto. Finalmente...
A ocupação maciça das áreas urbanas gera um aumento no número de automóveis e caminhões que transitam nessas áreas, dificultando a circulação e comprometendo a eficiência da distribuição física de bens, criando congestionamentos e desperdício de tempo e dinheiro. A distribuição urbana é hoje um dos principais problemas logísticos ao longo da cadeia de abastecimento. Normalmente, os esforços para aumento da eficiência desta atividade estão voltados para estratégias de transportes e de armazenagem. Pouco se explora neste contexto a embalagem como elemento de racionalização e aumento de eficiência das operações logísticas de coleta e entrega. O objetivo desse trabalho é realizar um estudo exploratório para avaliar o desempenho de sistemas de embalagem sob a ótica da logística. Para essa avaliação foi utilizado o Packaperforma (PPF), metodologia de avaliação do desempenho de embalagens na qual os profissionais envolvidos na cadeia de suprimentos são entrevistados e julgam segundo critérios específicos. Foram estudados três sistemas de embalagens para acondicionamento de molho de tomate com distribuição final ocorrendo em pontos de venda com diferentes portes e localização (dentro ou fora da zona de máxima restrição de circulação). Os resultados obtidos mostraram que não houve diferença de desempenho global entre os sistemas de embalagens nas cadeias de suprimentos analisadas e indicam que...
O uso de embalagens poliméricas para contato com alimentos tem crescido nas últimas décadas devido ao aumento do consumo de produtos industrializados. Contaminantes inorgânicos, tais como chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), mercúrio (Hg), e arsênio (As), cuja maior fonte são aditivos, principalmente catalisadores, estabilizantes térmicos, pigmentos e corantes inorgânicos, podem fazer parte da embalagem e migrar para o alimento. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA), através da Resolução nº 52 de 2010 estabelece limites e método analítico para quantificar contaminantes inorgânicos em pigmentos e corantes utilizados na fabricação de embalagens e indica também limites de migração dos contaminantes das embalagens poliméricas pigmentadas para uma solução de ácido acético 3%. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar os teores totais de Pb, Cd, Hg e As nas embalagens de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD) e polipropileno (PP), utilizadas no acondicionamento de iogurte e sorvete, respectivamente, estudar a migração desses elementos para o alimento e para a solução de ácido acético 3%, utilizando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. O método aplicado foi validado e os parâmetros linearidade...
This paper discusses the regulation of packaging and labeling of foods throughout the 20th century, with a focus on the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act of 1966. The paper is divided into three sections: first, an overview of the regulatory environment and packaging and labeling practices from the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906 to the Senate Hearings in 1961 to discuss reform of packaging and labeling law; second, a detailed examination of the development of Fair Packaging and Labeling Act; and third, a survey of government, media, industry, and public response to the Act and an analysis of the efficacy of the Act both at the time of passage and today.
Background: Food marketing is pervasive in high- and low/middle-income countries and is recognized as a significant risk factor for childhood obesity. Although food packaging is one of the most important marketing tools to persuade consumers at the point-of-sale, scant research has examined how it influences children’s perceptions. This study was conducted in Guatemala and aimed to understand which snack foods are the most frequently purchased by children and how aspects of food packaging influence their product perceptions. Methods: Six activity-based focus groups were conducted in two elementary public schools with thirty-seven children (Grades 1 through 6, age range 7–12 years old). During each focus group, children participated in three activities: 1) list their most frequently purchased food products; 2) select the picture of their favorite product, the packaging they liked best, and the product they thought was the healthiest from eight choices; and 3) draw the package of a new snack. Results: Children reported purchasing salty snacks most frequently. Most children chose their favorite product based on taste perceptions, which can be influenced by food packaging. Visual elements influenced children’s selection of favorite packaging (i.e....
The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how the tool of re-engineering can
successfully be used to dissect competitive packaging and, in turn, stimulate new,
innovative packaging developments.
The organizational challenges and hurdles in achieving innovation have changed in
recent years. Mergers and acquisitions have resulted in the creation of mega-corporations.
The result has been a change in business philosophy from generalization to specialization
for maximum profitability. The challenge of specialization is that it stifles creativity, and
this includes the development of innovative packaging.
One of the ways the packaging engineer can overcome these challenges and drive
innovation is through the re-engineering of competitive packages. The key to successful
re-engineering is the complete dissection of competitive packaging in order to define its
characteristics and ultimately improve on the concept. It is through this improvement of
design, form, or function that innovation is achieved. The use of re-engineering can save
organizations time and money as it dramatically shortens the development process. The
ability to develop and execute innovation is key to the long-term health of corporations.
This thesis will review two successful applications of the re-engineering tool in
developing innovative packaging. Both projects...
This paper presents the analysis of the modern packaging technology in the
United States, summarizing and featuring the important points and aspects that can be
implemented in Russia.
The paper emphasizes the important role of packaging in advertising, marketing,
distribution and shipping of products, as well as its necessity in order to maintain the
products and packaging integrity during shipment and distribution.
The level of packaging identity in Russia is close or may be a little bit above zero;
the paper gives the detailed analysis of current state of the Russian packaging industry,
food distribution and the current trends in packaging improvement.
The study provides the basic ideas on structuring logistics management in the
US, which plays an important role in business process in the majority of the
industrialized countries, giving specific examples and figures from the latest scientific
This thesis examines some of the institutions and organizations that play an
important role in food research and product development. Packaging practices, issues and
strategies in both the public and private sectors in evidence throughout Thailand are also
explored. To gain a better perspective of packaging strategies in Thailand, political and
economic considerations in the Asia Pacific region are taken into account.
Since packaging and packaging materials are vital to growing and newly emerging
economies, just as they are to mature economies, issues pertaining to seafoods, pineapples
and other fruits, packaged drinks, beer, the packaging of processed chicken and duck meat
products are also discussed.
It is to be noted that in 1960, agriculture was the leading sector in Thailand's
economy contributing 40 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) while manufacturing
made up only 12.5 percent. By 1981, manufacturing had replaced agriculture as the largest
sector. In 1989, the share of manufacturing output in the GDP had risen to 26 percent while
that of agriculture had declined to 15 percent. By 1995 agriculture had fallen as low as 13
percent of GDP, while manufacturing had increased to 30 percent and had become more
diversified in terms of both products and market outreach.
Major findings on general trends in packaging and trends for the use of particular
packaging materials or methods lead to significant restructuring of many companies in
This study addresses technical skills for packaging sales. Based
on the results of the study, a training manual and course of
instruction have been developed to introduce an innovative
approach to packaging sales. "Technical Skills for Packaging
Sales" defines the packaging sales professional, or PSP, a new
kind of professional combining the skills of the salesperson with
expertise of an engineer. Firmly grounded in the customer--
comes-first philosophy, the PSP is a problem solver, able to
evaluate any packaging application to satisfy the customer's
needs. "Technical Skills for Packaging Sales" explains an
engineer's approach to packaging, including analyzing details,
writing specifications, reading drawings, evaluating materials,
understanding manufacturing machinery, flow-charting
applications, solving problems, and writing proposals. The
addition of the engineering perspective to the sales person's
selling skills creates a versatile PSP- It also establishes a
common ground between the two professionals and builds a long
term working relationship with the common goal of solving the
This thesis is a result of my interest in implementing Lean Six Sigma into Indian packaging companies because the Indian industry is growing at 18-20% annually (Samal, 2010). This growth rate is expected to triple in the next five years. With USA outsourcing to foreign nations this substantial growth, as I envision the USA companies who are seeking India packaging materials will benefit from my original approach for converting the Indian packaging industry using Lean Six Sigma.
I have a strong personal and professional desire to improve the manufacturing within India. It is the country in which I grew up and where my family currently lives and works.
The main objective of this research is to accomplish several major tasks: 1) Introduce a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt DMAIC methodology to an India packaging company and 2) Show how a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt would implement the DMAIC approach in a small Indian packaging company that plans to do business within the USA boundaries and 3) Utilize this packaging company as a model for other India packaging companies to follow if their plans are to sell quality packaging materials to the USA companies.
The purpose of this study was to record and analyze the benefits a company can gain by developing and implementing a Supplier Packaging Guideline. Many of the examples published online are available for evaluation, however there are no recorded results or development methodology for these.
Fifty-nine industry professionals were surveyed regarding their current use of Supplier Packaging Guidelines.
The following conclusions were made based on all applicable research:
1. Supplier Packaging Guidelines are in use by many companies in the United States. a. Survey shows 73 percent of the population uses this type of reference document. b. Of the documents currently released most are in the age range of 1 - 14 years.
2. The use of Supplier Packaging Guidelines is not solely dependent on the operation of Internal Packaging Departments. a. Eighty percent of companies who do not have an Internal Packaging Department use a Supplier Packaging Guideline.
3. The conducted survey shows that companies with 10 suppliers or less are more likely to not use a Supplier Packaging Guideline.
4. Most companies in the Unites Stated work with international suppliers. a. Survey shows 90 percent use at least one International Supplier. b. China is the most frequently used International Supplier.
5. Majority of companies that have international suppliers use Supplier Packaging Guidelines. a. Survey shows 73 percent of companies with International Suppliers have a Supplier Packaging Guideline.
6. The companies who participated in this survey that have 200+ suppliers represent every industry type. a. The average number of companies who have 200+ suppliers is 54.5 percent per industry type.
7. Majority of the guidelines represented by this survey population are rated a three or higher (scale from 1 - 5) for guideline detail level. a. There is no obvious correlation between guideline detail level and industry type.
8. The average number of benefits realized by the companies who use Supplier Packaging Guidelines is 3.72. a. High majority of companies using Supplier Packaging Guidelines recorded more than one benefit. b. There is no recognizable correlation between detail level and number of benefits realized.
An extreme amount of time and money is lost when a company utilizes an inadequate
packaging documentation system. Problems such as confusion, decreased productivity,
inaccurate information, and inefficient time to market arise. Having the right tool (in this case
specific software) for the job will successfully provide needed information to flow throughout a
packaging documentation system. In investigating the importance of this tool, Duracell will be
the company focused on as part of this case study.
Duracell's current packaging documentation
system consists of a series of internal electronic transfers and physical distribution of packaging
specifications. Relevant information is distributed among departments inside the company and
other departments/affiliated businesses outside of the company. Duracell, as well as many other
companies, can cut significant costs by effectively managing information and having well organized
proficiently operating specification management software. The purpose of this study
is to compare, evaluate, and determine Duracell's current packaging documentation management
needs. After examining DCS (Document Control System) 6.0 Professional, it was found to be a
much more effective software than Duracell's current DCS software system...
This paper explores the possibility of INA brand motor oil packaging
system optimization. Research has been conducted in order to
recognize the typical failure pattern of one-liter motor oil container,
according to ASTM D2659-84. The findings of this study identify an
opportunity for improvement in primary package design, as well as an
overall reduction in expenditure for motor oils packaging as a function
of improved distribution process.
Based on significant cost savings achieved by packaging system
optimization, this project study recommends implementation of the
project at INA Maziva Rijeka.
Optimization of the Distribution Packaging is one of the several most advisable studies
to work on when a new warehouse project is initiated.
The study reviews the current Distribution packaging status and proceeds with
evaluation of the improved transport boxes with a better Area and Cube Pallet efficiency.
Data collection and recognition of the used 100 different types of folding cartons and
bundles is followed by evaluation of their packaging into new proposed transport boxes,
according to the specified packaging demands.
Therefore, the basic evaluation tool of this study was the computer program that
matches unit pack dimensions and their arrangement inside box together with transport box
dimensions and their stacking pattern on the pallet.
After computer analyzes, most acceptable solutions were selected according to the
specified demands, and in line with selected solutions a group of new transport boxes for
optimization was singled out.
Finally the results of the Area and Cube Pallet efficiency for current transport boxes
were compared with that for new transport boxes to highlight the improvement achieved
with distribution packaging optimization.
This study addresses the over-packaging phenomena in packaging design perspectives
and, through the review of architectural design methods and packaging design principles,
sets up a SyNalysis packaging design method with the packaging design process.
Furthermore, an example of a PC magnifier redesigning is demonstrated in the thesis,
step by step.
The SyNalysis method contains scientific analytical methods and the designer's creative,
synthetic methods. Its embodiment is presented in three processes: analysis, design and
evaluation of the processes.
The SyNalysis packaging design method serves as a guide to help packaging designers,
and especially new and inexperienced designers pursue a more logical and practical way
to create a better design. In addition, this packaging design method can also help
packaging science students master packaging design skills in a more efficient way.
The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether John Deere's packaging process needed to
be streamlined, and whether consideration should be given to engaging the packaging
department earlier in the product development process. An IMPACT study produced a flowchart
of the current packaging system, which identified gaps in the current packaging process.
Evaluation of the IMPACT study isolated the packaging process areas that needed to be modified
to create an improved packaging decision process. A survey was then given to several thousand
Deere dealers to determine whether Deere's packaging and delivery of service parts was meeting
customer expectations. The survey results provided a favorable response, but also indicated that
there was room for improvement by identifying families of parts, which required some
packaging modifications to better protect the service parts.
This study is focused on the cost justification of the different levels of
packaging line automation: manual, semi-automatic, and fully automatic of canned
chunk pineapple in syrup which is packed in #10 cans. The packaging line criteria and
the line designs are established. The suitable machines and the labor input for each step
of the packaging line are indicated. In addition, the total machine cost and the total labor
input for each level of packaging line automation are shown and compared. As a result,
in Thailand, the manual packaging line shows the lowest production cost However, in
the US, the fully automatic line results in the lowest production cost The result of the
study will aid a manufacturer in making a decision on the appropriate level of packaging
line automation, the location of the plant, and the machine selection.
The purpose of this study was to determine the packaging usage of the foodservice industry in
today's marketplace. It summarized the foodservice packaging formats in terms of relative
volume related to usage, as well as the packaging materials broken down by sector. The
opinions of industry professionals toward food packaging formats were evaluated. Two different
measurement instruments were used to obtain information. A survey was used to obtain the
opinions of foodservice professionals in regards to the different packaging formats, and an audit
form was used to inventory the packaging formats within the different segments. It was
determined that foodservice professionals like packaging that is re-closeable, provides easy
access to the product, that is quick and easy to open, and that is easy to handle. It was also
determined that plastic is the most stocked material within the foodservice industry, and pouches
are the most stocked format.
This research project is a result of a problem-solving proposal that was submitted to Program Chair Dr. Daniel Goodwin on June 28, 2010. The proposal recommends that RIT’s Packaging Science Program establish a unique Lean Six Sigma Green Belt in Packaging Science Certificate program for undergraduate students. The proposal was developed as a result of receiving input from the RIT Packaging Industrial Advisory Board, from researching packaging job descriptions and from Professor Dr. Duane P. Beck’s extensive Lean Six Sigma experience.
Students who are successful in receiving the certificate will be able to demonstrate problem-solving skills in the packaging industry. The proposal also identifies three RIT benefits as stated below:
“Green Belt Certificate Program Benefits:
1) With the Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certificate, the student will stand above and beyond other graduating students from other colleges and universities.
2) It is our vision that the student will receive higher starting salary offers because of achieving higher standards in their chosen educational program.
3) According to an ANSI representative, “if we are successful in the development, coordination and sustainability of this innovative program...
This thesis is designed to be a handbook on the phenomenon
of electrostatic discharge (ESD) and its deleterious effects on
electrically-sensitive electronic devices. Packaging and
handling of sensitive devices occurs at every step in the
assembly of such devices. Once the hardware is designed (and
this may include some ESD-protective mechanisms) , it is the
packaging of ESD-sensitive devices that determines their ultimate
fate: being 100% reliable, being among the "walking wounded," or
being completely useless.
Electrostatic discharge is a phenomenon experienced in many
industries from foods to pharmaceuticals, aerospace to
communications, medical packaging to explosives, military to
optics, and most predominantly the electronics industry. An
understanding of ESD phenomenon is essential in some industries,
critical in others.
This handbook focuses on the problems of the electronics
industry. It is an industry that touches all others, and it is
plagued, often critically, with the problems of ESD. There is a
general lack of understanding of the problems caused by
electrostatic discharge. The unfortunate side effects of this
lack of understanding are the purchase of inappropriate materials
and little impact on rising damage to electrically-sensitive