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Revisão urbanística das perimetrais. As avenidas perimetrais da área central como suporte para o transporte público de São Paulo; An urbanistic review of the ring roads. The perimetral routes as a public transport infrastructure

Muzi, Alessandro Moreno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2014 PT
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65.9%
O objeto de estudo deste trabalho são as avenidas perimetrais da Área Central da cidade de São Paulo descritas a partir do seu desempenho atual. A descrição das avenidas as aborda a partir do entendimento de como sistemas de mobilidade podem ser avaliados e descritos do ponto de vista urbanístico. A partir desta afirmação discuto alguns aspectos para sua caracterização, levando em conta a importância do transporte coletivo para os espaços da Área Central. Neste sentido, discuto a articulação entre perimetrais e radias, elementos que as vinculam ao sistema de transporte metropolitano; a existência de uma rede de espaços públicos na Área Central conflitantes com sua utilização como suporte das redes de transporte que atingem a Área Central; e, finalmente, a ideia de que as vias perimetrais não são um conjunto coerente de vias. Em outro eixo de análise, estudo o histórico de formação da área, visando o entendimento das condicionantes de projeto que foram responsáveis pela construção dos trechos que a compõem. Este histórico é pautado pela ideia de que é possível entender a formação da área através não só da construção de seus espaços mas também de como estes espaços foram utilizados como suporte das redes de transporte metropolitano. Finalmente...

Public Transport Subsidies and Affordability in Mumbai, India

Cropper, Maureen; Bhattacharya, Soma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
This paper describes the role of public transport and the nature and incidence of transport subsidies in Mumbai, India. Mumbai has an extensive rail and bus network, and public transport is used for over 75 percent of all motorized trips in Greater Mumbai. Both rail and bus fares in Mumbai are subsidized: BEST, which operates public buses in Mumbai, is also an electric utility, and subsidizes bus fares from electricity revenues. We analyze the incidence of these subsidies, and their effect on mode choice, using data from a survey of households in Greater Mumbai. In Mumbai, as in many cities, the middle class is more likely to use public transport for travel than the poor. The poor, however, also use public transit, and their expenditure on public transit constitutes, on average, a larger share of their income than it does for the middle class. It is, therefore, the case that the poor benefit from transit subsidies in Mumbai, as well as the middle and upper-middle classes; however, the poorest 27 percent of the population receives only 19 percent of bus subsidies and 15.5 percent of rail subsidies. Indeed...

A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.03%
This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has been done so far, propose basic benchmarking elements and test them, and identify lessons for a simple and sustainable urban transport benchmarking framework. A major component of this study was to investigate (a) the availability of data for benchmarking and (b) the value of benchmarking on the basis of limited data. The study therefore proposes a benchmarking framework for urban transport, focusing on the performance of public transport. Because the design of a benchmarking framework depends on the objectives sought from it, the study focused on the performance of public transport systems from the policymaker s perspective. The study included pilot application of the proposed framework in five cities from three continents Beijing...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.02%
The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in ECA : Policy Options

Monsalve, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.06%
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) generated from transport are among the fastest growing in Europe and in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, posing a challenge in creating a low-carbon future, as economic development has been paralleled with a modal share increasingly dominated by roads.1 This modal shift, as in the European Union (EU), has been driven by a number of factors, including growing affluence, suburbanization, and falling land use densities in urban areas, which have translated into more widespread vehicle ownership, increasing trip numbers and lengths, while reducing the financial viability of public transport and non-motorized transport. This paper begins by reviewing recent trends in transport and GHG emission trends in the ECA region, using trends in the EU-15 and EU-27 as comparators.8 Subsequently, it will provide an overview of climate friendly transport policies for the road, rail, and air transport modes, before presenting some land transport success stories and then turning to a discussion on how to use revenues generated from pricing policy instruments. The objective is to provide a menu of policy options to improve the functioning of the transport sector in ECA...

Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation : Transition to Long-Term Sustainability

Oh, JungEun; Gwilliam, Kenneth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
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56.05%
Russian cities are undergoing critical economic and social changes that affect the performance and condition of their urban transport systems. While the population of most large cities in Russia (over one million residents) has remained relatively unchanged over the last decade, the average income of the urban dwellers has sharply increased. The number of private cars per capita has increased rapidly, generating a demand for urban mobility which is increasingly difficult to meet. This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation (the Review, hereafter) aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network.

Urban Transport for Development : Towards an Operationally-Oriented Strategy

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.06%
This paper arose from the perception that a gap existed between the practice of project design and the formal Bank strategies for transport and urban sectors as stated in the cited reports. Formal strategies tend to be too general to be linked meaningfully to project designs. The paper in hand attempts to close this gap by putting forward a different, operationally-oriented concept of urban transport strategy and derives one such strategy from a review of recent Bank-funded projects. The term "operationally-oriented" means that the strategy is expressed in terms of objectives, policies, institutions and investments, mimicking the structure common to all individual projects. Projects on which the paper is based date from the last 15 years. They exhibit a wide diversity of features, reflecting inherited local conditions, the nature and rhythms of socio-economic changes underway, and the vintage of client-Bank relations. Yet, a strong central tendency is also evident, amounting to a coherent and robust approach. The core strategy...

A Framework for Urban Transport Projects : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.09%
This paper starts with a brief perspective on urban transport in developing countries, followed by a detailed presentation of an overall framework for making projects in this sector. Additional details on cities and projects used as case studies are given in the accompanying tables. The challenge for the Bank is to assist client cities in providing transport infrastructure and services that respond to demographic, spatial and economic growth in ways that balance the many different competing interests. Reflecting the importance that poverty and environmental factors are given in its development lending, the key strategic goal of the Bank is to protect and nurture public transport services and non-motorized transport modes, with underlying meta-objectives of equity and sustainability. In the policy dimension, the following approach features: (i) the equitable allocation of existing/new street space to protect and nurture public transport, and non-motorized modes; (ii) a for-the market rather than in the market...

Institutional Labyrinth : Designing a Way Out for Improving Urban Transport Services--Lessons from Current Practice

Kumar, Ajay; Agarwal, O. P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.06%
Severe congestion, poor air quality, increases in road accidents, and explosive growth in energy consumption are manifestations of rapid motorization in cities around the globe, especially in the developing world. The tendency in most developing cities has been to deal with these problems in a piecemeal fashion, largely through supply side interventions, such as widening roads, constructing flyovers, or building high-cost mass transit systems. It is becoming increasingly recognized that effective solutions lie in comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate what would normally be patchwork efforts and, in addition, combine supply side efforts with demand side measures. In general, this means that multiple, well-integrated actions need to be taken. Integrated and comprehensive thinking and implementation is required across multiple subsystems and disciplines, such as land use planning, environmental quality, energy efficiency, and services for the poor and physically disadvantaged. The ability to undertake comprehensive planning and execution that is integrated functionally...

Developing the Public Transport Sector in China

Gwilliam, Ken
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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65.95%
The focus of this discussion paper is on institutional arrangements for the provision of public transport bus services, including the introduction of private capital in bus operations, the value of competitive tendering mechanisms as a determining factor in selecting suppliers, and the role of regulation. The purpose of this paper is to assist Chinese municipalities by describing the experience of other countries that have attempted to implement similar reforms, which may be considered relevant to China. The goal of this paper is to assist interested municipalities, the Ministry of Construction, and other relevant Chinese authorities to: 1) identify models of regulation and competition for the urban bus industry, based on the experience of Chinese and international practices, which are best, suited for the current and projected future of the urban bus industry in China; and 2) provide guidance for municipalities that are considering restructuring their bus industries.

Carbon Price Efficiency : Lock-in and Path Dependence in Urban Forms and Transport Infrastructure

Avner, Paolo; Rentschler, Jun; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run...

Toward Sustainable and Energy Efficient Urban Transport

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Many cities of developing countries are experiencing rapid growth of motorized transportation. This is leading to severe congestion, which, in turn, is reducing productivity. Road accidents have been increasing. Transport emissions have become a major contributor to severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The main cause of these problems has been the increasing preference for personal motor vehicles for commuting to work and getting around the city. In many countries, urban development practices have worked in favor of such preference, leading to urban sprawl. Thus, remedial measures have to focus on reversing the preference for such modes of travel, shifting to public transport, cycling, or walking, and building and retrofitting cities to minimize the need for private automobiles. The objective of this guidance note is to present a systematic, practical, and comprehensive approach to dealing with the problems of urban transport. It outlines a framework of possible interventions and demonstrates how such interventions relate to the overall objectives of improving mobility and energy efficiency as well as reducing air pollution and road accidents. Thereafter...

A Gender Assessment of Mumbai's Public Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.03%
This report provides: a high-level understanding on women's travel patterns that builds the foundation for understanding the ways in which they use public transport and the degree to which this is met by the public transport systems; and a first-cut view on women's priorities in public transport and potential ideas for addressing them. The purpose of this report is to initiate a dialog on these questions and begin to develop a picture of the role transport currently plays in women's lives with an understanding of the further role it can play, given women's specific needs. This study was carried out in Mumbai. Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. Throughout this report the authors has used the term 'women' to refer to women and girls above the age of 16 as several of our survey respondents are students between the ages of 17 and 21. However, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the public transport needs of school- children; many of them use public transport to go to better schools that are father away from their homes. The study was on public buses and trains...

West Bank and Gaza - Transport Sector Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
The purpose of this Transport Sector Note (TSN) is to assist the Palestinian Authority (PA) in developing a strategy for the sector that can aid in addressing the immediate constraints and transport issues in support of the PA's effort to revive the national economy, improve mobility and reduce poverty. The TSN also aims to assist the responsible sector ministries prepare a coherent strategic framework and program for the sector. Secondary objectives are to update the Bank's knowledge of the transport sector priorities and identify priority interventions and support for the donor community s consideration. The scope of this TSN encompasses the transport infrastructure, including the road network, ports, and crossings, as well as the public transport system. After an introductory chapter, the Note includes a review of the following topics: current status of the transport sector; proposed strategic framework for development of the transport sector; and financing the proposed strategic framework.

Yemen, Republic of - Urban Transport in Sana’a : Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Yemen, the fastest urbanizing country in the Middle East and North Africa region, has a very limited natural resource base and the efficiency of its cities is therefore essential for its future economic growth. However, this efficiency is increasingly handicapped by the poor performance of urban transport, especially in the capital Sana'a. This report presents the main findings of this review and makes key recommendations to improve the efficiency of urban transport in Sana'a. It contains the following chapters: a first chapter presents the general context of the study, characterized by fast demographic and spatial growth in Sana'a, causing major difficulties in terms of urban transport management; a second chapter analyses and describes the main underlying issues affecting the performance and efficiency of Sana'a transport system; a third chapter presents institutional, technical and financing recommendations to improve the performance of Sana'a transport system; and a fourth chapter presents a tentative three-year action plan for implementation of the recommendations.

Making Transport Work for Women and Men : Challenges and Opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa, Lessons from Case Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
Transport is not 'gender neutral'. Men and women hold different socio-economic roles and responsibilities that are associated with different patterns of transport access, needs, and use. Yet, there is often not much recorded evidence on the differences in gender travel needs between men and women, in urban areas in particular. Transport planning has not routinely addressed these differences and sex-disaggregated data on transport needs and patterns is very limited. The present regional report summarizes the findings and recommendations of four separate case studies on gender and transport conducted in Casablanca, Morocco, Sana'a and rural Yemen, and Nablus, Jenin, and Tulkarem in the northern part of the West Bank, during between September 2008 and September 2009. The main objective with summarizing the case studies into a regional report is to provide a regional overview relevant for a better understanding of how transport infrastructure and services are facilitating or constraining mobility by gender in the MENA region. In particular...

Planning for the Laobaixing : Public Participation in Urban Transport Project, Liaoning, China

Chen, Wenling; Mehndiratta, Shomik Raj
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
International experience suggests that in the realm of urban transport, a public participation process can be a valuable complement to the technical planning process in generating good projects with widespread distributional benefits that minimize concentration of adverse impacts. If properly designed, participation processes also offer an opportunity to incorporate the interests of vulnerable groups into the planning process. This paper presents a recent case study of a World Bank financed urban infrastructure improvement project in Liaoning, China, where the successful development of a meaningful public participation process influenced project design to better address the broad needs of the project beneficiaries. Particularly, the participatory process significantly influenced the project design and raised city leaders' sensitivity to public needs. Through the process the project shifted focus from major road expansion to secondary road improvements. Additionally, the participation processes picked up latent issues to better address needs of non-auto users...

World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review : The Case of Cairo, Egypt

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
The increased density and sprawl of Cairo's urban areas are the consequence of a number of factors, of which the major ones are the physical and geographic features, transport supply, urban policy and the control of urban development, market laws, government aid, property developers, consumer sensitivity to building quality and costs, travelling distances, tariffs, the immediate surrounding area, etc. The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a transport policy on the accessibility and development of the Cairo urban area. Cairo's transport policy has encouraged tremendous development of major road infrastructures, partial liberalization of the surface public transport network resulting in a considerable expansion of private microbus lines, and an extension of the bus network at the expense of the density of supply and of regularity, and without creating segregated lanes as recommended in successive transport and urban studies, amongst other significant developments. This report explores the influence of transport on the development of urban areas...

Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study; Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commute mode choice: a natural experimental study

Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
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65.81%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2015.11.002; Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. Results: All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34...

Public Transport Service Optimization and System Integration

Fang, Ke; Zimmerman, Samuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.05%
Public transport has the most customer appeal and is most efficient when it is planned and operated as a seamless, integrated system. This is particularly important in urban environments in fast growing economies such as China and India, where public transport must increasingly compete with private vehicles which offer door-to-door, one seat travel irrespective of time of day or day of the week. International experience suggests that public transport planners must recognize two integration dimensions: (a) integration among all modes and routes comprising the multi-modal public transport network, (b) integration of the physical and operational elements or each respective mode and service, e.g., metro or bus. Successful integration in both dimensions will provide a more customer-friendly experience and make public transport more efficient and cost-effective. This will help maximize public transport ridership and revenue, increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs and subsidies and general environmental...