Página 1 dos resultados de 1956 itens digitais encontrados em 0.013 segundos

The potential business impacts of Semantic Web for system integration

Saita, Akio, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 leaves; 5338615 bytes; 5347582 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
This thesis presents research about the potential business impacts of the Semantic Web. The concept of the Semantic Web is an expansion of the Web for computers, enabling them to comprehend the meaning of information. In addition, Semantic Web Services (SWS), the emerging convergence of Web Services with the Semantic Web, is the next major generation of the Web (and of the Internet), in which e-services and business communication become more knowledge-based and agent-based. The study arose out of a technology review of the Semantic Web and its current adoption. Following further analysis and research into business cases involving Semantic Web applications, the author focused specifically on the system integration business in an effort to understand the potential business impacts of the Semantic Web for system integration. In the system integration field, there are various trends for companies thinking about adopting the Semantic Web into the real business world. In this thesis, I offer answers to two questions: Why do system integrators need the Semantic Web, and how they should go about adopting it?; by Akio Saita.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Management of Technology Program...

Strategies for mitigating adverse environmental impacts due to structural building materials

Chaturvedi, Swati, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 leaves; 5486898 bytes; 5486705 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate these impacts: 1. Reduce consumption; 2. Select materials to minimize impacts; and 3. Explore alternative new materials that have lesser impacts. The main findings and recommendations in each of these areas are as follows: Reduce Consumption: While absolute consumption of materials will grow with a growing population, recycling and reuse of structural members can reduce use of virgin material. Since recycling is already widely practiced, reuse of structural members is the primary means of further reducing consumption. Barriers to reuse can be eliminated by establishing design standards and regulations for reuse of structural sections, and creating functioning markets for re-useable sections. Select materials to minimize impacts: While designers are keen to select materials with minimum impacts, they do not have appropriate education or tools for the purpose. Standardization and simplification of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools, and education of designers are identified as the main areas for improvement. The main recommendations are: i) standardize LCA tools; reduce the number of impact categories...

Business impacts of CRM implementations; Business impacts of customer relationship management implementations

Pinto de Mendonça, José Rogério, 1963-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 76 leaves; 5850671 bytes; 5850428 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
by José Rogério Pinto de Mendonça.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Management of Technology Program, 2002.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 75-76).

Regulating mercury with the Clear Skies Act : the resulting impacts on innovation, human health, and the global community

Sweeney, Meghan (Meghan Kathleen)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 leaves; 9639539 bytes; 9639147 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require the U.S. EPA to control mercury emission outputs from coal-burning power plants through implementation of MACT, Maximum Achievable Control Technology, standards. However, in 2003 the Bush Administration revealed an alternative and controversial regulatory strategy for mercury, developing a cap and trade emissions credit trading program under the Clear Skies Initiative. Although emissions trading was proven to be a successful regulatory strategy for sulfur dioxide through the 1992 Acid Rain Program, the uniquely dangerous properties of mercury make this market-based regulation risky for certain vulnerable segments of the population. Since its unveiling, the Clear Skies cap and trade approach has been criticized for being too industry-friendly and inadequately setting limits on mercury emissions. Current challenges to the Clear Skies approach to the regulation of mercury claim that not only is it illegal under the Clear Air Act, but that it inhibits innovation and undermines an international strategy to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. This thesis evaluates the critiques of Clear Skies and the reasoning given by the EPA in defense of the regulation.; (cont.) Recent academic studies and a comparison case study with the Acid Rain Program are used to discuss the probable effects of Clear Skies on mercury reduction. The main questions addressed in the thesis are: 1) what is the motivation for Clear Skies? 2) what is the legal basis for the Initiative? 3) what are the potential failures of Clear Skies in protecting against mercury exposure? 4) what will be the resulting impact of Clear Skies on technological innovation? and 5) how does Clear Skies compare with international mercury reduction strategies?; by Meghan Sweeney.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Wild Civility: Cultivating the Foundations of Social Justice through Participation in a Wilderness Program

Hamel, Erica
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This heuristic inquiry examined if the foundations of social justice knowledge and beliefs were developed as a result of participation in a wilderness program and what knowledge and beliefs were developed. There were six participants in this study. Data collection involved participants completing pre- and post- program interviews and daily journals during the program. Through inductive analysis six themes emerged. Three of these were related to the development of certain foundations of social justice: (a) experienced conflict development and resolution; (b) experienced relationship change and development; and (c) shift from “me” to “we” mentality. The remaining three themes were included as additional findings: (a) experienced personal change and development; (b) identification of specific factors of the program responsible for changes; and (c) bringing learning back to everyday life. Results highlight wilderness program impacts on participants’ social justice knowledges and beliefs and inform wilderness program providers and social justice educators.

Handbook on Impact Evaluation : Quantitative Methods and Practices

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Koolwal, Gayatri B.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This book reviews quantitative methods and models of impact evaluation. The formal literature on impact evaluation methods and practices is large, with a few useful overviews. Yet there is a need to put the theory into practice in a hands-on fashion for practitioners. This book also details challenges and goals in other realms of evaluation, including monitoring and evaluation (M&E), operational evaluation, and mixed-methods approaches combining quantitative and qualitative analyses. This book is organized as follows. Chapter two reviews the basic issues pertaining to an evaluation of an intervention to reach certain targets and goals. It distinguishes impact evaluation from related concepts such as M&E, operational evaluation, qualitative versus quantitative evaluation, and ex-ante versus ex post impact evaluation. Chapter three focuses on the experimental design of an impact evaluation, discussing its strengths and shortcomings. Various non-experimental methods exist as well, each of which are discussed in turn through chapters four to seven. Chapter four examines matching methods...

Niger - Impacts of Sustainable Land Management Programs on Land Management and Poverty in Niger

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Since the early 1980s, the Government of Niger and its development partners have invested more than 200 billion West African Francs (FCFA) in programs will promote sustainable land management (SLM) and other activities to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Overall, more than 50 programs have promoted SLM in Niger. Despite large investments in SLM programs, their impacts on land management, agricultural production, poverty, and other outcomes are not well known. A few studies have documented impacts of particular projects and land management practices in selected locations, finding many favorable impacts. However, although these studies provide valuable insights, they are limited in scope and by the methods used. A common problem is the absence of suitable counterfactual observations to compare to outcomes for communities and households participating in programs or using particular land management practices, or inadequate definition of the counterfactual used. This analysis is intended to contribute to knowledge about the impacts of SLM programs in Niger by addressing some of the methodological limitations of prior studies. The evaluation is based on a secondary database of major SLM program activities and village characteristics assembled for all villages of Niger...

Designing Cost-Effective Cash Transfer Programs to Boost Schooling among Young Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

Baird, Sarah; McIntosh, Craig; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
As of 2007, 29 developing countries had some type of conditional cash transfer program in place, with many others planning or piloting one. However, the evidence base needed by a government to decide how to design a new conditional cash transfer program is severely limited in a number of critical dimensions. This paper presents one-year schooling impacts from a conditional cash transfer experiment among teenage girls and young women in Malawi, which was designed to address these shortcomings: conditionality status, size of separate transfers to the schoolgirl and the parent, and village-level saturation of treatment were all independently randomized. The authors find that the program had large impacts on school attendance: the re-enrollment rate among those who had already dropped out of school before the start of the program increased by two and a half times and the dropout rate among those in school at baseline decreased from 11 to 6 percent. These impacts were, on average, similar in the conditional and the unconditional treatment arms. Although most schooling outcomes examined here were unresponsive to variation in the size of the transfer to the parents...

Learning through Monitoring : Lessons from a Large Scale Nutrition Program in Madagascar

Galasso, Emanuela; Yau, Jeffrey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Monitoring data are generally collected as a by-product of the process of monitoring program implementation. Yet this rich source of data have not been exploited to assess the effectiveness of the program. In this paper the authors use detailed administered data from a large-scale, community-based nutrition program in Madagascar to argue that this data can be used to estimate the differential effect of increased exposure to the program and study how these returns to exposure evolve over time. They find that the returns to exposure are positive: communities exposed for an additional one or two years display on average lower malnutrition rates of around 7-9 percentage points. And they find that the returns decrease as time and duration increase, although they do not dissipate to zero. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the returns to the program reflect learning effects from the intervention. Finally, the results show higher differential returns to the program in poorer areas and areas more vulnerable to diseases. These findings have important implications for how such programs should be scaled-up within a country.

Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for Program Monitoring and Evaluation: Why Are Mixed-Method Designs Best?

Adato, Michelle
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Despite significant methodological advances, much program evaluation and monitoring data are of limited utility because of an over-reliance on quantitative methods alone. While surveys provide generalizable findings on what outcomes or impacts have or have not occurred, qualitative methods are better able to identify the underlying explanations for these outcomes and impacts, and therefore enable more effective responses. Qualitative methods also inform survey design, identify social and institutional drivers and impacts that are hard to quantify, uncover unanticipated issues, and trace impact pathways. When used together, quantitative and qualitative approaches provide more coherent, reliable, and useful conclusions than do each on their own. This note identifies key elements of good mixed-method design and provides examples of these principles applied in several countries.

What Have Been the Impacts of World Bank CDD programs?

Oshima, Kaori
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Community driven development (CDD) is an approach that emphasizes community control over planning decisions and investment resources. A rigorous evaluation process helps determine CDDs effectiveness in various settings and highlights areas that need strengthening for second phase programs or new projects. This note summarizes the findings of a recently conducted study, What have been the Impacts of World Bank Community Driven Development Programs? CDD impact evaluation review and operational and research implications (Wong 2012), which synthesizes the impact evaluation results of seventeen World Bank CDD programs over the past twenty five years. The study finds that, on the whole, these projects achieved their stated goals of poverty welfare reduction, poverty targeting, and increased access to services. Evidence on governance, social capital, spillovers, and conflict impacts, however, is found to be limited and mixed.

The National Solidarity Program

Beath, Andrew; Christia, Fotini; Enikolopov, Ruben
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Over the past two decades, community-based approaches to project delivery have become a popular means for governments and development agencies to improve the alignment of projects with the needs of rural communities and increase the participation of villagers in project design and implementation. This paper briefly summarizes the results of an impact evaluation of the National Solidarity Program, a community-driven development program in Afghanistan that created democratically elected community development councils and funded small-scale development projects. Using a randomized controlled trial across 500 villages, the evaluation finds that the National Solidarity Program had a positive effect on access to drinking water and electricity, acceptance of democratic processes, perceptions of economic wellbeing, and attitudes toward women. Effects on perceptions of local and national government performance and material economic outcomes were, however, more limited or short-lived.

Economic and Social Impacts of Self-help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Although there has been considerable recent interest in micro-credit programs, rigorous evidence on the impacts of forming self-help groups to mobilize savings and foster social empowerment at the local level is virtually non-existent, despite a large number of programs following this pattern. The authors use a large household survey to assess the economic and social impacts of the formation of self-help groups in India. They find positive impacts on empowerment and nutritional intake in program areas overall and heterogeneity of impacts between members of pre-existing and newly formed groups, as well as non-participants. Female social and economic empowerment in program areas increased irrespective of participation status, suggesting positive externalities. Nutritional benefit was more pronounced for new participants than for members of pre-existing groups. Evidence of higher consumption - but not income or asset formation - by participants suggests that at the time of the survey, the program's main economic impact had been through consumption smoothing and diversification of income sources rather than exploitation of new income sources. Evaluation of such programs in ways that allow heterogeneity of program impact can yield highly policy-relevant insights.

Longer-Term Economic Impacts of Self-Help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Despite the popularity and unique nature of women's self-help groups in India, evidence of their economic impacts is scant. Based on two rounds of a 2,400 household panel, the authors use double differences, propensity score matching, and pipeline comparison to assess economic impacts of longer (2.5-3 years) exposure of a program that promoted and strengthened self-help programs in Andhra Pradesh in India. The analysis finds that longer program exposure has positive impacts on consumption, nutritional intake, and asset accumulation. Investigating heterogeneity of the impacts suggests that even the poorest households were able to benefit from the program. Furthermore, overall benefits would exceed program cost by a significant margin even under conservative assumptions.

Did Latvia's Public Works Program Mitigate the Impact of the 2008-2010 Crisis?

Azam, Mehtabul; Ferré, Céline; Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
To mitigate the impact of the 2008-2010 global financial crisis on vulnerable households, the Government of Latvia established Workplaces with Stipends, an emergency public works program that targeted registered unemployed people who were not receiving unemployment benefits. This paper evaluates the targeting performance and welfare impacts of the program. It exploits the over-subscription of Workplaces with Stipends to define a control group. The paper finds that the program was successful at targeting poor and vulnerable people, and that leakage to non-poor households was small. Using propensity score matching, the paper finds that the program's stipend mitigated the impact of job loss and, in the short term, raised participating household incomes by 37 percent relative to similar households not benefiting from the program. The paper also finds that the foregone income for this program was less than foregone incomes estimated in other countries. This suggests a dearth of income-generating opportunities in Latvia; thus the program provided temporary employment opportunities and helped the unemployed mitigate the impact of the crisis. However...

Do Workfare Participants Recover Quickly from Retrenchment?

Ravallion, Martin; Galasso, Emanuela; Lazo, Teodoro; Philipp, Ernesto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
What happens to participants in a workfare program--a program that imposes work requirements on welfare recipients--when that program is cut? The authors compare the incomes of workfare participants in Argentina to those of nonparticipants and past participants after a severe contraction in aggregate outlays on the program. The authors find evidence of partial income replacement, such that those who left the program were able to make up one quarter of the gross workfare wage within six months. This rises to half in 12 months. The estimates are unbiased in the presence of time-invariant errors from mismatching in the selection of the comparison group. Fully removing selection bias would probably yield even lower income replacement. Test results based on a second follow-up survey that valid inferences can be drawn about program impacts from the authors' measures of income replacement.

Welfare and Poverty Impacts of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme : Evidence from Andhra Pradesh

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This paper uses a three-round 4,000-household panel from Andhra Pradesh together with administrative data to explore short and medium-term poverty and welfare effects of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Triple difference estimates suggest that participants significantly increase consumption (protein and energy intake) in the short run and accumulate more nonfinancial assets in the medium term. Direct benefits exceed program-related transfers and are most pronounced for scheduled castes and tribes and households supplying casual labor. Asset creation via program-induced land improvements is consistent with a medium-term increase in assets by nonparticipants and increases in wage income in excess of program cost.

Evaluating Program Impacts on Mature Self-help Groups in India

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Despite the popularity and the unique nature of women's self-help groups in India, evidence on the economic impact of these groups is scant. On the basis of two rounds of surveys of 2,517 households, we use a strategy of double differences and propensity score matching to assess the economic effects of a program that promoted and strengthened self-help groups in Andhra Pradesh in India. Our analysis finds that longer exposure to the program has a positive impact on consumption, nutritional intake, and asset accumulation. Our investigation into the heterogeneity of these effects suggests that even the poorest households are able to benefit from the program.

Driving segments analysis for energy and environmental impacts of worsening traffic

Feng, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 185 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
During the last two decades, traffic congestion in the U.S. has increased from 30% to 67% of peak period travel. Further, current research shows that measures taken within transportation systems, such as adding capacity, improving operations and managing demand, are not enough to keep congestion from growing worse. With the worsening traffic, the vehicle's fuel consumption and pollutant emissions will inevitably increase. As such, this thesis aims to quantitatively evaluate the energy and environmental impacts of worsening traffic on individual vehicles and the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet, as well as to design feasible measures beyond transportation systems to offset theses impacts. The fuel consumption and emissions of different vehicle types under different driving situations provide the basis for analyzing the energy and environmental impacts of worsening traffic. This thesis defines the concept of "driving segments" to represent all possible driving situations which consist of vehicle speed, operation patterns and road types. For each vehicle type, its fuel consumption and emissions in different "driving segments" can be developed into a matrix by ADVISOR 2004, the vehicle simulation tool. Combining the "driving segments" vehicle performance matrices with the model for traffic congestion...

Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy

Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 p.; 4659664 bytes; 4665030 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), EPPA Health Effects China (EPPA-HEC), was used to evaluate air pollution-related health impacts on the Chinese economy. EPPA-HEC, a computable general equilibrium model, was expanded to endogenously estimate the economy- wide impacts of air pollution. The effects of particulate matter (PM 10), sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were evaluated for 1970 to 2000, based on a set of epidemiological estimates of the effects of exposure to these pollutants. The estimated GDP impact to the Chinese economy of pollution levels above the WHO's recommended thresholds (ambient levels) increased from $15 ($23) billion in 1970 to $50 ($79) billion in 2000 (1997 $USD), despite improvements in overall air quality. This increase was caused by the growing urban population and rising wages that thus increased the value of lost labor and leisure. The benefit Damages as a percent of GDP decreased from a peak of 16% (10%) in 1975 to 7% (4%) in 2000 because the total size of the economy grew much more rapidly than the absolute air pollution damages. Forward simulations considered a cap on pollution...