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Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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46.31%
Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second...

The Impact of Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure : Lights, Shadows, and the Road Ahead

Andrés, Luis A.; Guasch, J. Luis; Haven, Thomas; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
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36.29%
As numerous countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and elsewhere are moving toward a second phase of private participation in infrastructure programs mostly through public-private partnership schemes and other countries are just beginning the process, several concerns remain from the outcomes of the first phase. These concerns are making governments cautious in moving forward. The Impact of private sector participation in infrastructure addresses these concerns and brings clarity to the debate on the impact of private participation in infrastructure. The assessment of this impact may be one of the most emotional policy issues in economics, as it is clouded in a mist of myths, perceptions, and reality. This book analyzes the impact and sorts out the truth from the myths. The authors take a systematic and hard look at the facts (i.e., data) in Latin America, where starting in the late 1980s, many governments brought private sector participation into the delivery of essential utilities services. Although there are many assessments of this experience...

Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.58%
This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies...

The Impact of Policies to Control Motor Vehicle Emissions in Mumbai, India

Takeuchi, Akie; Cropper, Maureen; Bento, Antonio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.58%
This paper examines the impact of measures to reduce emissions from passenger transport, specifically buses, cars, and two-wheelers in Mumbai. These include converting diesel buses to compressed natural gas (CNG), as the Indian Supreme Court required in Delhi, which would necessitate an increase in bus fares to cover the cost of pollution controls. The authors model an increase in the price of gasoline, which should affect the ownership and use of cars and two-wheelers, as well as imposing a license fee on cars to retard growth in car ownership. The impact of each policy on emissions depends not only on how the policy affects the mode that is regulated, but on shifts to other modes. The results suggest that the most effective policy to reduce emissions from passenger vehicles-in terms of the total number of tons of PM10 (particulate matter that measure less than or equal to 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) reduced-is to convert diesel buses to CNG. The conversion of 3,391 diesel buses to CNG would result in an emissions reduction of 663 tons of PM10 a year, 14 percent of total emissions from transport. The bus conversion program passes the cost-benefit test. In contrast, the results suggest the elasticities of emissions from transport with respect to a gasoline tax and a tax on vehicle ownership are -0.04 and -0.10 respectively. As a consequence...

Private Sector Participation in Urban Rail : Getting the Structure Right

Menzies, Iain; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.25%
There is growing interest in using rail transit, trams, metros, light rail, to solve urban transportation problems, particularly road congestion and air pollution. In developing urban rail projects, a range of major cities around the world have turned to public-private partnership models, to leverage both public and private resources and expertise. Dissecting the successes and failures of public-private urban rail schemes, this note examines how policy makers can best deal with the main risks involved in designing, procuring, and implementing such schemes. It also draws lessons on best practice in developing and managing contractual arrangements that can help ensure their success and sustainability.

International Experience in Bus Rapid Transit Implementation : Synthesis of Lessons Learned from Lagos, Johannesburg, Jakarta, Delhi, and Ahmedabad

Kumar, Ajay; Zimmerman, Samuel; Agarwal, O.P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
It is in this context that this study has been undertaken to document BRT case studies in terms of the political setting, institutions/governance, public involvement and communications, service/operations/management and planning and their relationship to investment performance. The study has been undertaken in recognition of the fact that successful implementation and operation of BRT systems often reflects non-physical actors like leadership, communications, organizational structure, service planning and operating practices rather than the design of transitways, stations, terminals and vehicles. This paper does not seek to compare BRT with other forms of public transport but only seeks to evaluate a sample of BRT systems in terms of the softer issues that have contributed making a BRT system successful or not so successful.

Metropolitan Transportation Institutions : Six Case Studies - Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, and the United States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.42%
Transportation has always played a fundamental role in the formation of cities. Ports evolved where rivers flowed into the ocean or at the confluence of major rivers; sleepy outposts at the junction of major roads became bustling trading hubs. Although this relationship between transportation and development has been evident since the creation of the earliest urban societies, all previous conceptions of the city were made obsolete by the advent of the industrial revolution. The transportation challenges raised by this new city centered on congestion. Early forms of transit provided some relief, but as motor vehicles became common place, existing urban streets were overwhelmed. As roadways were enlarged and expressways constructed, the population of new suburbs expanded and the automobile became the dominant form of transportation in many developed cities. To address issues at this scale, cities and countries around the world have developed new institutions that sit between the scale of local and higher order governments. The example of Boston...

Urban Accessibility / Mobility Index Feasibility Stage Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.42%
Given the increasing importance of the urban transport sector, the World Bank decided to explore the feasibility of setting up a possible urban accessibility/mobility index. The purpose of such an index would be to provide an indicator / measurement, of how urban transport systems in different cities compared to one another, and how the transport system developed in each individual city. The aim is to provide client cities and countries, along with the World Bank and other institutions, with some evidence-based information. It is for this reason that the Bank decided to develop a suitable index. However, urban transport has multiple dimensions, and cannot be comprehensively assessed by a single indicator. There is an acute lack of reliable data on different aspects concerning urban transport. Therefore, a compromise was decided upon, in order to develop an index that was both comprehensive and practical. The compromise required that data for the index / indicators should be easy to collect, easy to interpret and understand...

The Long and Winding Path to Private Financing and Regulation of Toll Roads

Estache, Antonio; Romero, Manuel; Strong, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Road transport has long been the dominant form of transport for freight and passenger movement throughout the world. Because most road projects require investments with long amortization periods and because many projects do not generate enough demand to become self-financing through some type of user fee or toll, the road sector remains in the hands of the public sector to a much greater extent than other transport activities. But governments throughout the world, including those of many poor African and South Asian countries, are commercializing their operations to cut costs, improve user orientation, and increase sector-specific revenue. There seems to be demand for toll roads in specific settings, but the problems met by many of this "first generation" of road concessions-from Mexico to Thailand-have given toll projects a bad reputation. Many mistakes were made, and tolling is obviously not the best solution for every road. Most of the alternatives aim at improving efficiency (lowering costs). But there are many ways of getting the private sector involved in toll roads, thus reducing public sector financing requirements for the sector. Understanding the context in which toll roads are viable is essential both for their initial success and for effective long-run regulation. The authors provide a broad overview of issues at stake from the viewpoint of both privatization teams and regulators responsible for supervising contractual commitments of private operators and the government...

Malaysia Economic Monitor, June 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
After a strong finish in 2014, growth moderated in early 2015. Malaysia’s economy expanded by 6.0 percent in 2014, accelerating to 7.3 percent q/q saar in Q42014 due to resilient domestic demand and a pick-up of exports. Growth moderated to 4.7 percent q/q saar in Q1 2015 on account of weaker external demand, but domestic demand remained strong. To transform the planning and delivery of urban transport, Malaysia may consider prioritizing the following reforms: (a) Establish lead transport agencies at the conurbation level that spearhead an integrated approach towards the planning and delivery of urban transport across different modes; (b) identify and implement sustainable financing mechanisms for the lead agency. Introducing local taxes on fuel would not only result in environmental gains and trim the fiscal deficit (by RM10-19 billion), but also fund transport (for example, 24 percent of Vancouver’s transit system is funded by municipal gas taxes). Reviewing impediments to transit-oriented development will be another option...

Planning, Connecting, and Financing Cities--Now : Priorities for City Leaders

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.31%
This report provides Mayors and other policymakers with a policy framework and diagnostic tools to anticipate and implement strategies that can avoid their cities from locking into irreversible physical and social structures. At the core of the policy framework are the three main dimensions of urban development. · Planning— where the focus is on making land transactions easier, and making land use regulations more responsive to emerging needs especially to coordinate land use planning with infrastructure, natural resource management, and risks from hazards; · Connecting—where the focus is on making a city’s markets (for labor, goods, and services) more accessible to neighborhoods in the city and to other cities. Here the focus is also on investing in public transport, and pricing private transport fully; and · Financing— where the focus is on how a city can leverage its own assets to finance new assets for example, through land value capture, establishing creditworthiness for local governments and utilities to access domestic debt and bond markets and how to set clear and consistent rules to attract private investors to create jobs in cities. This report also distills lessons from prototypes urbanization diagnostics which have been piloted to reflect challenges for countries at nascent (Uganda...

Cairo Traffic Congestion Study : Final Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA), with more than 19 million inhabitants, is host to more than one-fifth of Egypt's population. The GCMA is also an important contributor to the Egyptian economy in terms of GDP and jobs. The population of the GCMA is expected to further increase to 24 million by 2027, and correspondingly its importance to the economy will also increase. Traffic congestion is a serious problem in the GCMA with large and adverse effects on both the quality of life and the economy. In addition to the time wasted standing still in traffic, time that could be put to more productive uses, congestion results in unnecessary fuel consumption, causes additional wear and tear on vehicles, increases harmful emissions lowering air quality, increases the costs of transport for business, and makes the GCMA an unattractive location for businesses and industry. These adverse effects have very real and large monetary and nonmonetary costs not only for the economy of the GCMA, but given its size...

Sustainable and Smart Cities

Kahn, Matthew E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This paper explores the challenges and opportunities that government officials face in designing coherent 'rules of the game' for achieving urban sustainability during times of growth. Sustainability is judged by three criteria. The first involves elements of day-to-day quality of life, such as having clean air and water and green space. The provision of these public goods has direct effects on the urban public's health and productivity. The second focuses on the city's greenhouse gas emissions. Developing cities are investing in new infrastructure, from highways and public transit systems to electricity generation and transmission. They are building water treatment, water delivery, and sewage disposal systems. Residents of these cities are simultaneously making key decisions about where they live and work and whether to buy such energy-consuming durables as private vehicles and home air-conditioning units. Given the long-lived durability of the capital stock, short-term decisions will have long-term effects on the city's carbon footprint. The third criterion is a city's resilience to natural disasters and extreme weather events. This subsection focuses on how the urban poor can be better equipped to adapt to the anticipated challenges of climate change.

A Policy Framework for Green Transportation in Georgia : Achieving Reforms and Building Infrastructure for Sustainability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
The Government of Georgia is considering options for reducing fossil fuel imports in favor of introducing large scale use of domestic energy sources for public and private transportation. However, this must be considered within the overall context of green transportation-which will generate benefits well beyond the substitution of fossil fuels with domestic energy sources. The concept of green transportation has emerged in response to growing concerns about climate change; typically this refers to a transportation system characterized by low carbon emissions, i.e., Green House Gasses (GHG). In the context of Georgia, two other important development issues in green transportation in addition to GHG emissions are fossil fuel consumption and air pollution. For the purpose of this study, therefore, green transportation in Georgia refers to reducing the intensity of fossil fuel use and increasing reliance on indigenous energy sources (mainly hydropower), as well as minimizing adverse impacts on the global and local environment through reduced emissions of GHG and local pollutants. Greening transportation will create 'co-benefits': reducing fossil fuel use will help improve the balance of trade and energy security; and employing measures to avoid unnecessary trips and using fewer vehicles for the same number of trips (i.e....

Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

Urban Transport Data Analysis Tool : User's Manual

Agarwal, O. P.; Padam, Gouthami; Bahuguna, Aroha; Pena, Salvador
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The urban population in the developing world is expected to more than double by the middle of the twenty-first century, from 2.3 billion in 2005 to 5.3 billion in 2050. Large cities are growing very rapidly, and services are struggling to keep up. In particular, some cities have been overwhelmed by the increase in travel demand. The result has been a turn to private vehicles, an increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a subsequent rise in greenhouse gas emissions and pollution levels. This has also led to congestion, making it increasingly difficult for goods and people to move from place to place, as well as an increasing incidence of road crashes. The net effect is a decrease in the health and well-being of urban dwellers as well as the economic efficiency of the cities that they live in. It is essential that the growing needs of urban mobility be met more efficiently. There is an urgent need for planning for urban mobility that not only provides the required capacity to meet growing demand but does so in a manner that minimizes the energy used. Mitigation efforts in most cities have addressed the symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Cities have tried to deal with congestion by widening their roads or building mass transit systems...

Sustainable and Smart Cities

Kahn, Matthew E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This paper explores the challenges and opportunities that government officials face in designing coherent 'rules of the game' for achieving urban sustainability during times of growth. Sustainability is judged by three criteria. The first involves elements of day-to-day quality of life, such as having clean air and water and green space. The provision of these public goods has direct effects on the urban public's health and productivity. The second focuses on the city's greenhouse gas emissions. Developing cities are investing in new infrastructure, from highways and public transit systems to electricity generation and transmission. They are building water treatment, water delivery, and sewage disposal systems. Residents of these cities are simultaneously making key decisions about where they live and work and whether to buy such energy-consuming durables as private vehicles and home air-conditioning units. Given the long-lived durability of the capital stock, short-term decisions will have long-term effects on the city's carbon footprint. The third criterion is a city's resilience to natural disasters and extreme weather events. This subsection focuses on how the urban poor can be better equipped to adapt to the anticipated challenges of climate change.

Romania : Urban Sector Rapid Assessment; România - Program privind schimbarile climatice si cresterea ecologica cu emisii reduse de dioxid de carbon : evaluarea rapida a sectorului urban - raport sectorial în cadrul componentei B

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Cities have long held a central place of importance in society as hubs of commerce, culture, and political power. Because of climate change, however, the clustering together of large numbers of people and high levels of economic activity also creates vulnerabilities. In Romania, where the urbanization rate is roughly 55 percent, the Government of Romania has commissioned this advisory services report from the World Bank to explore how to operationalize an urban climate strategy within the structure of the European Union's new 2014-2020 operating program. This report presents the results for the rapid assessment of the current state of (and opportunities for improved) urban climate planning in Romania; what is known about how cities in Romania contribute to climate change; and how cities in Romania will be affected by climate change. To complete this rapid assessment, the World Bank team relied on an extensive literature review and in-person, semi-structured interviews with more than two dozen central and local government officials...

Clarifying the Factors to Decide to Purchase Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs)

Haraya, Eiichi
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Recently, gasoline vehicles are more frequently being replaced by hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). For private companies interested in selling HEVs and EVs, it is crucial to understand why people purchase HEVs and EVs rather than gasoline vehicles in order to promote those sells effectively. Additionally, replacing gasoline vehicles with HEVs and EVs leads the automobile industry and its customers to take responsibility to reduce carbon dioxide emission. The purpose of this study is to comprehend the factors affecting decisions to purchase HEVs and EVs. A survey instrument on factors determining individual vehicle purchase decisions was developed and refined through a focus group, an expert review, and a pre-testing. Using the completed instrument, an intercept survey was conducted at Durham (NC) farmers’ market and the religious meeting. The result indicated that willingness to pay (WTP) for HEVs and EVs is statistically higher than WTP for gasoline vehicles. WTP for HEVs and EVs is positively related to number of children, number of household vehicles and average annual driving distance, while it is negatively related to an individual’s stated level of importance for fuel-efficiency.

Public Transport Service Optimization and System Integration

Fang, Ke; Zimmerman, Samuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Public transport has the most customer appeal and is most efficient when it is planned and operated as a seamless, integrated system. This is particularly important in urban environments in fast growing economies such as China and India, where public transport must increasingly compete with private vehicles which offer door-to-door, one seat travel irrespective of time of day or day of the week. International experience suggests that public transport planners must recognize two integration dimensions: (a) integration among all modes and routes comprising the multi-modal public transport network, (b) integration of the physical and operational elements or each respective mode and service, e.g., metro or bus. Successful integration in both dimensions will provide a more customer-friendly experience and make public transport more efficient and cost-effective. This will help maximize public transport ridership and revenue, increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs and subsidies and general environmental...