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Minding the Gaps : Integrating Poverty Reduction Strategies and Budgets for Domestic Accountability

Wilhelm, Vera A.; Krause, Philipp
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.21%
The Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) approach aims to enhance accountability by promoting the participation of domestic stakeholders in the formulation of clear and realistic development goals. This study offers practical insights for donors and national governments on how to strengthen the links between PRSs and national budgets, with a view to improving domestic accountability. It aims to answer two principal questions:what challenges have arisen in countries where efforts have been made to integrate the PRS with the budget, and what lessons have been generated by these experiences and what are the potential entry points for reforms to strengthen PRS-budget links. To answer these questions, the study reviews a series of case studies that document the status of budget and PRS integration in a sample of nine low-income countries -- Albania, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda -- and the links among policies, budgets, and service delivery in four higher-income countries that are internationally considered to be successful reformers in public financial management -- Australia...

Beyond the Numbers : Understanding the Institutions for Monitoring Poverty Reduction Strategies

Bedi, Tara; Coudouel, Aline; Cox, Marcus; Goldstein, Markus; Thornton, Nigel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.17%
This volume provides lessons on the design and functioning of such monitoring systems, based on the experience of twelve Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) countries (Albania, Bolivia, Guyana, Honduras, the Kyrgyz Republic, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Tanzania, and Uganda). The focus is on the institutional arrangements of PRS monitoring systems - the rules and processes which bring the various actors and monitoring activities together in a coherent diagnostic tool - and a summary of the situation in these twelve PRS countries.

Strengthening Governance through Engaged Societies : Lessons from the Implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies

Barbone, Luca; Sharkey, Katrina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.27%
In December 1999, the Boards of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund approved a new approach to their relations with low-income countries. The approach was centered around the development and implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS), which are intended to be country-driven and medium- to long-term in perspective, comprehensive and results-oriented, partnership-oriented, and built on broad-based participation. Against this tall order of business, experience to date has been varied, and much debate is ongoing on whether the approach can be considered more than "old wine in new bottles." This paper-based on the results of a thorough review of the five-year implementation experience-examines the implementation of the PRS approach from the point of view of participation and accountability. For some 50 countries adopting the approach since 1999, it discusses the factors which can facilitate the development of accountability and participatory governance mechanisms. Lessons learned from distinct country circumstances are analyzed, arguing that ownership of the PRS depends on the way countries and their external donor partners handle real tensions in the relationship between country ownership on the one hand, and perceptions of internationally-driven prescriptions on the other. The central message of the paper is that in several countries the PRS initiative has helped open up societies to forms of dialogue and contestability not previously experienced in-country or observed by external partners. This positive outcome...

The Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction : An Empirical Perspective

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Kuhl, Jesper
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.31%
The relative contribution of a sector to poverty reduction is shown to depend on its direct and indirect growth effects as well as its participation effect. The paper assesses how these effects compare between agriculture and non-agriculture by reviewing the literature and by analyzing cross-country national accounts and poverty data from household surveys. Special attention is given to Sub-Saharan Africa. While the direct growth effect of agriculture on poverty reduction is likely to be smaller than that of non-agriculture (though not because of inherently inferior productivity growth), the indirect growth effect of agriculture (through its linkages with nonagriculture) appears substantial and at least as large as the reverse feedback effect. The poor participate much more in growth in the agricultural sector, especially in low-income countries, resulting in much larger poverty reduction impact. Together, these findings support the overall premise that enhancing agricultural productivity is the critical entry-point in designing effective poverty reduction strategies, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to maximize the poverty reducing effects, the right agricultural technology and investments must be pursued, underscoring the need for much more country specific analysis of the structure and institutional organization of the rural economy in designing poverty reduction strategies.

The Security Sector and Poverty Reduction Strategies

Carrington, Tim; Post, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.29%
In conflict-affected countries, insecurity can worsen the incidence of poverty, undercut the delivery of basic services, and leave segments of the population chronically vulnerable. Because security provision is both a core function of the state, and a necessary condition for the delivery of other essential services, it should be an integral part of any strategy for recovery and development. Poverty Reduction Strategies - the standard tool for organizing medium-term economic and social policies for growth and poverty reduction can be more effective if they adopt a strategic approach to serious security challenges. This note is based on the security sector and poverty reduction strategies, an issue note prepared as part of an analytical and technical assistance program conducted by the social development department in cooperation with colleagues across the Bank and Department for International Development (DFID)-UK. The issue note discusses entry points for engagement in the security sector in countries where insecurity is a major contributor to poverty and vulnerability. It also explores the best ways of integrating security reforms into a poverty agenda...

Mainstreaming Nutrition in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers : What Does It Take? A Review of the Early Experience

Shekar, Meera; Lee, Yi-Kyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.35%
This paper reviews 40 full poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) with regard to whether these strategy papers (1) recognize under-nutrition as a development problem in the country, (2) whether they use nutrition information for poverty analysis, and (3) whether the PRSP includes specific nutrition activities (policies, strategies, and programs) to deal with the unique nutrition problems in each country. The review shows that three quarters of the PRSPs recognize that under-nutrition is a development problem that leads to loss of human capital and/or productivity. Also, many PRSPs, either explicitly or implicitly, include country nutrition profiles in their poverty analysis. Consequently, a majority of PRSPs include strategies and specific actions to mitigate the effects of malnutrition. However, there appears to be little prioritization or sequencing of proposed actions. More importantly, the strategies and actions included in PRSPs often do not reflect an appropriate response to the nature of the nutrition problem in the country. In a quarter of countries with macronutrient deficiencies and about 40% of countries with micronutrient deficiencies...

Poverty Reduction : Does Reproductive Health Matter?

Greene, Margaret E.; Merrick, Thomas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.24%
Funding for the reproductive health agenda agreed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development has fallen short of estimated requirements. In the changed funding environment, stronger evidence on the links between reproductive health and poverty reduction is needed. This paper reviews the evidence base on three reproductive health outcomes: early childbearing, maternal survival, and unintended pregnancy. Building on the "capacities" approach to poverty assessment advocated by Amartya Sen, this evidence is organized in a framework that includes health and education outcomes for mothers and children, as well as household consumption, and production effects. Generally speaking, the evidence on health effects is strongest, household well-being weakest, and education in between. Causal relationships are difficult to establish because reproductive health outcomes and other household-level explanatory variables are influenced by each other. An important finding is that relationships are context specific and that one cannot look at individual characteristics without reference to contextual variables. One reason why much existing research has not effectively addressed the effects of poor reproductive health on poverty is that studies have relied on survey data for a single point in time. Longitudinal surveys offer greater promise. Rather than propose new surveys...

Evaluation and Poverty Reduction : Proceedings from a World Bank Conference

Feinstein, Osvaldo; Picciotto, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
The report covers the proceedings of the World Bank Conference on Evaluation and Development, which provided the opportunity for debate, and discussion on lessons learned from evaluations of poverty reduction programs, to partnerships, and participation in evaluation. It presents the addresses of the plenary sessions, papers, and excerpts, on the Conference topics, which included the role of targeted poverty reduction policies, and programs, the design of social funds, safety nets, and ways to include civil society, and private participation towards effective development. Evaluation methodologies figured prominently in the conference discussions, focusing on measuring development impact, with special emphasis on factoring in externalities, and in evaluation design. The lessons learned, question poverty reduction strategies, describing instead the success in making development interventions context-specific, in taking a holistic view, and in broadening the poverty concept. Institutional change is addressed in the context of social capital...

Serbia and Montenegro : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
This Poverty Assessment is the first output of a multi-year program adopted by the World Bank to assist the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro in the development and implementation of their Poverty Reduction Strategies. The program relies on collaboration in joint data production and analysis. Based on data collected in 2002, the report finds that absolute material poverty affects every tenth person in both Serbia and Montenegro. From an historical standpoint, this is a very high incidence. Inequality remained moderate by regional standards, and as a result poverty is shallow. At the same time vulnerability--or exposure to negative shocks and inability to cope with them-- threatens many currently non-poor individuals. At least as many suffer from deprivation in other dimensions of well being, such as health, education, housing, social inclusion or property rights. Material poverty, therefore, is not the only challenge for the Governments. Four factors are most strongly related to poverty: low education attainment; joblessness; the location in rural areas and depressed regions...

A Financial Social Accounting Matrix for the Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis : Application to Cameroon with a Fixed-Price Multiplier Analysis

Christian A. Emini; Hippolyte Fofack
Fonte: World Bank: Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
Cameroon is engaged in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process, which emphasizes increased focus on poverty reduction in the design and implementation of growth and adjustment strategies. The Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis (IMMPA) recently developed at the World Bank provides an analytical structure for supporting the PRSP process and quantifying poverty reduction strategies. Drawing on that framework, the authors provide a detailed financial social accounting matrix (SAM) for the Cameroonian economy to serve as input into the construction of an IMMPA model for Cameroon. An analysis of this financial SAM shows that the dramatic fall in investment during the crisis period persisted in the post-devaluation growth period in the late 1990s. Continued low investment has implications for ongoing high unemployment rates and poor welfare indicators. The authors illustrate this with simulations based on fixed-price multiplier analysis that highlight the potential growth and welfare benefits of increased public investment...

Poverty Reduction Strategies and Environment : A Review of 40 Interim and Full Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs)

Bojo, Jan; Reddy, Rama Chandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.34%
This review systematically assesses the focus of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on environment-related issues. A total of 40 Interim and full PRSPs from countries in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central and East Asia are reviewed. Four major questions: are posed: (i) What issues of environmental concerns and opportunities are identified in the PRSPs?; (ii) To what extent are poverty-environment causal links analyzed?; (iii) To what extent are environmental management responses and indicators put in place as part of the poverty reduction efforts?; and (iv) To what extent has the design and documentation of the process allowed for mainstreaming the environment? The review finds:: There is considerable variation across countries in the degree of mainstreaming: from a high score of 2.2 (Mozambique) to a low of 0.3 (Sao Tome Principe). Scores indicate the approximate level of attention given to environmental matters in the PRSPs. Some variation across countries is legitimate and to be expected...

Energy and Poverty Reduction : Proceedings from a Multi-Sector and Multi-Stakeholder Workshop - How Can Modern Energy Services Contribute to Poverty Reduction?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
This report summarizes the proceedings from a workshop, the first in the region designed to foster a multi-sectoral approach to development energy services for poverty reduction, held at the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 23-25, 2002. It was co-organized by the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank Africa Energy Unit, and others. The report focuses on the key issues raised in the presentations and discussions which were structured around the following three themes: (a) Understanding the Energy-Poverty situation in the different countries as reflected in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) of each country and clarified by the Ministers and country delegates; (b) Understanding the role of Energy in meeting priority objectives in the social and economic sectors of health, education, water, agriculture and development of small to medium enterprises (SMEs); and (c) Designing appropriate response initiatives in the form of draft country action plans outlining the priority energy interventions required to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies.

Poverty Reduction and the World Bank : Progress in Operationalizing the WDR 2000/2001

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.35%
Attacking persistent poverty in low- and middle-income countries is the greatest single challenge facing the global development community as the world moves forward into the 21st century. But despite progress during the past decade, the battle is far from won, and progress has been slower than had been hoped at the beginning of the 1990s. This report discusses how the Bank is responding to this challenge and translating the approach of the World Development Report 2000/2001 on poverty into practice. This edition of the annual Progress Report on Poverty Reduction consolidates the findings of two documents prepared by World Bank staff and presented to the institution's Executive Board in June 2001: a report, Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Progress in Fiscal 2000 and 2001, and a paper, Attacking Poverty: Operationalizing the World Development Report 2000/2001 at the World Bank. Progress and prospects towards achieving development goals, encompass attention to trends in income poverty, and contain human capital achievements...

Lessons from Uganda on Strategies to Fight Poverty

Mackinnon, John; Reinikka, Ritva
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.36%
Countries receiving debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative will be among the first to benefit from the new World Bank -- International Monetary Fund approach to strengthening the impact on poverty of concessional assistance in low-income countries. The new approach features a more inclusive and participatory process for helping recipient countries develop poverty reduction strategies. From these strategies, joint Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) will bring together the country's own priorities and Bank-Fund assistance to the country. In Uganda, such a strategy has existed for several years. Uganda was one of the first low-income countries to prepare a comprehensive national strategy for poverty reduction using a participatory approach. Indeed, its experience contributed substantially to the design of the PRSPs. Uganda's top leadership is heavily committed to poverty reduction. Formulation of Uganda's Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) in 1996-97 was the executive branch's effort to make that commitment and vision operational. The authors draw lessons from the drafting of Uganda's PEAP. First, the plan made extensive use of existing data and research about Uganda to refocus a range of public policies and interventions relevant to poverty reduction. Second...

Ethiopian Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review

World Bank
Fonte: Addis Ababa Publicador: Addis Ababa
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.37%
The strategic objective of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) long term development plan is to anchor transport policies and strategies in national strategies for poverty reduction, so as to enable the transport sector contribute fully to pro-poor growth and poverty reduction. To this end, many SSA countries have conducted the Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review (PRTSR) workshops to assess and review the coherence and link between their poverty reduction strategies and transport strategies and policies. This report presents the processes and the outcomes of the three workshops held between July and September 2007 that reviewed Ethiopia's road sector policy/programs and PASDEP. The first workshop was conducted from 26 - 28th July 2007. In this workshop, stakeholders extracted relevant information from the A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) regarding goals, objectives and targets as well as the difficulties on access and mobility. They also identified the interventions concerning transport infrastructure and services in the priority economic and social sectors...

SSATP Review of National Transport and Poverty Reduction Strategies : Guidelines; Analyse des strategies nationales de transport et de reduction de la pauvrete : directives

Braithwaite, Mary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.37%
This report discusses the process and methodology involved in developing a practicable method for undertaking a comparative analysis of transport sector and poverty reduction strategies. The report notes that this is an important milestone in a process that has been ongoing since the 2000 Business Meeting and Initial General Assembly of SSATP. Those meetings began the SSATP Strategic Review and formulation of new governance arrangements. The outputs of the Strategic Review resulted in demands being expressed by country coordinators for the transport sector to better demonstrate its contribution to poverty reduction and for a move towards a more integrated, programmatic approach within SSATP. The strategic goal of the program is to ensure that transport sector strategies are firmly anchored in overarching poverty reduction strategies was established at the 2002 SSATP Stakeholders' Meeting in Maputo, Mozambique. The guidelines are designed with a participatory methodology for the comparative assessment, which was tested out by three countries: Guinea...

Toward a Conflict-Sensitive Poverty Reduction Strategy : Lessons from a Retrospective Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.33%
This report constitutes the first year's product of a three-year program that aims to contribute to effective poverty reduction strategies in conflict-affected countries. The key questions discussed in this report are based on the lessons from retrospective case studies of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Georgia, Nepal, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The report analyzes experiences of these nine countries as they developed their first PRSP. Among the questions posed are: In what ways have Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) in conflict-affected countries taken their particular contexts into account? To what extent have an assessment of the sources of conflict and the ways they interact with poverty informed the strategies? How did groups that were socially excluded or especially conflict-affected participate in the process? How did the countries plan to address sources of conflict and deal with the destructive consequences of violence? How did governments organize the PRSP preparations in divided societies, and how did international donors engage with the process?

The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative : Findings from 10 Country Case Studies of World Bank and IMF Support; L'initiative de la strategie de reduction de la pauvrete : conclusions de dix etudes de cas de pays ayant beneficie du soutien de la Banque mondiale et du FMI

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department; IMF Independent Evaluation Office
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.33%
This book provides an independent assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative for the World Bank as well as the broader development community. It offers a in-depth review of the progress thus far, with particular focus on the role and effectiveness of the Bank's support, drawing from extensive discussions with national stakeholders in Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) countries, research and analytical work, and country case study reports on ten PRSP countries: Albania, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The author of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative concludes that the Initiative has led to improvements in national strategies and processes in some low-income countries, such as an increased poverty focus, a higher profile for monitoring results, and better donor-government dialogue. However, the contribution to broad poverty reduction, especially in more difficult country environments, is largely in jeopardy without significant changes. The author argues that the Initiative should be reoriented toward improving domestic processes and less on completion of documents...

Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 2. Background Papers and Technical Appendices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas advancing, and others being left behind. Second is the acceptance that one rural strategy does not fit all; design of an appropriately tailored rural strategy requires understanding the assets, markets, and institutions that frame household opportunities and livelihood strategies. Third, rural heterogeneity requires identification of sufficiently homogeneous areas and household types to facilitate policy formulation, investment strategies, and project design. Fourth, there is a need to bridge the gap between conceptual strategies, and their timely implementation in order to obtain tangible and sustainable results. To this end...

Parliament's Role in Poverty Reduction Strategies

Kroon, Cindy; Stapenhurst, Rick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.26%
Parliaments play a crucial role in improving governance and public service delivery. Those countries with strong parliamentary oversight have been able to shape policy directions and priorities. This article explores the growing role of parliaments in crafting poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) since the process was first launched in 1999. Although the parliaments of many developing countries still have a long way to go before they will maximize their ability to strengthen the outcomes from country-level poverty reduction strategies (PRSs), the first decade of the poverty reduction strategy process has produced some important examples of the ways that parliaments can get involved, shape the debate, and learn from the experiences of legislatures in other countries. The cases of Tanzania and Malawi illustrate how parliamentary committees and parliaments can develop in terms of policy leverage and leadership.