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The Pattern of Growth and Poverty Reduction in China

Montalvo, Jose G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
China has seen a huge reduction in the incidence of extreme poverty since the economic reforms that started in the late 1970s. Yet, the growth process has been highly uneven across sectors and regions. The paper tests whether the pattern of China´s growth mattered to poverty reduction using a new provincial panel data set constructed for this purpose. The econometric tests support the view that the primary sector (mainly agriculture) has been the main driving force in poverty reduction over the period since 1980. It was the sectoral unevenness in the growth process, rather than its geographic unevenness, that handicapped poverty reduction. Yes, China has had great success in reducing poverty through economic growth, but this happened despite the unevenness in its sectoral pattern of growth. The idea of a trade-off between these sectors in terms of overall progress against poverty in China turns out to be a moot point, given how little evidence there is of any poverty impact of non-primary sector growth, controlling for primary-sector growth. While the non-primary sectors were key drivers of aggregate growth...

Down to Earth : Agriculture and Poverty Reduction in Africa

Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
This book contributes to the debate about the role of agriculture in poverty reduction by addressing three sets of questions: Does investing in agriculture enhance/harm overall economic growth, and if so, under what conditions? Do poor people tend to participate more/less in growth in agriculture than in growth in other sectors, and if so, when? If a focus on agriculture would tend to yield larger participation by the poor, but slower overall growth, which strategy would tend to have the largest payoff in terms of poverty reduction, and under which conditions?

Growth and Poverty Reduction : Case Studies from West Africa

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
The objective of this volume is to assess the relationships between growth and poverty reduction on the basis of a number of case studies, all but one of which are based on recent household survey data. The first part of the volume presents data on Ghana and Senegal, two countries that have benefited from high levels of growth over the last dozen years. The analysis suggests that growth led to substantial reductions in the share of the population in poverty. Yet growth could not be said to be "pro-poor" because the gains in consumption for better off households were proportionately larger than the gains for poorer households. In the second part of the volume, case studies for Burkina Faso and Cape Verde are presented to solve the paradox of high growth without poverty reduction. It was initially believed in both countries that there had been no poverty reduction despite high growth during the 1990s. Yet a closer examination of the data suggests that this paradox was actually due to measurement errors: more careful work confirmed that poverty reduction was substantial. The third and last part of the volume presents case studies for Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria on the impediments to growth...

Panama - Poverty Assessment : Toward Effective Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The Poverty Assessment for Panama, Toward Effective Poverty Reduction, focuses on: analyzing poverty, inequality, human development, GDP growth and other social indicators in Panama between 1997 and 2003; providing analytical and advisory support to the Government of Panama aimed at implementing a new strategic vision for poverty reduction; and supporting the country in capacity building in poverty diagnostics and policy evaluation. The report concludes that there is a need to develop a clear social protection strategy with specific targets which should drive the process of resource allocation in the sector. Specific policy recommendations are made in the areas of nutrition programs, education, housing, water and energy subsidies, monitoring mechanisms and institutional arrangements.

Implementation Guidelines for Poverty and Environment Work in Southwest China : Guidelines for Poverty Reduction Staff Including Checklists for Managers and Staff

WWF China
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
These guidelines have three sections. Section one provides food for thought, regarding poverty and environment, and how the two are linked. Section two provides practical tools to incorporate the environment into a village-level action plan for the environment. Section three provides ideas for innovative activities relating to the environment in poverty reduction programs. Finally two practical checklists are provided: one for poverty reduction managers who wish to monitor progress in incorporating environment into staff work; and one for poverty reduction staff involved into village poverty reduction plans. The guidelines focus on Southwest China where poor areas are mostly mountainous areas. In other parts of China where poor areas are also arid areas, poverty reduction staff may use these guidelines as a reference but will need to adjust specific contents in section 2 to the different environmental issues of the region they work in.

Rural Transport : Improving its Contribution to Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa

Banjo, George; Gordon, Henry; Riverson, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Poverty reduction is a long-standing development objective of many developing countries and their aid donors, including the World Bank. To achieve this goal, these countries and organizations have sought to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as part of a broader rural development agenda aimed at providing a minimal basket of goods and services in rural areas to satisfy basic human needs. These goods and services include not only food, health care, and education, but also infrastructure. As a result, rural transport remains a constraint to increasing agricultural productivity, achieving rural growth, and thus alleviating rural poverty. The first major finding of the review of rural transport theory and practice is that many of the approaches needed to improve the impact of rural transport interventions on poverty reduction are known, particularly from the work of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). Unfortunately...

On the Edge of Uncertainty : Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Great Recession and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Strong poverty reduction in Latin America resumed with the growth rebound in 2010, as both moderate and extreme poor households benefitted from the recovery, accelerating poverty reduction to rates similar to those witnessed between 2003-2006 despite a 2.8 percent decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, poverty levels in Latin America (LAC) remained basically static during the great recession, as the poor were shielded from the economic crisis in some countries and continued to benefit from growth in others. In 2010, poverty reduction resumed sharply in Latin America, as household incomes were once again closely linked to economic growth at rates similar to pre-crisis years. Moderate poverty declined by almost 2.5 percentage points to reach 28 percent in 2010, while extreme poverty fell by more than 2 percentage points to reach 14 percent. As 2011 comes to a close, once again the global economy and Latin America are facing risks of yet another economic slowdown. Using household survey data from 2010 and selected labor market indicators through the third quarter of 2011, this note identifies some basic facts on the impact of the crisis and the recovery on the poor and explores their implications for poverty reduction in the region going forward.

Accelerating Poverty Reduction in a Less Poor World : The Roles of Growth and Inequality

Olinto, Pedro; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
This paper re-examines the roles of changes in income and inequality in poverty reduction. The study provides estimates of the relative effects of inequality reduction versus growth promotion in reducing poverty for countries with different levels of initial poverty. The analysis uses country panel-data for 1980-2010. The results indicate that, as countries become less poor, inequality-reducing policies are likely to become relatively more effective for poverty reduction than growth-promoting policies. The results indicate that the growth elasticity of poverty reduction either increases or remains constant with the level of initial poverty. Nevertheless, the results also strongly indicate that, as poverty declines, the inequality elasticity of poverty reduction increases faster. Therefore, if the marginal cost of reducing inequality relative to the marginal cost of increasing growth does not increase with lower poverty levels, to accelerate poverty reduction, greater emphasis should be given to equity rather than growth as countries attain higher levels of development.

Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity in Tajikistan : A Diagnostic

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Atamanov, Aziz; Rajabov, Alisher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
Tajikistan was one of the fastest growing countries in the Europe and Central Asia region during the last decade. The economic growth was widely shared by the population and as a result poverty (measured by the national poverty line) declined from 73 percent in 2003 to 47 percent in 2009 accompanied by falling inequality. Consumption growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population -- a measure of shared prosperity proposed by the World Bank- was positive, pointing out that the growth was shared among the less well off. This work presents a diagnostic of shared prosperity and poverty reduction in Tajikistan during 2003-2009. The paper also focuses on quantifying the main drivers of poverty reduction, shared prosperity, and intra-generational mobility (class transitions). Some of the mechanisms of poverty reduction are explored in detail. Finally, main impediments to inter-generational mobility are discussed.

OED Review of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Process : Mauritania Case Study

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This report analyzes the experience of Mauritania with the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) process. The focus of the report is on evaluating the performance of the World Bank in supporting the PRSP initiative, not on appraising the authorities policies. The report covers the formulation and implementation of the PRSP and encompasses the two PRSP progress reports which have been completed since the initiative was launched in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: section B describes the country context including, political and economic background, the poverty profile, and key constraints for development. Section C addresses the PRS Process including preparation of the document and the consistency of the process with the underlying principles of the initiative. Section D assesses the World Bank s support to the process. Finally, section E summarizes the main points of the assessment and attempts to draw lessons of more general applicability.

Republic of Mozambique : Evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Process and Arrangements Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process in 1999 to strengthen the poverty alleviation focus of their assistance to low-income countries. At the IMF, the introduction of the PRSP was accompanied by the transformation of the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF), the concessional lending window, into the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), with a view to giving a more central role to poverty reduction and pro-poor growth considerations in the design of IMF-supported programs in low-income countries. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Part two provides background information on poverty incidence in Mozambique, as well as on political and economic developments since the early 1990s. The relevance of the PRSP approach to Mozambique s situation, application of the underlying principles, and preliminary evidence on results, are examined in part three. The effectiveness of IMF assistance, including alignment of the PRGF and technical assistance to PRSP objectives is assessed in part four. Part five considers the effectiveness of World Bank support...

The United Republic of Tanzania : Evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Process and Arrangements under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

IMF Independent Evaluation Office; Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and Poverty Reduction Growth Facility (PRGF) processes in Tanzania was jointly undertaken by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) of the World Bank and the Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) of the IMF. The goal of the evaluation, as emphasized in the joint terms of reference, is to inform the policies and internal processes of the World Bank and the IMF, but not to evaluate the performance of the government. The report is laid out as follows: section two provides a background to the poverty situation in Tanzania as well as the economic and political context. The section also looks at the national strategies and processes for policy formulation that preceded the introduction of the PRSP and the PRGF. Section three discusses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process in Tanzania, starting with a look at the relevance of the process to the key development challenges facing the country and then turns to the issue of how the underlying principles of the PRSP have been applied. It concludes with an analysis of the preliminary results.

Poverty Reduction without Economic Growth? Explaining Brazil's Poverty Dynamics, 1985-2004

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Leite, Phillippe G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Brazil's slow pace of poverty reduction over the last two decades reflects both low growth and a low growth elasticity of poverty reduction. Using GDP data disaggregated by state and sector for a twenty-year period, this paper finds considerable variation in the poverty-reducing effectiveness of growth-across sectors, across space, and over time. Growth in the services sector was substantially more poverty-reducing than was growth in either agriculture or industry. Growth in industry had very different effects on poverty across different states and its impact varied with initial conditions related to human development and worker empowerment. The determinants of poverty reduction changed around 1994: positive growth rates and a greater (absolute) elasticity with respect to agricultural growth contributed to faster poverty reduction. But because there was so little of it, economic growth played a relatively small role in accounting for Brazil's poverty reduction between 1985 and 2004. The taming of hyperinflation (in 1994) and substantial expansions in social security and social assistance transfers...

Belarus - Poverty Assessment: Can Poverty Reduction and Access to Services Be Sustained?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Building on the strong poverty analysis conducted by the government for almost a decade, this Poverty Assessment offers a number of improvements to the methodology for measuring poverty and living conditions in Belarus and contributes an in-depth analysis of the multiple dimensions of poverty-particularly the non-income dimensions (education and health). The poverty assessment also indicates concrete options for the government to strengthen its poverty reduction strategy. The main findings can be summed up as follows: Poverty has declined over time and is low compared to other transition countries. The gains in poverty reduction are shallow and fragile. A key source of economic vulnerability is administratively-set real wage growth which has outstripped productivity growth, jeopardizing the sustainability of growth and poverty reduction. The reduction of Russian energy subsidies to Belarus further affects enterprises and their ability to invest while sustaining a social subsidy in the form of high wage levels. In a high cost...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China's Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China : Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative : Findings from 10 Country Case Studies of World Bank and IMF Support; L'initiative de la strategie de reduction de la pauvrete : conclusions de dix etudes de cas de pays ayant beneficie du soutien de la Banque mondiale et du FMI

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department; IMF Independent Evaluation Office
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This book provides an independent assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative for the World Bank as well as the broader development community. It offers a in-depth review of the progress thus far, with particular focus on the role and effectiveness of the Bank's support, drawing from extensive discussions with national stakeholders in Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) countries, research and analytical work, and country case study reports on ten PRSP countries: Albania, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The author of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative concludes that the Initiative has led to improvements in national strategies and processes in some low-income countries, such as an increased poverty focus, a higher profile for monitoring results, and better donor-government dialogue. However, the contribution to broad poverty reduction, especially in more difficult country environments, is largely in jeopardy without significant changes. The author argues that the Initiative should be reoriented toward improving domestic processes and less on completion of documents...

An Evaluation of World Bank Assistance to China for Poverty Reduction in the 1990s

Khan, A.R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
This paper attempts an evaluation of World Bank s assistance to China for poverty reduction during the 1990s. It begins with a summary of China's performance in poverty reduction during the decade as a backdrop to the subject in section two. Section three, presents an analysis of the causes why China's performance in poverty reduction was not faster during this decade of extraordinarily rapid growth. Section four briefly considers the evolution of China's strategy for poverty reduction. Section five, the central section of the paper, discusses the role of the Bank's main instruments - economic and sector work; and lending operations in helping China alleviate poverty. Section six considers future priorities for Bank strategy in China to help accelerate the reduction of remaining poverty in the country.

2004 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness : The World Bank's Contributions to Poverty Reduction

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This 2004 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness (ARDE): The World Bank's Contributions to Poverty Reduction, looks at the growth and poverty reduction experience of client countries. It assesses the extent to which Bank interventions have contributed to growth and poverty reduction and the effectiveness of different types of interventions. The review uses the key elements of the Bank's 2001 poverty reduction strategy to examine the extent to which these elements respond to the needs of the poor, are actually being carried out, and are having an impact. Like previous ARDEs, this review draws primarily on OED's recent evaluation studies, synthesizing and highlighting the findings of these studies around a common theme-in this case, poverty reduction.