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Using Disaggregated Poverty Maps to Plan Sectoral Investments

Hentschel, Jesko; Lanjouw, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This poverty note analyzes the usefulness of poverty maps, and how they can be constructed using census and survey data, for the use and benefit of policy makers to focus scarce development resources. The note goes on to describe various kinds of poverty maps, such as those based on indexes of welfare, basic needs indicators, and disaggregated consumption-based factors. Methodologies to create these maps, are further discussed at some length.

Kenya : Participatory Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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A Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) was undertaken by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kenya to complement previous statistical studies of poverty in Kenya. While the PPA confirmed many findings of the Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS), it also revealed significant new data concerning poverty, female-headed households, access by the poor to water, education and health facilities, and challenges facing indigenous self-help networks. These findings have import implications for targeting poverty alleviation programs.

Dominican Republic - Poverty Assessment : Poverty in a High-Growth Economy, 1986-2000, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.48%
Since its recovery of macroeconomic stability in 1991, the Dominican Republic has experienced a period of notable economic growth. Poverty has declined in the 1990s. Nevertheless, a segment of the population-mainly in rural areas-does not seem to have benefited from this growth. Poverty in this country in 1998 is less than that of other countries if one adjusts for the level of economic development. The principal poverty characteristics are the following: Disparity in poverty levels in rural areas relative to the rest of the country. Destitution in the "bateyes," the communities arising near the sugar cane plantations, that are mainly composed of women, children, and the aged. Urban vulnerability to environmental problems while access to basic services is restricted. Vulnerability to natural disasters that destroy the means of production. Poverty is high among children--especially those who have abandoned formal education-female-headed households, and the aged-the latter due to lack of social safety nets and the absence of pension systems. There is a strong correlation between poverty and health indicators like the presence of malnutrition...

Dominican Republic - Poverty Assessment : Poverty in a High-Growth Economy, 1986-2000, Volume 2. Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.49%
Since its recovery of macroeconomic stability in 1991, the Dominican Republic has experienced a period of notable economic growth. Poverty has declined in the 1990s. Nevertheless, a segment of the population-mainly in rural areas-does not seem to have benefited from this growth. Poverty in this country in 1998 is less than that of other countries if one adjusts for the level of economic development. The principal poverty characteristics are the following: Disparity in poverty levels in rural areas relative to the rest of the country. Destitution in the "bateyes," the communities arising near the sugar cane plantations, that are mainly composed of women, children, and the aged. Urban vulnerability to environmental problems while access to basic services is restricted. Vulnerability to natural disasters that destroy the means of production. Poverty is high among children--especially those who have abandoned formal education-female-headed households, and the aged-the latter due to lack of social safety nets and the absence of pension systems. There is a strong correlation between poverty and health indicators like the presence of malnutrition...

The Republic of Latvia : Poverty Assessment, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.49%
This poverty assessment, focuses on three areas. The first is an update of the poverty profile, who are the poor in Latvia in 1998 and what determines their low level of income. The second looks at the labor market: determinants of earnings, and unemployment. The third assesses how the system of social assistance functions, including: who are the recipients of social assistance, what is the amount of "leakage", and why are certain households excluded. The functioning of social assistance is also linked with the issue of regional inequality in its delivery - a problem that has been repeatedly highlighted in the Latvian context.

The Republic of Latvia : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.45%
This poverty assessment, focuses on three areas. The first is an update of the poverty profile, who are the poor in Latvia in 1998 and what determines their low level of income. The second looks at the labor market: determinants of earnings, and unemployment. The third assesses how the system of social assistance functions, including: who are the recipients of social assistance, what is the amount of "leakage", and why are certain households excluded. The functioning of social assistance is also linked with the issue of regional inequality in its delivery - a problem that has been repeatedly highlighted in the Latvian context.

Shared Prosperity and the Mitigation of Poverty : In Practice and in Precept

Basu, Kaushik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.68%
The World Bank Group recently adopted two overarching goals -- the end of extreme, chronic poverty in the world by 2030 and the promotion of shared prosperity in every society. The paper examines the normative properties of these goals, their strengths and weaknesses, and their implications for actual policymaking, especially in the presence of globalization. This is closely related to the age-old debate on growth versus direct welfare interventions as instruments for countering poverty. The paper analyzes past trends on poverty and tries to shed new light on this old debate.

Living on the Edge : Vulnerability to Poverty and Public Transfers in Mexico

de la Fuente, Alejandro; Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.49%
Social policy in Mexico has focused on identifying and supporting chronically poor households. Yet, Mexico has a significant number of households that are just above the poverty line who are not eligible, by definition, for antipoverty programs and are at risk of falling back into poverty in the event of an economic crisis or shocks like loss of employment and natural disasters. These shocks can have serious negative effects on welfare in the absence of social safety nets targeted to these households. This study uses household survey data to better understand these "vulnerable" households, including their profile and risk exposure and, more importantly, to document the extent to which these households are covered by public transfers and insurance mechanisms. The analysis shows that until 2010 most social programs, including the few with productive components, such as vocational training and productive investment grants, barely covered the vulnerable. The study concludes that public policies need to pay attention to the vulnerable households and find the right policy mix between targeted interventions and universal insurance schemes to serve this economic group.

Forests, agriculture, poverty and land reform: the case of the Indonesian Outer Islands

Tacconi, Luca; Kurniawan, Iwan
Fonte: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 32 pages
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This paper addresses the following questions. What are the empirical relationships among forest, poverty, agriculture and access to market and services in the Indonesian Outer Islands? What are the implications of these relationships for forest land reform? The analysis is based on: i) vegetation cover produced from remote sensing images for 2003, ii) population and poverty estimates respectively at the village and district levels, iii) the national forestry land use plan, and iv) spatial analysis. We show that the incidence of poverty is positively correlated with forest cover at the district level. The fact that agricultural suitability of land is negatively correlated with poverty jointly with the fact that agriculture provides higher financial returns than forestry indicates that clearing forests located on suitable agricultural land can contribute to poverty reduction. Smallscale forest management has positive financial returns and could also contribute to poverty reduction. This implies that forests not located on suitable agricultural land could be harnessed to contribute to poverty reduction or at least to support poverty mitigation. To conserve forests, appropriate policies to compensate the rural poor for the foregone benefits of deforestation will need to be developed.

Poverty Reduction and the World Bank : Progress in Operationalizing the WDR 2000/2001

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Attacking persistent poverty in low- and middle-income countries is the greatest single challenge facing the global development community as the world moves forward into the 21st century. But despite progress during the past decade, the battle is far from won, and progress has been slower than had been hoped at the beginning of the 1990s. This report discusses how the Bank is responding to this challenge and translating the approach of the World Development Report 2000/2001 on poverty into practice. This edition of the annual Progress Report on Poverty Reduction consolidates the findings of two documents prepared by World Bank staff and presented to the institution's Executive Board in June 2001: a report, Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Progress in Fiscal 2000 and 2001, and a paper, Attacking Poverty: Operationalizing the World Development Report 2000/2001 at the World Bank. Progress and prospects towards achieving development goals, encompass attention to trends in income poverty, and contain human capital achievements...

Poverty Reduction Support Credits in Uganda : Results of a Stocktaking Study

Miovic, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Uganda pioneered the use of budget support operations known as Poverty Reduction Support Credits (PRSCs) in the World Bank. PRSCs were designed to channel programmatic lending to support policy and institutional reforms in support of a country's Poverty Reduction Strategy, usually presented in the form of a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). In the case of Uganda the PRSCs were designed as a series of annual credits supporting a three year rolling program of reforms, based on Uganda's version of a PRSC, which is known as the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) . The World Bank credits are in the form of untied budget support, financing all government activities, in the same way as domestic tax revenues. The PRSCs have been significantly co-financed by other donors in the form of grants which, like the World Bank credits take the form of untied budget support. The focus of this report is to study what has worked, what has not worked, and what could be improved in the Uganda PRSC process in the future.

Risk Management in South Asia : A Poverty Focused Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.47%
In recognition that poverty and vulnerability are mutually reinforcing, because the poor lack the ability to insure against risks, often shaping behavior and decision making to minimize exposure to risks, even at the cost of economic efficiency, and long-term interest, this paper reviews what is known about the risk-coping, and risk-mitigating behavior of the poor in South Asia. It examines the support received from the governments, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as the Bank's contributions, and, presents suggestions for a strategy to reduce poverty, and efforts to overcome risk. Analytical work classifies the risks that threaten different vulnerable groups, or poor households, according to poverty incidence and severity, and, a similar effort evaluates both the risk-reducing impact of anti-poverty programs, and the performance and potential of less traditional approaches, such as micro-finance. On assessing government programs, the study evaluates the role, impact, and potential of policy mechanisms...

The Economics of Regional Poverty-Environment Programs: An Application for Lao People's Democratic Republic

Buys, Piet; Chomitz, Kenneth; Dasgupta, Susmita; Deichmann, Uwe; Larsen, Bjorn; Meisner, Craig; Nygard, Jostein; Pandey, Kiran; Pinnoi, Nat; Wheeler, David R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Program administrators are often faced with the difficult problem of allocating scarce resources among regions in a country when interventions are aimed at addressing multiple objectives. One main concern is the tradeoff between poverty reduction and improvement of environmental quality. To provide a framework for analysis, the authors develop a model of optimal budget allocation that allows for variations in three factors: administrators' valuation of objectives; their willingness to accept tradeoffs among objectives and regional allotments; and regional administrative costs. The results from an application of this model using information for Lao People's Democratic Republic show that simple poverty indicators alone do not provide consistent guidelines for policy. However, when different poverty indicators are embedded in an optimizing model that incorporates preferences and costs, the resulting provincial allocations are very similar. This suggests that adoption of a formal analytical approach to resource allocation can help promote the harmonization of regional policy guidelines.

Sri Lanka : Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
This Poverty Assessment report reviews the evolution, and nature of poverty in Sri Lanka, by examining why its significant, recent economic downturn contrasts sharply with its considerable, economic advances during the 1960s; why poverty fell rapidly, and to a relatively, low level in some areas, though it remained high in other parts of the country; and, whether the large resources given to re-distributive programs, really helped reduce poverty. In response, Sri Lanka's hesitant attitude towards progressive economic, and social policies is seemingly the answer, for these policies would have removed the regulations that hinder effective markets, and the private sector, and, would have provided needed infrastructure, and social services, accommodating diversity within its social policies, through resources, and opportunities for the poorest. Notwithstanding gradual, economic liberalization, the economy is still more protected than in countries which started liberalization much later. The regulatory environment - particularly restrictions on labor...

World Development Report 2000/2001; Attacking Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: New York: Oxford University Press Publicador: New York: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This report focuses on the dimensions of poverty, and how to create a better world, free of poverty. The analysis explores the nature, and evolution of poverty, and its causes, to present a framework for action. The opportunity for expanding poor people's assets is addressed, arguing that major reductions in human deprivation are indeed possible, that economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction, can be harnessed through economic integration, and technological change, dependent not only on the evolvement of markets, but on the choices for public action at the global, national, and local levels. Actions to facilitate empowerment include state institutional responsiveness in building social institutions which will improve well-being, and health, to allow increased income-earning potential, access to education, and eventual removal of social barriers. Security aspects are enhanced, by assessing risk management towards reducing vulnerability to economic crises, and natural disasters. The report expands on the dimensions of human deprivation, to include powerlessness and voicelessness, vulnerability and fear. International dimensions are explored, through global actions to fight poverty, analyzing global trade, capital flows, and how to reform development assistance to forge change in the livelihoods of the poor.

Participation in Poverty Assessments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
The Bank ' s approach to country poverty assessments (PAs) is increasingly stressing the involvement of stakeholder groups, with the aim of building in-country capacity to address the problems of the poor. The participation of government and other institutional stakeholders in all aspects of the work increases sensitivity to poverty issues, enhances analytical skills, and builds allegiance to the measures proposed for poverty reduction. In addition, conventional statistical analysis is complemented by qualitative information from participatory social assessments, known as " PPAs, " which reveal the concerns voiced by the poor. Some early lessons for task managers have already emerged from this experience.

SSATP Review of National Transport and Poverty Reduction Strategies : Guidelines; Analyse des strategies nationales de transport et de reduction de la pauvrete : directives

Braithwaite, Mary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
This report discusses the process and methodology involved in developing a practicable method for undertaking a comparative analysis of transport sector and poverty reduction strategies. The report notes that this is an important milestone in a process that has been ongoing since the 2000 Business Meeting and Initial General Assembly of SSATP. Those meetings began the SSATP Strategic Review and formulation of new governance arrangements. The outputs of the Strategic Review resulted in demands being expressed by country coordinators for the transport sector to better demonstrate its contribution to poverty reduction and for a move towards a more integrated, programmatic approach within SSATP. The strategic goal of the program is to ensure that transport sector strategies are firmly anchored in overarching poverty reduction strategies was established at the 2002 SSATP Stakeholders' Meeting in Maputo, Mozambique. The guidelines are designed with a participatory methodology for the comparative assessment, which was tested out by three countries: Guinea...

Colombia : Poverty Report, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The report appraises the impact of economic development, or lack thereof, on the welfare of the Colombian population, and the poor in particular, over the last two decades, and, identifies priority areas for public policy action, vis-e-vis the most vulnerable groups. The welfare assessment covers three key areas - income, access to social services, and personal security, while it also compares welfare indicators between urban, and rural areas, and across other regional partitions. Questions are raised on the depths of poverty, and, on the Government's responsiveness to the incidence of poverty. Findings suggest that despite substantial long-term progress, a recent setback fostered an extreme urban poverty, and, although during the period social indicators reflect positive social development trends, homicide and domestic violence for the poor, and property crime for the non-poor have escalated to unprecedented rates, where the burden of crime is disproportionately borne by poor women. This violence disrupts the market economy...

Colombia : Poverty Report, Volume 2. Background Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The report appraises the impact of economic development, or lack thereof, on the welfare of the Colombian population, and the poor in particular, over the last two decades, and, identifies priority areas for public policy action, vis-e-vis the most vulnerable groups. The welfare assessment covers three key areas - income, access to social services, and personal security, while it also compares welfare indicators between urban, and rural areas, and across other regional partitions. Questions are raised on the depths of poverty, and, on the Government's responsiveness to the incidence of poverty. Findings suggest that despite substantial long-term progress, a recent setback fostered an extreme urban poverty, and, although during the period social indicators reflect positive social development trends, homicide and domestic violence for the poor, and property crime for the non-poor have escalated to unprecedented rates, where the burden of crime is disproportionately borne by poor women. This violence disrupts the market economy...

Education and Its Poverty-Reducing Effects: The Case of Paraiba, Brazil

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty requires far-reaching actions in the education sector. Widespread poverty affects both students' performance and their availability to attend school. Low-quality education leads to low income, which in turn perpetuates poverty. Furthermore, low levels of education affect growth though low labor productivity. Although Paraiba, Brazil suffers from a history of educational neglect, the state has recently made significant gains in primary enrollment; 93 percent of the children aged 7-14 are enrolled in school. However, 30 percent of the population aged 15 and older are illiterate and, unfortunately, it is not only the older generations that cannot read and write: 15 percent of children aged 10 to 15 are illiterate. However, substantial achievements in education have helped the extremely poor segment of population as much as expected. Probit analyses reveal that education attainment is the single most important poverty-reducing factor. All levels of education from primary to tertiary are significant and negatively associated with the probability of being poor.