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Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan - Poverty Update : Appendices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This report is a joint product of the Jordanian Department of Statistics (DOS) and the World Bank. The report has four goals: 1) update the official Jordanian poverty line based on the 2006 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) using the methodology previously applied for the poverty assessment in 2002; 2) describe recent poverty trends; 3) understand the reasons for the discrepancy between the results of formal statistical analysis and popular perceptions of poverty trends; and 4) provide preliminary information about the distributional impacts of fuel subsidies and measures to compensate for fuel subsidy elimination. Using 2006 as the base year, the Jordanian poverty line was JD 46.3 per person per month. In 2006, 13 percent of the population was below the poverty line. The highest rate of poverty was observed in Mafraq governorate. Although Amman has the lowest poverty rate of all governorates, it is home to the largest number of poor individuals due to the concentration of population in Amman. Several sub-districts...

Romania : Poverty Monitoring Analytical and Advisory Assistance Program, First Phase Report, Fiscal Year 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The objective of this report is to contribute towards institutional capacity building for regular monitoring and analysis of poverty, as well as other indicators of living conditions and social inclusion. This report analyzes the poverty trends and profile using the national absolute poverty line, which measures changes in the level of welfare and allows for a more straightforward interpretation of comparisons over time. Chapter 1 presents an overview of poverty dynamics using both relative and absolute measures of poverty, and explores the reasons for the observed difference in trends between the two measures. Chapter 2 investigates the relationship between economic growth, inequality and poverty in Romania during the period 1995 and 2006.

Burkina Faso : Reducing Poverty Through Sustained Equitable Growth, Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Linking growth and poverty is a crucial element for evaluating the effectiveness of government policies under the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process. Burkina Faso has benefited from more than 3 percent growth in per-capita incomes since the devaluation in 1994, while the steady increase in incomes, albeit from a very low level, should over time have lifted some Burkinabe above the poverty line, and led to a reduction in poverty rates. Growth during 1998-2003 was driven by a large expansion of the primary sector, following the 1997-98 drought. This study uses household data from 1998 and 2003 data to a) consider the measurement of poverty over time; b) study the links between growth and poverty in 1998-2003, and under possible future growth paths; c) examine the relationship between poverty and social services; and, d) illustrate equity considerations in the execution of fiscal policy choices. Using a comparable poverty measure, it was found that poverty headcount declined by about 8 percentage points between 1998 and 2003. The poverty decline was stronger in rural, than in urban areas, and, inequality remained largely unchanged on the national level between 1998 and 2003. The conclusion that poverty declined between 1998 and 2003...

Switzerland - Using Public Transfers to Reduce Extreme Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The report focuses on the social safety net, particularly cash and in-kind transfers. The safety net can play an important role in addressing poverty and vulnerability; however, the process by which the safety nets have been developed in Swaziland has produced a fragmented system that leaves many Swazis unprotected by the safety net. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness are both necessary and possible. Poverty and extreme poverty in Swaziland are both overwhelmingly rural phenomena. The incidence of poverty is 73 percent in rural areas but only 31 percent in urban areas. Eighty-eight percent of the poor and 95 percent of the extreme poor live in rural areas, and the average consumption of the urban poor is 33 percent below the poverty line while it is 51 percent below the poverty line among the rural poor. Also, poverty is deeper in rural areas than it is in urban areas. The objective of this study is to identify viable ways to make the safety net more relevant and efficient through an in-depth analysis of poverty and vulnerability and of the efficacy of current safety net programs. The report focuses on publicly financed social transfers in Swaziland...

Poverty Alleviation in Jordan : Lessons for the Future

Shaban, Radwan A.; Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Al-Naimat, Abdel-Salam
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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This report draws lessons for improving the policy design of poverty alleviation schemes in Jordan. The conclusions herein are based on analyses of trends in consumption poverty in Jordan and assessment of the impact of government programs (including food subsidies and cash transfers) on poverty alleviation in the 1990s. Poverty declined between 1992 and 1997 because inequality declined. Government programs, especially those targeted to the poor like the National Aid Fund, contributed to poverty alleviation. However, poverty continues to be a major policy challenge for Jordan: the poor and near-poor remain vulnerable as a result of the shallowness of poverty in Jordan (many people are concentrated close to the poverty line) and the adverse effects of potential shocks. The report concludes the following: 1) sustainable poverty reduction requires resumption and sustainability of growth; 2) there is a need for a policy response to the vulnerability of the poor and near-poor to economic shocks; 3) the capacity of the National Aid Fund (NAF) needs to be significantly enhanced; and 4) continued priority needs to be placed on human development policies...

Jordan - Poverty Assessment (Vol. 2 of 2) : Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report assesses poverty in Jordan in 2002-03, and examines the changes that have occurred since 1997 as a result of economic growth and the income distribution policies of the Government of Jordan. The study concludes that poverty declined in Jordan in that time period, no matter which poverty line one chooses to use, and was made possible with an equally remarkable growth in per capita private consumption, in which the poor participated, at about 3.5 percent a year. The fast rise in private consumption appears to be due to a recovery in consumption trends that is mainly policy driven. The report, however, identifies some concerns about the sustainability of poverty reduction, and recommends that long-term policy focus more on regional imbalances in development; improve access of the poor in education, health, and jobs; plug the leakage in government transfer programs; and institute poverty monitoring systems for timely remedial action.

Jordan : Poverty Assessment Executive Summary, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report assesses poverty in Jordan in 2002-03, and examines the changes that have occurred since 1997 as a result of economic growth and the income distribution policies of the Government of Jordan. The study concludes that poverty declined in Jordan in that time period, no matter which poverty line one chooses to use, and was made possible with an equally remarkable growth in per capita private consumption, in which the poor participated, at about 3.5 percent a year. The fast rise in private consumption appears to be due to a recovery in consumption trends that is mainly policy driven. The report, however, identifies some concerns about the sustainability of poverty reduction, and recommends that long-term policy focus more on regional imbalances in development; improve access of the poor in education, health, and jobs; plug the leakage in government transfer programs; and institute poverty monitoring systems for timely remedial action.

Ukraine Poverty Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in recent years. The poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line, fell from a high of 32 percent in 2001 to 14 percent in 2004, and then again to 8 percent in 2005. This Update presents simulations of the direct influence of an increase in energy prices on the poverty rate. Using 2005 as a base period, the simulations estimate the poverty rates that might result from alternative increases in the price of energy. In this simple model, the main determinant of the impact of the increase in energy prices on poverty is the share of energy in total household expenditures. An increase in energy prices will harm the poor slightly more than the rich because the poor have a slightly higher share of energy in their expenditures.

Investing in People to Fight Poverty in Haiti : Reflections for Evidence-based Policy Making

World Bank; Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et de l’Exclusion Sociale
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Despite a decline in both monetary and multidimensional poverty rates since 2000, Haiti remains among the poorest and most unequal countries in Latin America. Two years after the 2010 earthquake, poverty was still high, particularly in rural areas. This report establishes that in 2012 more than one in two Haitians was poor, living on less than $ 2.41 a day, and one person in four was living below the national extreme poverty line of $1.23 a day. Extreme poverty declined from 31 to 24 percent between 2000 and 2012, and there have been some gains in access to education and sanitation, although access to basic services is generally low and is characterized by important inequalities. Urban areas have fared relatively better than rural areas, reflecting more nonagricultural employment opportunities, larger private transfers, more access to critical goods, and services and narrowing inequality compared to rural areas. Continued advances in reducing both extreme and moderate poverty will require greater, more broad-based growth...

Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumption-based approach has been used by the General Statistics Office and the World Bank (GSO-WB), principally to examine poverty changes over the longer run. These national poverty lines are distinct from the $1.25-a-day and $2-a-day international poverty lines. Vietnam s GSO-WB national poverty line is similar in purchasing power parity terms to that of other countries with similar levels of development. Simple projections of poverty rates through 2020 imply that the GSO-WB poverty rate will fall from a 2012 level of 17.2 percent to below 10 percent by 2020, and that over a third of ethnic minorities will still be poor despite large poverty reduction gains.

Are We Confusing Poverty with Preferences?

van den Boom, Bart; Halsema, Alex; Molini, Vasco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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56.54%
Modifying the national poverty line to the context of observed consumption patterns of the poor is becoming popular. A context-specific poverty line would be more consistent with preferences. This paper provides theoretical and empirical evidence that the contrary holds and that the national poverty line is more appropriate for comparing living standards among the poor, at least under prevailing conditions in Mozambique and Ghana. The problem lies in the risk of downscaling the burden associated with cheap-calorie diets and the low nonfood component of the rural poor. The paper illustrates how observed behavior may neither reveal preferences nor detect heterogeneous preferences among the poor. Rather, the consumption pattern is the upshot of the poverty condition itself. Poverty is confused with preferences if observed cheap-calorie diets are seen as a matter of taste, whereas in fact they reflect a lack of means to consume a preferred diet of higher quality, as food Engel curve estimates indicate. Likewise, a smaller nonfood component is not a matter of a particular distaste...

Global Poverty Goals and Prices

Jolliffe, Dean Mitchell; Prydz, Espen Beer
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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With the recent release of the 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) data from the International Comparison Program (ICP), analysts and institutions are confronted with the question of whether and how to use them for global poverty estimation. The previous round of PPP data from 2005 led to a large increase in the estimated number of poor in the world. The 2011 price data suggest that developing countries’ incomes in PPP-adjusted dollars are significantly higher than indicated by the 2005 PPP data. This has created the anticipation that the new PPP data will decrease significantly the count of poor people in the world. This paper presents evidence that if the global poverty line is updated with the 2011 PPP data based on the same set of national poverty lines that define the $1.25 line in 2005 PPPs, and if the 2011 PPP conversion factors are used without adjustments to selected countries, the 2011 poverty rate is within half a percentage point of the current global estimate based on 2005 PPPs. The analysis also indicates that the goal of ‘ending’ extreme poverty by 2030 continues to be an ambitious one.

The Evolution of Poverty during the Crisis in Indonesia, 1996–99

Suryahadi, Asep; Sumarto, Sudarno; Suharso, Yusuf; Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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Poverty is intrinsically a complex social construct, and even when it is narrowly defined by a deficit of consumption spending, many thorny issues arise in setting an appropriate "poverty line". The authors limit themselves to examining how poverty - defined on a consistent, welfare-comparable basis - changed in Indonesia during a series of crises that began in august 1997. Using various data sets and studies, they develop a consistent series on poverty's evolution from February 1996 to August 1999. Specifically, they study the appropriate method for comparing changes in poverty between the February 1996 and February 1999 Susenas surveys. To set a poverty line for 1999 that is conceptually comparable to that for 1996 involves a standard issue of price deflation: How much would it cost in 1999 to purchase a bundle of goods that would produce the same level of material welfare as the money spent at the poverty line in 1996? Empirically, given major changes in the relative prices of food, the key issue is the weight given food prices in the price index. Using different deflators produces a range of plausible estimates, but they produce a range of plausible estimates, but they produce two "base cases": one working forward from 1996, and one working backward from 1999. If one accepts the official figure of 11.34 percent for February 1996...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
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China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China's Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China : Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

Turkey Poverty Policy Recommendations, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.47%
This report sets out a new poverty line methodology for Turkey, as the basic measure of poverty in the country. However, several poverty lines are calculated for the purpose of international comparability, and comparability to the Bank's poverty measures, using the 1987 and 1994 data. The basic data used in Volume One are from the official 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS). The analysis refers generally to the new poverty line methodology that results in 27 percent poor. This line is called "complete" poverty line, and is referred to as "Total poverty" in statistical tables. An in-depth analysis of the 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS) compared to that from 1994, shows that living standards in Turkey remained almost unchanged. Poverty based on the previous methodology declined gradually from 1987 to 2002, from 38.5 percent to 34.5 percent. Poverty based on the updated methodology declined from 28.3 percent to 27 percent from 1994 to 2002. On the other hand, marginal inequality increased. Extreme poverty, already low, further declined from 1994 to 2002. Food poverty declined from 2.9 to 1.4 percent, while $1 per person per day poverty, depending on purchasing power parity (PPP) used, was 2-3 percent, or even negligible (0.2 percent). The poverty-growth decomposition demonstrated that while economic growth was a main driving force in poverty reduction...

Turkey - Joint Poverty Assessment Report : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
This report sets out a new poverty line methodology for Turkey, as the basic measure of poverty in the country. However, several poverty lines are calculated for the purpose of international comparability, and comparability to the Bank's poverty measures, using the 1987 and 1994 data. The basic data used in Volume One are from the official 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS). The analysis refers generally to the new poverty line methodology that results in 27 percent poor. This line is called "complete" poverty line, and is referred to as "Total poverty" in statistical tables. An in-depth analysis of the 2002 Household Budget Survey (HBS) compared to that from 1994, shows that living standards in Turkey remained almost unchanged. Poverty based on the previous methodology declined gradually from 1987 to 2002, from 38.5 percent to 34.5 percent. Poverty based on the updated methodology declined from 28.3 percent to 27 percent from 1994 to 2002. On the other hand, marginal inequality increased. Extreme poverty, already low, further declined from 1994 to 2002. Food poverty declined from 2.9 to 1.4 percent, while $1 per person per day poverty, depending on purchasing power parity (PPP) used, was 2-3 percent, or even negligible (0.2 percent). The poverty-growth decomposition demonstrated that while economic growth was a main driving force in poverty reduction...

Who is Not Poor? Dreaming of a World Truly Free of Poverty

Pritchett, Lant
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.51%
When the World Bank dreams of 'a world free of poverty,' what should it be dreaming? In measuring global income or consumption expenditure poverty, the World Bank has widely adopted the $1 a day standard as a lower bound. Because this standard is based on poverty lines in the poorest countries, anyone with income or expenditures below this line will truly be poor. But there is no consensus standard for the upper bound of the global poverty line: above what level of income or expenditures is someone truly not poor? This article proposes that the World Bank compute its lower and upper bounds in a methodologically equivalent way, using the poverty lines of the poorest countries for the lower bound and the poverty lines of the richest countries for the upper bound. The resulting upper bound global poverty line will be 10 times higher than the current lower bound and at least 5 times higher than the currently used alternative lower bound of $2 a day. And in tracking progress toward a world free of poverty, the World Bank should compute measures of global poverty using a variety of weights on the depth and intensity of poverty for a range of poverty lines between the global lower and upper bounds. For instance...

Using Simple Cross-Country Comparisons to Guide Measurement : Poverty in the CFA Franc Zone

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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56.51%
In order to inform discussions on the extent of poverty in a country, it is often useful to compare the country's poverty measures to estimates obtained in other countries with similar levels of development within the same region of the world. Beyond gains from the point of view of cross-country comparisons that such an approach provides, there are also potential gains from such comparisons in terms of realigning a country's poverty estimates and better informing policy choices within the country. This is because where the poverty line or threshold is set is somewhat normative and thereby open to debate, and because poverty estimates are highly sensitive to the choice of the poverty line (even if poverty comparisons over time or across groups may not be), it is often difficult for agencies such as National Statistical Offices or government units in charge of Poverty Reduction Strategies in any given country to adopt a critical perspective on their own poverty estimates. This issue of Findings looks at how to use simple cross country comparisons and how to guide measurement of poverty in the CFA franc zone.