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The Invisible Poor : A Portrait of Rural Poverty in Argentina

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Many of the poorest Argentines are invisible in official statistics. Four million rural residents and another 12 million in small urban areas lie outside the reach of the Permanent Household Survey (EPH), which is the basis for poverty figures and most data on social conditions in the country. According to the best estimate, roughly a third of rural residents, more than a million people, live in poverty. The urban bias common too many countries have been accentuated by the lack of data on the rural poor. With little information on their condition, it is exceedingly difficult for policy makers to design policies and programs to help move people out of poverty. The report is organized as follows: chapter one profiles rural poverty base on the limited existing data, including the first in-depth analysis of rural poverty ever conducted with the 2001 population census. Chapter two presents findings from the new qualitative study of the rural poor conducted in the first half of 2007. Finally, chapter three concludes with a discussion of methodology for rural poverty analysis...

Multidimensional Poverty Analysis : Looking for a Middle Ground

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Lugo, Maria Ana
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Widespread agreement that poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon, encompassing deprivations along multiple dimensions, clashes with often vociferous disagreement about how best to measure these deprivations. Drawing on the recent literature, this short note proposes three methodological alternatives to the false dichotomy between scalar indices of multidimensional poverty, on the one hand, and a "dashboard" approach that looks only at marginal distributions, on the other. These alternatives include simple Venn diagrams of the overlap of deprivations across dimensions, multivariate stochastic dominance analysis, and the analysis of copula functions, which capture the extent of interdependency across dimensions. Examples from the literature on both developing and developed countries are provided.

Poverty Analysis Using an International Cross-Country Demand System

Cranfield, J. A. L.; Preckel, Paul V.; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This paper proposes a new method for ex ante analysis of the poverty impacts arising from policy reforms. Three innovations underlie this approach. The first is the estimation of a global demand system using a combination of micro-data from household surveys and macro-data from the International Comparisons Project (ICP). Estimation is undertaken in a manner that reconciles these two sources of information, explicitly recognizing that per capita national demands are an aggregation of the disaggregated, individual household demands. The second innovation relates to a methodology for post-estimation calibration of the global demand system, giving rise to country-specific demand systems and an associated expenditure function which, when aggregated across the expenditure distribution, reproduce observed per capita budget shares exactly. This leads to the third innovation, which is the establishment of a unique poverty level of utility and an appropriately modified set of Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty measures. With these tools in hand...

Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, Profile of Living Standards in 2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.19%
This report examines poverty issues in the Kyrgyz Republic, focusing on three areas. First, it provides a summary of the trends in poverty over the period 2000-2003 by drawing upon comparable data from the Household Budget Surveys from those years. Second, based upon the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey (KIHS ) it presents the new estimates of absolute and extreme poverty by applying updated poverty analysis methodology. Third, the report provides a profile of the poor in order to determine whether with the changes in survey instruments and sampling, there have been any major changes in the composition and location of the poor. It is organized with: an overview of the main social and infrastructure indictors of the Kyrgyz Republic against other Europe and Central Asia countries; a review of the changes in poverty over time; and an updated poverty profile using the KIHS data. Annexes both present the methodology and elaborate on methodological and statistical topics

Mainstreaming Nutrition in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers : What Does It Take? A Review of the Early Experience

Shekar, Meera; Lee, Yi-Kyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
This paper reviews 40 full poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) with regard to whether these strategy papers (1) recognize under-nutrition as a development problem in the country, (2) whether they use nutrition information for poverty analysis, and (3) whether the PRSP includes specific nutrition activities (policies, strategies, and programs) to deal with the unique nutrition problems in each country. The review shows that three quarters of the PRSPs recognize that under-nutrition is a development problem that leads to loss of human capital and/or productivity. Also, many PRSPs, either explicitly or implicitly, include country nutrition profiles in their poverty analysis. Consequently, a majority of PRSPs include strategies and specific actions to mitigate the effects of malnutrition. However, there appears to be little prioritization or sequencing of proposed actions. More importantly, the strategies and actions included in PRSPs often do not reflect an appropriate response to the nature of the nutrition problem in the country. In a quarter of countries with macronutrient deficiencies and about 40% of countries with micronutrient deficiencies...

Serbia and Montenegro : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This Poverty Assessment is the first output of a multi-year program adopted by the World Bank to assist the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro in the development and implementation of their Poverty Reduction Strategies. The program relies on collaboration in joint data production and analysis. Based on data collected in 2002, the report finds that absolute material poverty affects every tenth person in both Serbia and Montenegro. From an historical standpoint, this is a very high incidence. Inequality remained moderate by regional standards, and as a result poverty is shallow. At the same time vulnerability--or exposure to negative shocks and inability to cope with them-- threatens many currently non-poor individuals. At least as many suffer from deprivation in other dimensions of well being, such as health, education, housing, social inclusion or property rights. Material poverty, therefore, is not the only challenge for the Governments. Four factors are most strongly related to poverty: low education attainment; joblessness; the location in rural areas and depressed regions...

Serbia and Montenegro : Poverty Assessment, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington DC Publicador: Washington DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This Poverty Assessment is the first output of a multi-year program adopted by the World Bank to assist the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro in the development and implementation of their Poverty Reduction Strategies. The program relies on collaboration in joint data production and analysis. Based on data collected in 2002, the report finds that absolute material poverty affects every tenth person in both Serbia and Montenegro. From an historical standpoint, this is a very high incidence. Inequality remained moderate by regional standards, and as a result poverty is shallow. At the same time vulnerability--or exposure to negative shocks and inability to cope with them-- threatens many currently non-poor individuals. At least as many suffer from deprivation in other dimensions of well being, such as health, education, housing, social inclusion or property rights. Material poverty, therefore, is not the only challenge for the Governments. Four factors are most strongly related to poverty: low education attainment; joblessness; the location in rural areas and depressed regions...

A Financial Social Accounting Matrix for the Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis : Application to Cameroon with a Fixed-Price Multiplier Analysis

Christian A. Emini; Hippolyte Fofack
Fonte: World Bank: Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Cameroon is engaged in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process, which emphasizes increased focus on poverty reduction in the design and implementation of growth and adjustment strategies. The Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis (IMMPA) recently developed at the World Bank provides an analytical structure for supporting the PRSP process and quantifying poverty reduction strategies. Drawing on that framework, the authors provide a detailed financial social accounting matrix (SAM) for the Cameroonian economy to serve as input into the construction of an IMMPA model for Cameroon. An analysis of this financial SAM shows that the dramatic fall in investment during the crisis period persisted in the post-devaluation growth period in the late 1990s. Continued low investment has implications for ongoing high unemployment rates and poor welfare indicators. The authors illustrate this with simulations based on fixed-price multiplier analysis that highlight the potential growth and welfare benefits of increased public investment...

Linking Representative Household Models with Household Surveys for Poverty Analysis: A Comparison of Alternative Methodologies

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Chen, Derek H.C.; Grimm, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The authors compare three approaches to linking representative-household macro models with micro household income data in terms of their implications for measuring the poverty and distributional effects of policy shocks. These approaches are a simple micro-accounting method, an extension of that method to account for changes in employment structure, and the Beta distribution approach. Even though in the authors simulation exercises the three methods do not lead to fundamentally different results in absolute terms, they show that potential differences in the measurement of distributional and poverty effects of policy shocks can be very large.

Analyzing Urban Poverty: A Summary of Methods and Approaches

Baker, Judy; Schuler, Nina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
In recent years an extensive body of literature has emerged on the definition, measurement and analysis of poverty. Much of this literature focuses on analyzing poverty at the national level, or spatial disaggregation by general categories of urban or rural areas with adjustments made for regional price differentials. Yet for an individual city attempting to tackle the problems of urban poverty, this level of aggregation is not sufficient for answering specific questions such as where the poor are located in the city, whether there are differences between poor areas, if access to services varies by subgroup, whether specific programs are reaching the poorest, and how to design effective poverty reduction programs and policies. Answering these questions is critical, particularly for large, sprawling cities with highly diverse populations and growing problems of urban poverty. Understanding urban poverty presents a set of issues distinct from general poverty analysis and thus may require additional tools and techniques. This paper summarizes the main issues in conducting urban poverty analysis...

The Mini-Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis : A Framework for Analyzing the Unemployment and Poverty Effects of Fiscal and Labor Market Reforms

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The author describes a specialized and less data-intensive version of the Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis (IMMPA) developed by Agenor, Izquierdo, and Fofack (2003) and Agenor, Fernandes, Haddad, and van der Mensbrugghe (2002). The mini-IMMPA focuses only on the "real" side but it offers a more detailed treatment of the labor market (by accounting, for instance, for public education, employment subsidies, and job security provisions) and the tax structure. Simulations of a cut in payroll taxes on unskilled labor show the importance of accounting for the fiscal implications of labor market reforms when assessing their effects on unemployment and poverty.

A Poverty Analysis Macroeconomic Simulator (PAMS) Linking Household Surveys with Macro-Models

Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.; Essama-Nssah, B.; Samake, Issouf
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The Poverty Analysis Macroeconomic Simulator (PAMS) is a model that links standard household surveys with macro frameworks. It allows users to assess the effect of macroeconomic policies-in particular, those associated with Poverty Reduction Strategies papers-on sectoral employment and income, the incidence of poverty, and income distribution. PAMS (in Excel) has three interconnected components: (1) A standard aggregate macro-framework that can be taken from any macro-consistency model (for example, RMSM-X, 123) to project GDP, national accounts, the national budget, the BoP, price levels, and so on, in aggregate consistent accounts. (2) A labor market model breaking down labor categories by skill level and economic sectors whose production total is consistent with that of the macro framework. Individuals from the household surveys are grouped in representative groups of households defined by the labor category of the head of the household. For each labor category, labor demand depends on sectoral output and real wages. Wage income levels by economic sector and labor category can thus be determined. In addition...

Can the Poor Influence Policy? Participatory Poverty Assessments in the Developing World, Second Edition

Robb, Caroline M.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This book focuses on the World Bank's experience with Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs). Some practitioners have argued that a number of World Bank PPAs should not be included because they were extractive, did not influence policy, and were not participatory. However, both good and bad practice PPAs is included in this analysis to facilitate learning from past experiences. Participatory poverty assessments are showing the World Bank and other outside observers of poverty that are not the only poverty experts. Poor people have a long overlooked capacity to contribute to the analysis of poverty-and without their insights to know only part of the reality of poverty, its causes, and the survival strategies of the poor. The objective of a comprehensive poverty analysis, therefore, should be to conduct participatory research and household surveys interactively, so that they enhance each other. If a PPA is conducted after the household survey, the results will explain, challenge, reinforce, or shed new light on household survey data. The results of the household survey can also...

Poverty Reduction and the World Bank : Progress in Operationalizing the WDR 2000/2001

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
Attacking persistent poverty in low- and middle-income countries is the greatest single challenge facing the global development community as the world moves forward into the 21st century. But despite progress during the past decade, the battle is far from won, and progress has been slower than had been hoped at the beginning of the 1990s. This report discusses how the Bank is responding to this challenge and translating the approach of the World Development Report 2000/2001 on poverty into practice. This edition of the annual Progress Report on Poverty Reduction consolidates the findings of two documents prepared by World Bank staff and presented to the institution's Executive Board in June 2001: a report, Poverty Reduction and the World Bank: Progress in Fiscal 2000 and 2001, and a paper, Attacking Poverty: Operationalizing the World Development Report 2000/2001 at the World Bank. Progress and prospects towards achieving development goals, encompass attention to trends in income poverty, and contain human capital achievements...

Poverty in Egypt 2008-09 : Withstanding the Global Economic Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The original aim of this poverty analysis, prepared in collaboration with Egypt's Ministry of Economic Development, was to help inform the country's development strategy and guide World Bank assistance in support of that strategy over the coming years. This objective remains nevertheless valid, although the timeframe for addressing some of the most critical issues, such as the high rate of extreme poverty, vulnerability, and food insecurity may now be accelerated. The authors believe that the analysis presented in this note, while being based on data that precede the actual onset of the current political crisis, reveals deep tensions in the society that are linked to the high level of vulnerability and the lack of an efficient and flexible social assistance system. This report assesses the poverty and welfare changes in Egypt between 2008 and 2009 and presents a comprehensive picture of the evolution of poverty between 2004/05 and 2008/09. Poverty in Egypt decreased between 2005 and 20082, due in large part to rapid economic growth...

Romania : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
This poverty assessment for Romania covers the period from 1995 to 2002, since the last World Bank poverty analysis reviewed the evolution of poverty from 1989 to 1994, the early years of transition from a socialist to a market economy. This assessment's objective is to understand how poverty has evolved and how economic growth and social protection programs, 10 percent of GDP, have affected poverty, as Romania prepares for accession to the European Union. The paper focuses on monetary dimensions of well-being, or consumption, to inform the policy dialogue in Romania on the extent and dynamics of poverty. The results are based on two comparable, nationally representative surveys: (i) the Romanian Household Budget Survey (ABF, upon its Romanian acronym) for the period 2001- 2002; and (ii) the Integrated Household Survey (AIG) for the period 1995-2000. Other dimensions of deprivations have been captured for 2002 using the Living Conditions Survey (ACOVI). While concentrating on monetary poverty, the paper captures dimensions of material poverty such as caloric intake; crowding and living conditions...

Romania : Poverty Assessment, Volume 2. Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This poverty assessment for Romania covers the period from 1995 to 2002, since the last World Bank poverty analysis reviewed the evolution of poverty from 1989 to 1994, the early years of transition from a socialist to a market economy. This assessment's objective is to understand how poverty has evolved and how economic growth and social protection programs, 10 percent of GDP, have affected poverty, as Romania prepares for accession to the European Union. The paper focuses on monetary dimensions of well-being, or consumption, to inform the policy dialogue in Romania on the extent and dynamics of poverty. The results are based on two comparable, nationally representative surveys: (i) the Romanian Household Budget Survey (ABF, upon its Romanian acronym) for the period 2001- 2002; and (ii) the Integrated Household Survey (AIG) for the period 1995-2000. Other dimensions of deprivations have been captured for 2002 using the Living Conditions Survey (ACOVI). While concentrating on monetary poverty, the paper captures dimensions of material poverty such as caloric intake; crowding and living conditions...

Belarus - Poverty Assessment: Can Poverty Reduction and Access to Services Be Sustained?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Building on the strong poverty analysis conducted by the government for almost a decade, this Poverty Assessment offers a number of improvements to the methodology for measuring poverty and living conditions in Belarus and contributes an in-depth analysis of the multiple dimensions of poverty-particularly the non-income dimensions (education and health). The poverty assessment also indicates concrete options for the government to strengthen its poverty reduction strategy. The main findings can be summed up as follows: Poverty has declined over time and is low compared to other transition countries. The gains in poverty reduction are shallow and fragile. A key source of economic vulnerability is administratively-set real wage growth which has outstripped productivity growth, jeopardizing the sustainability of growth and poverty reduction. The reduction of Russian energy subsidies to Belarus further affects enterprises and their ability to invest while sustaining a social subsidy in the form of high wage levels. In a high cost...

Handbook on Poverty and Inequality

Haughton, Jonathan; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
The handbook on poverty and inequality provides tools to measure, describe, monitor, evaluate, and analyze poverty. It provides background materials for designing poverty reduction strategies. This book is intended for researchers and policy analysts involved in poverty research and policy making. The handbook began as a series of notes to support training courses on poverty analysis and gradually grew into a sixteen, chapter book. Now the Handbook consists of explanatory text with numerous examples, interspersed with multiple-choice questions (to ensure active learning) and combined with extensive practical exercises using stata statistical software. The handbook has been thoroughly tested. The World Bank Institute has used most of the chapters in training workshops in countries throughout the world, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malawi, Pakistan, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Thailand, as well as in distance courses with substantial numbers of participants from numerous countries in Asia (in 2002) and Africa (in 2003), and online asynchronous courses with more than 200 participants worldwide (in 2007 and 2008). The feedback from these courses has been very useful in helping us create a handbook that balances rigor with accessibility and practicality. The handbook has also been used in university courses related to poverty.

Indonesia : Urban Poverty and Program Review; Indonesia - Kemiskinan perkotaan dan ulasan program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
This policy note provides a summary of extensive analysis carried out on urban poverty in Indonesia today and a review of main urban poverty programs, with the objective of providing the basis for an urban poverty reduction strategy. A second policy note, 'Indonesia: evaluation of the urban Community-Driven Development, or CDD program, Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM)' summarizes a more detailed process evaluation that was carried out of this important program in parallel to the urban poverty analysis and program review. The PNPM-Urban evaluation covers issues related to internal efficiency, distills lessons learned, and identifies options for improving program effectiveness. The two pieces together provide context for the review of existing programs and strategic directions for addressing urban poverty, as well as more specific operational recom-mendations for enhancing impact of the PNPM-Urban Program. Section one includes this introduction and the analytical approach of the study, section two covers the analysis of poverty trends and characteristics...