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Republic of Fiji - Poverty Trends, Profiles and Small Area Estimation (Poverty Maps) in Republic of Fiji (2003-2009)

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This report presents a detailed analysis of household poverty and its drivers - family, labor and human capital outcomes, social assistance transfers, and geography - based on new expenditure based poverty measures. The report is the culmination of a comprehensive year-long Aus AID funded collaboration between the Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics (FIBOS) and the World Bank to develop new poverty measures and maps that produce poverty estimates at highly disaggregated levels. The report draws on the last two rounds of Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) (from 2002-3 and 2007-8) as well as the national census of 2007. According to the expenditure based estimates developed in this report, in 2008/09 just over a third of the Fijian population lived in poverty. Poverty in Fiji is driven by multiple factors. The report presents the first national level poverty maps created for Fiji and in the Pacific using the national census, which provides a powerful visual depiction of poverty pockets that can help to ensure that anti-poverty programs reach the poor.

Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of - Poverty, Jobs and Firms : An Assessment for 2002–2006

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This poverty assessment report is based upon pre-crisis data for the period 2002-2006. Though some may have reservations that this information base is not well suited to informing public policy choices of today, this view would be short-sighted. Economic development is not an overnight occurrence. It is also not something that can be reversed through an economic shock, no matter how virulent. The analysis of data from the first half of this decade reveals small though perceptible shifts in the transmission channels for poverty reduction, that is, labor markets and enterprises. Thus, the reform process which began earlier this decade indeed saw some positive changes emerging in the real sector. These are captured in this report and provide an understanding of how the complex issue of poverty can be addressed in the future. The remainder of this executive summary provides an overview of the main findings of the analysis. The following main areas discussed in the poverty assessment: (i) a description of the extent of poverty...

Poverty Lines across the World

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.96%
National poverty lines vary greatly across the world, from under $1 per person per day to over $40 (at 2005 purchasing power parity). What accounts for these huge differences, and can they be understood within a common global definition of poverty? For all except the poorest countries, the absolute, nutrition-based, poverty lines found in practice tend to behave more like relative lines, in that they are higher for richer countries. Prevailing methods of setting absolute lines allow ample scope for such relativity, even when nutritional norms are common across countries. Both macro data on poverty lines across the world and micro data on subjective perceptions of poverty are consistent with a weak form of relativity that combines absolute consumption needs with social-inclusion needs that are positive for the poorest but rise with a country s mean consumption. The strong form of relativism favored by some developed countries -- whereby the line is set at a fixed proportion of the mean -- emerges as the limiting case for very rich countries.

Romania : Poverty Monitoring Analytical and Advisory Assistance Program, First Phase Report, Fiscal Year 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.96%
The objective of this report is to contribute towards institutional capacity building for regular monitoring and analysis of poverty, as well as other indicators of living conditions and social inclusion. This report analyzes the poverty trends and profile using the national absolute poverty line, which measures changes in the level of welfare and allows for a more straightforward interpretation of comparisons over time. Chapter 1 presents an overview of poverty dynamics using both relative and absolute measures of poverty, and explores the reasons for the observed difference in trends between the two measures. Chapter 2 investigates the relationship between economic growth, inequality and poverty in Romania during the period 1995 and 2006.

Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, Profile of Living Standards in 2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.96%
This report examines poverty issues in the Kyrgyz Republic, focusing on three areas. First, it provides a summary of the trends in poverty over the period 2000-2003 by drawing upon comparable data from the Household Budget Surveys from those years. Second, based upon the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey (KIHS ) it presents the new estimates of absolute and extreme poverty by applying updated poverty analysis methodology. Third, the report provides a profile of the poor in order to determine whether with the changes in survey instruments and sampling, there have been any major changes in the composition and location of the poor. It is organized with: an overview of the main social and infrastructure indictors of the Kyrgyz Republic against other Europe and Central Asia countries; a review of the changes in poverty over time; and an updated poverty profile using the KIHS data. Annexes both present the methodology and elaborate on methodological and statistical topics

Face of Poverty in Madagascar : Poverty, Gender, and Inequality Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.96%
Madagascar has been entirely unsuccessful in reducing the number of its people that are poor, or extremely so, in the ten years since 2001, when poverty was already at a very high level. This well-known conclusion draws on the analysis of three successive rounds of the national household expenditure surveys (enquete periodiques aupres des menages, EPM) conducted by the Madagascar National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) in 2001, 2005, and 2010. The objective of the analysis in this report is to document the levels and changes in poverty in Madagascar, and provide a detailed review of correlates of poverty and inequality in various dimensions, including gender, age, the structure of households, and place of residence. The report is an assessment of past poverty trends, and while policy implications are highlighted in many cases, the report is focused mainly on the descriptive, rather than prescriptive. It is found that the poverty headcount did not decrease between 2001 and 2005, rising instead from 71 to 75 percent of the population...

Tanzania Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Since the early 2000s, Tanzania has seen remarkable economic growth and strong resilience to external shocks. Yet these achievements were overshadowed by the slow response of poverty to the growing economy. Until 2007, the poverty rate in Tanzania remained stagnant at around 34 percent despite a robust growth at an annualized rate of approximately 7 percent. This apparent disconnect between growth and poverty reduction has raised concerns among policy makers and researchers, leading to a consensus that this mismatch needed to be addressed with a sense of urgency. Over the past few years, the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) in Tanzania has given high priority to eradicating extreme poverty and promoting broad-based growth. Achieving pro-poor growth has also been widely recognized by the World Bank as a critical strategy for accelerating progress toward its twin goals of eliminating extreme poverty at the global level by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity by fostering income growth among the bottom 40 percent in every country. The official poverty figures announced by the government in November 2013 have revealed that the national strategy against poverty has begun to facilitate reductions. The basic needs poverty rate has declined from around 34 percent to 28.2 percent between 2007 and 2012...

Tanzania Mainland Poverty Assessment

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Since the early 2000s, Tanzania has seen remarkable economic growth and strong resilience to external shocks. Yet these achievements were overshadowed by the slow response of poverty to the growing economy. Until 2007, the poverty rate in Tanzania remained stagnant at around 34 percent despite a robust growth at an annualized rate of approximately 7 percent. This apparent disconnect between growth and poverty reduction has raised concerns among policy makers and researchers, leading to a consensus that this mismatch needed to be addressed with a sense of urgency. Over the past few years, the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) in Tanzania has given high priority to eradicating extreme poverty and promoting broad-based growth. Achieving pro-poor growth has also been widely recognized by the World Bank as a critical strategy for accelerating progress toward its twin goals of eliminating extreme poverty at the global level by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity by fostering income growth among the bottom 40 percent in every country. The official poverty figures announced by the government in November 2013 have revealed that the national strategy against poverty has begun to facilitate reductions. The basic needs poverty rate has declined from around 34 percent to 28.2 percent between 2007 and 2012...

The Poverty Focus of Country Programs

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This evaluation examines how, and how well, the Bank Group has focused its support on poverty reduction over the past decade, and what lessons to draw from this moving forward. The lessons aim to strengthen the Bank’s country diagnostics, improve the design of country strategies, and build greater learning opportunities from program experience. Using country case studies, surveys, focus group meetings, systematic reviews of Bank products, and other instruments, the evaluation examines the consistency of poverty focus in each of four links in a causal chain: data, diagnostics, strategy formulation, and strategy implementation through lending and nonlending instruments. It reviews the adequacy of the information base and usefulness of the analytical underpinnings that support country strategy formulation and implementation. It also evaluates the consistency of the poverty focus throughout the evaluation chain and the strength and weakness of feedback loops.

Poverty in Egypt 2008-09 : Withstanding the Global Economic Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
The original aim of this poverty analysis, prepared in collaboration with Egypt's Ministry of Economic Development, was to help inform the country's development strategy and guide World Bank assistance in support of that strategy over the coming years. This objective remains nevertheless valid, although the timeframe for addressing some of the most critical issues, such as the high rate of extreme poverty, vulnerability, and food insecurity may now be accelerated. The authors believe that the analysis presented in this note, while being based on data that precede the actual onset of the current political crisis, reveals deep tensions in the society that are linked to the high level of vulnerability and the lack of an efficient and flexible social assistance system. This report assesses the poverty and welfare changes in Egypt between 2008 and 2009 and presents a comprehensive picture of the evolution of poverty between 2004/05 and 2008/09. Poverty in Egypt decreased between 2005 and 20082, due in large part to rapid economic growth...

Mali : Poverty and Gender Notes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.96%
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of about $ 691 in 2010. Mali's steady per capita GDP growth was accompanied with a significant decline in the poverty rate, from 55.6 percent in 2001 to 43.6 percent in 2009-10. Mali's rapid population growth still has led to an increase of the overall number of people living in poverty, and is constraining progress in terms of per capita health and education outcomes. High fertility rates and gender imbalances are key drivers of Mali's poverty dynamics. The present report compiles three different notes, emphasizing the interrelation between poverty, demographics and gender imbalances. The first note discusses the evolution of poverty in Mali since 2001. The second note reviews recent demographic trends and related policies. The third note reports on the latest available data on females in business and employment within the formal sector. The compilation of these three notes aims to stimulate debates and the exploration of policy options to tackle poverty through its interactions with fertility and gender imbalances. It also highlights conclusion of each note.

The Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, 2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
This report aims to provide an update of the profile of the poor and describe the dynamics of poverty and inequality in the Kyrgyz Republic during 2007-2011. This period was marked by economic and political volatility which adversely impacted the country's capacity to achieve some of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The lack of progress in indicators related to maternal and child health and combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases continues to be of concern. However, in comparison to other low-income countries, non-monetary indicators of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic fare relatively well in such areas as health, education, and access to basic infrastructure services. The report finds that at the micro-level the leading factors associated with poverty are household demographic characteristics. Larger and younger households with relatively fewer income-generating members and more net consumers, such as children, are more prone to poverty. Female-headed households have lower consumption per capita all other things held equal.

Tajikistan : Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Despite Tajikistan's sustained economic growth of the past few years and the country's notable achievements, poverty and low standards of living remain a pressing problem for the majority of Tajik people. Poverty reduction is therefore one of the priority goals of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, of its national and international partners, and of Tajik society as a whole. This report presents a comprehensive analysis of poverty in Tajikistan using the most recent Tajikistan Living Standards Survey (TLSS) data, which is for 2007. The report provides an in-depth analysis of poverty dynamics (since 2003); a poverty profile; the linkages between labor markets, migration, and poverty; the importance of social transfers for poverty alleviation; and the key issues in the health and education sectors. The report also simulates possible poverty impacts from the reduction in migration and remittances related to the global financial crisis. The report shows that migration and remittances are a significant factor in the observed improvements in living standards between 2003 and 2007. However...

Poverty Profile in Lao PDR; Poverty Report for the Lao Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2012–2013

Pimhidzai, Obert; Fenton, Nina Clare; Souksavath, Phonesaly; Sisoulath, Vilaysouk
Fonte: World Bank, Vientiane Publicador: World Bank, Vientiane
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
The report starts with an overview of poverty and inequality estimates in chapter one, focusing on the trends in poverty and the distributional pattern of growth between 2002-3 and 2012-13. Chapter two then provides a description of the poverty profile by geographical and household characteristics, both in terms of the levels of poverty and its rate of change. Consumption patterns are presented in chapter three, and other socio-economic characteristics describing the living conditions of households are presented in chapter four, which is then followed by a chapter detailing the conclusions that can be drawn from this initial poverty profile analysis. The annexes provide additional detail. Annex one provides a detailed technical explanation of the methodology for measuring poverty while annex two presents sensitivity analysis for the poverty estimates including the confidence intervals of these estimates. Annex three provides additional tables and figures on poverty and inequality including other measures of poverty.

Kyrgyz Republic - Profile and Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality, 2009

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Poverty reduction is an important goal for governments of many developing countries. This goal is synonymous with economic development and achieving a higher quality of life for all population groups. Thus, monitoring the dynamics of poverty and inequality is implicit in the monitoring of progress in societal development. As the vast literature shows, development progress to a large extent depends on economic and social policies and economic growth. Thus, identifying the relationship between relevant economic variables and poverty and inequality indicators may provide policy guidance on what has furthered the country's progress. The report consists of two main parts. The first part discusses poverty and inequality for 2009 and, thus, from a static perceptive. So, the first section describes and discusses the main features and correlates of the poor. The goal is to provide a brief overview of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic and describe the characteristics of households and the poor. This is achieved by considering the poverty incidence among households and individuals differentiated by such characteristics as age...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

Handbook on Poverty and Inequality

Haughton, Jonathan; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
The handbook on poverty and inequality provides tools to measure, describe, monitor, evaluate, and analyze poverty. It provides background materials for designing poverty reduction strategies. This book is intended for researchers and policy analysts involved in poverty research and policy making. The handbook began as a series of notes to support training courses on poverty analysis and gradually grew into a sixteen, chapter book. Now the Handbook consists of explanatory text with numerous examples, interspersed with multiple-choice questions (to ensure active learning) and combined with extensive practical exercises using stata statistical software. The handbook has been thoroughly tested. The World Bank Institute has used most of the chapters in training workshops in countries throughout the world, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malawi, Pakistan, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Thailand, as well as in distance courses with substantial numbers of participants from numerous countries in Asia (in 2002) and Africa (in 2003), and online asynchronous courses with more than 200 participants worldwide (in 2007 and 2008). The feedback from these courses has been very useful in helping us create a handbook that balances rigor with accessibility and practicality. The handbook has also been used in university courses related to poverty.

Arab Republic of Egypt : Poverty Assessment Update, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
This report on the Poverty Assessment Update of Egypt is a contribution to the strategy of poverty alleviation pursued by the Government of Egypt. Using data from the two household surveys in 2000 and 2005, this report assesses the nature and dimensions of poverty in Egypt, and discusses the role of macroeconomic policies and labor markets in improving living standards. The report updates the findings of "Poverty Reduction in Egypt: Diagnosis and Strategy," published by the World Bank in 2002. Over the last two years Egypt has achieved remarkably high economic growth. Should this turnaround be sustained, there is hope that poverty can be dramatically reduced. Even though the report does not cover this most recent period, it is important to learn from the lessons of the recent past, and the report provides new information and insights that could be useful for policy-makers: 1) It identifies the overall scope and trends in poverty between 2000 and 2005, focusing on material aspects, but also assessing progress in non-income dimensions; 2) It isolates key correlates to poverty and economic vulnerability...

Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multidimensional Poverty Index

Alkire, Sabina; Santos, Maria Emma
Fonte: Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative Publicador: Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.78%
This paper presents the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), a measure of acute poverty, understood as a person’s inability to meet simultaneously minimum international standards in indicators related to the Millennium Development Goals and to core functionings. It constitutes the first implementation of the direct method to measure poverty for over 100 developing countries. After presenting the MPI, we analyse its scope and robustness, with a focus on the data challenges and methodological issues involved in constructing and estimating it. A range of robustness tests indicate that the MPI offers a reliable framework that can complement global income poverty estimates.; Fil: Alkire, Sabina. University of Oxford. Queen Elizabeth House. Oxford Department of International Development. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative; Reino Unido;; Fil: Santos, Maria Emma. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Cientí­fico Tecnológico - CONICET - Bahía Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina;