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Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

SANTOS, S. A. Bispo dos; ROSELINO, A. C.; HRNCIR, M.; BEGO, L. R.
Fonte: FUNPEC-EDITORA Publicador: FUNPEC-EDITORA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.; FAPESP; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); CNPq

Efeito da polinização sobre a produção e qualidade de sementes de Adesmia latifolia; Effects of pollination on quality and seed production in Adesmia latifolia

Camacho, Júlio César Brião; Franke, Lucia Brandao
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da ação polinizadora da abelha doméstica (Apis mellifera L.) e seu desempenho na produção e qualidade das sementes de Adesmia latifolia (Spreng.) Vog. foi instalado um experimento na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, nos anos de 2000, 2001 e 2002. Após o início do florescimento, estabeleceram-se três tratamentos: presença somente da abelha doméstica (a); exclusão de abelhas e outros insetos (b), ambos por meio de gaiolas de tela de nylon, e área de livre acesso para abelhas e outros insetos (c). A produção média de sementes nos três anos foi de 5,4 e 83,5 kg/ha nos tratamentos a e c, respectivamente. No tratamento b não ocorreu a formação de lomentos e sementes e o número de flores não polinizadas foi elevado, evidenciando a necessidade de insetos polinizadores nesta cultura. Concluiu-se que a abelha doméstica não é eficiente na polinização de A. latifolia, pois coleta o néctar entre o cálice e a corola, não expondo os órgãos reprodutivos da flor. Esta espécie é dependente de abelhas silvestres, como Megachille sp. e Centris sp. para uma adequada polinização.; With the objective of studying the effect of the pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera L. and the performance on seed yield and quality of Adesmia latifolia (Spreng.) Vog....

Biologia da polinização e reprodução de especies de Melastomataceae do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (MG); Pollination and reproductive biology of Melastomataceae from Serra da Canastra National Park (MG, Brazil)

Carla Magioni Fracasso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2008 PT
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Esse trabalho traz informações sobre a fenodinâmica reprodutiva, as relações entre polinizadores e flores e o sistema reprodutivo em espécies de Melastomataceae ocorrentes no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, em Minas Gerais. A sazonalidade expõe as plantas a mudanças periódicas na qualidade e abundância de recursos. Havia espécies em flor ao longo do ano com extensa sobreposição de floradas, porém o pico de intensidade dessa fenofase concentrou-se em curtos períodos. Não houve correlações significativas entre os fatores climáticos e essa fenofase, indicando que a floração dessas espécies provavelmente seja restringida por características filogenéticas do grupo. estames dos dois verticilos não têm distinção funcional e a disposição do androceu confere à flor simetria radial ou zigomorfa. De maneira geral, os polinizadores possuem tamanho corporal suficiente para agarrar o conjunto de elementos reprodutivos e, ao mesmo tempo, contatar o estigma antes da coleta de pólen. Todas as espécies são homogâmicas, contudo o pólen é liberado gradualmente durante a antese e o estigma, receptivo por longo período, pode receber pólen exógeno em mais de uma visita, aumentando potencialmente a quantidade de grãos aderidos às papilas estigmáticas...

Pollination efficiency of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida on greenhouse sweet pepper

Cruz,Darci de Oliveira; Freitas,Breno Magalhães; Silva,Luis Antônio da; Silva,Eva Mônica Sarmento da; Bomfim,Isac Gabriel Abrahão
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
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The present study was carried out in Northeastern Region of Brazil, in order to investigate the use of stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke in the pollination of greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Treatments of hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, pollination by bees and restricted pollination were performed. Results showed that despite sweet pepper flowers are considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by M. subnitida, producing fruits significantly heavier and wider, containing a greater number of seeds and of better quality (lower percentage of malformed fruits) than self-pollinated sweet pepper. Thus, M. subnitida can be considered an efficient pollinator of greenhouse sweet pepper.

Polinização entomófila de abobrinha, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)

Serra,Bruna D V; Campos,Lucio A de O
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 PT
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The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata...

Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

Morphofunctional Traits and Pollination Mechanisms of Coronilla emerus L. Flowers (Fabaceae)

Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; De Micco, Veronica
Fonte: The Scientific World Journal Publicador: The Scientific World Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2012 EN
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It is accepted that the papilionaceous corolla of the Fabaceae evolved under the selective pressure of bee pollinators. Morphology and function of different parts of Coronilla emerus L. flowers were related to their role in the pollination mechanism. The corolla has a vexillum with red nectar lines, a keel hiding stamens and pistil, and two wing petals fasten to the keel with two notched folds. Pollinators land on the complex of keel and wings, trigger the protrusion of pollen and finally of the stigma from the keel tip. Data on pollen viability and stigma receptivity prove that flowers are proterandrous. The results of hand-pollination experiments confirmed that insects are fundamental to set seed. Interaction with pollinators allows not only the transport of pollen but also the rupture of the stigmatic cuticle, necessary to achieve both allogamy and autogamy. Field observations showed that Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera visited the flowers. Only some of the Hymenoptera landed on the flowers from the front and elicited pollination mechanisms. Most of the insects sucked the nectar from the back without any pollen transfer. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of C. emerus flowers are discussed in terms of floral larceny and reduction in pollination efficiency.

Change of Floral Orientation within an Inflorescence Affects Pollinator Behavior and Pollination Efficiency in a Bee-Pollinated Plant, Corydalis sheareri

Wang, Hui; Tie, Shuang; Yu, Dan; Guo, You-Hao; Yang, Chun-Feng
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/04/2014 EN
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Vertical raceme or spike inflorescences that are bee-pollinated tend to present their flowers horizontally. Horizontal presentation of flowers is hypothesized to enhance pollinator recognition and pollination precision, and it may also ensure greater consistency of pollinator movement on inflorescences. We tested the hypotheses using bee-pollinated Corydalis sheareri which has erect inflorescences consisting of flowers with horizontal orientation. We altered the orientation of individual flowers and prepared three types of inflorescences: (i) unmanipulated inflorescences with horizontal-facing flowers, (ii) inflorescences with flowers turned upward, and (iii) inflorescences with flowers turned downward. We compared number of inflorescences approached and visited, number of successive probes within an inflorescence, the direction percentage of vertical movement on inflorescences, efficiency of pollen removal and seed production per inflorescence. Deviation from horizontal orientation decreased both approaches and visits by leafcutter bees and bumble bees to inflorescences. Changes in floral orientation increased the proportion of downward movements by leafcutter bees and decreased the consistency of pollinator movement on inflorescences. In addition...

Effect of Methamidophos on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) During Alfalfa Pollination

Gary, Norman E.; Lorenzen, Kenneth
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Mortality and foraging activity of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., were determined before and for 3 d after treatment of alfalfa with methamidophos applied at 14 g/ha (0.75lb/acre). In colonies at the field edge, mortality was low and, on the second day after treatment, returned to levels approximately equal to those before treatment. Flight activity at the hive entrances diminished to about 25% of levels before treatment. After spray application before dawn, many bees continued to forage actively on alfalfa, indicating that bees may not be repelled by methamidophos. Foraging virtually ceased during the afternoon. The population of bees that collected sugar syrup at uncontaminated feeding stations within the treated field was reduced to about 10% of levels before treatment. Sublethal levels of intoxication or avoidance learning (or both) might account for reduced foraging activity. Methamidophos appears to have a severe effect on honey bee foraging and pollination efficiency.

Pollination efficiency of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida on greenhouse sweet pepper.

CRUZ, D. de O.; FREITAS, B.M.; SILVA, L.A. da; SILVA, E.M.S. da; BOMFIM, I.G.A.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, v.40, n. 12, p. 1197-1201, dez. 2005. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, v.40, n. 12, p. 1197-1201, dez. 2005.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
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The present study was carried out in Northeastern Region of Brazil, in order to investigate the use of stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke in the pollination of greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Treatments of hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, pollination by bees and restricted pollination were performed. Results showed that despite sweet pepper flowers are considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by M. subnitida, producing fruits significantly heavier and wider, containing a greater number of seeds and of better quality (lower percentage of malformed fruits) than self-pollinated sweet pepper. Thus, M. subnitida can be considered an efficient pollinator of greenhouse sweet pepper.; 2005

Pollination, fruit set and identification studies in pear / by M. Mehdi Sharifani.

Sharifani, M. Mehdi
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 155763 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 EN
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Research was carried out to evaluate pollination efficiency, gene flow by pollen and fruit set in Packham Triumph cultivar pear trees located in a mixed planting of pear cultivars in a commercial orchard in the Coromandel Valley region of South Australia.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Horticulture, Viticulture and Oenology, 1999; Bibliography: leaves 190-211.; xvi, 211 leaves, [24] leaves of plates : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Is the pollination efficiency of long-lived orchid flowers affected by age?

Fonseca,Rúbia Santos; Santos,Flávia Aparecida dos; Vieira,Milene Faria
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Viçosa Publicador: Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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The long-lived flowers of orchids increase the chances of pollination and thus the reproductive success of the species. However, a question arises: does the efficiency of pollination, expressed by fruit set, vary with the flower age? The objective of this study was to verify whether the flower age of Corymborkis flava(Sw.) Kuntze affects pollination efficiency. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the fruit set of older flowers is lower than that of younger ones; 2) morphological observations (perianth and stigmatic area), stigma receptivity test by using a solution of hydrogen peroxide and hand-pollination tests are equally effective in defining the period of stigmatic receptivity. Flowers were found to be receptive from the first to the fourth day of anthesis. Fruit set of older flowers (third and fourth day) was lower than that of younger flowers. Morphological observations, the stigma receptivity test and hand-pollinations were equally effective in defining the period of stigmatic receptivity. However, to evaluate the maximum degree of stigma receptivity of orchid species with long-lived flowers, we recommend hand-pollinations, beyond the period of receptivity.

Diversity, density, efficiency, and effectiveness of pollinators of cicer milkvetch, Astragalus cicer L.

Richards, K.W.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
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Diversity, density, efficiency and effectiveness of pollinators of cicer milkvetch, Astragalus cicer L., grown at two locations in southern Alberta were studied from 1978 to 1983. Twenty-seven species of bees were identified as pollinators. At Lethbridge, honey bees (Apis mellifera) comprised 74% of the observations, bumble bees 16%, and leafcutter bees 10%, while at Spring Coulee, the proportions were honey bees 14%, bumble bees 69%, and leafcutter bees 17%. The rate of foraging by pollinator species from flower to flower varied; bumble bee species, especially Bombus nevadensis Cress., foraged consistently more efficiently than honey bees or alfalfa leafcutter bees, Megachile rotundata (F.). A theoretical approach used to predict the bee populations required to pollinate varying flower densities shows that the population of B. nevadensis required is about half those of Bombus huntii Greene and M. rotundata and less than one-quarter that of the honey bee. Pollination by B. nevadensis consistently resulted in more seeds per pod than with any other bumble bee species, the honey bee, or M. rotundata. Of the nine species of bumble bee that established colonies in artificial domiciles near the field, B. nevadensis established the most colonies each year. The number of workers and sexuals produced per colony varied considerably among bumble bee species with only 55% of the colony establishments producing workers and 31 % producing sexuals. The propagation rate and quality of alfalfa leafcutter bees produced on cicer milkvetch was excellent.

Comportamiento y eficiencia de polinización del abejorro Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) en plantas de pimentón (Capsicum annum) sembrado bajo invernadero.; Behavior and pollination efficiency of bumblebee Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera:Apidae) in sweet pepper

Pacateque, Johanna; Cure Hakim, Jose Ricardo; Riaño Jimenez, Diego
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Básicas; Biología Aplicada Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Básicas; Biología Aplicada
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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El pimentón (Capsicum annum), es un producto promisorio en Colombia, debido a su alto valor nutricional. A nivel mundial la producción de pimentón es bien importante y el uso de abejorros polinizadores en estos se convierte en la estrategia más utilizada para incrementar el rendimiento del cultivo. En Colombia las colonias de Bombus atratus han sido utilizadas para polinizar cultivos comerciales de tomate y han incrementado hasta en un 30% la producción como en el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum). El presente trabajo estudió el comportamiento forrajero de B. atratus sobre el cultivo de pimentón (Capsicum anuun) var. Robledo sembrado bajo invernadero en el municipio de Sáchica-Boyacá, donde se obtuvo, la caracterización de la flor del pimentón en 4 estados de desarrollo con diferencias morfométricas que permitieron evidenciar estrecha relación de la visita de Bombus atratus y el estadio 2 de flor abierta, dando un giro de 360° para la obtención del recurso del néctar. Adicionalmente se encontró diferencias significativas entre los frutos visitados y no visitados en las tres variables, peso seco, numero de semillas y largo del fruto, concluyendo que B. atratus tiene el potencial de ser un polinizador eficiente para el cultivo del pimentón. El comportamiento de B. atratus está sincronizado con el proceso de floración que favorece la polinización cruzada del pimentón y por consiguiente el aumento de la calidad de los frutos.; Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum) is a promising product in Colombia due to its high nutritional value. Worldwide production of paprika is very important and the use of pollinating bumblebees has become the most used strategy to increase crop yield. In Colombia colonies of Bombus atratus have been used to pollinating commercial tomato crops...

Pollination efficiency of P. juliflora (SW) DC in Petrolina, Pernambuco.

OLIVEIRA, V. R. de; PIRES, I.E.
Fonte: In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROSOPIS, 2., 1986, Recife. The current state of Knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Rome: FAO, 1988. Publicador: In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROSOPIS, 2., 1986, Recife. The current state of Knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. Rome: FAO, 1988.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 233-239.
EN
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This research study aims, therefore, at defining the reproductive sysrern and the possible causes for the low fruit output per inflorescence, i.e. the low pollination efficiency.; 1988

Meta-Analysis of Pollen Limitation Reveals the Relevance of Pollination Generalization in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

Wolowski, Marina; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Freitas, Leandro
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Despite the extensive knowledge of pollen limitation in angiosperms, its assessment within tropical forests is still limited. Especially lacking are large scale comparisons of species within this biome – one that is highly diverse but also becoming increasingly threatened. In fact, many tropical plant species depend upon pollinators for reproduction but evaluation of the impact of this dependence via different levels of pollination specialization has yet to be made at the biome scale. We assessed the occurrence and magnitude of pollen limitation for species in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and tested the association of pollination specialization, breeding system, and life habit with pollination efficiency. We compiled data from studies published between 1985 and 2012. We calculated species' effect size (d) from data on fruit set after hand cross-pollination and natural pollination and conducted standard and phylogenetically independent meta-analysis. Overall pollen limitation was moderate, with magnitude of 0.50, and 95% confidence interval [0.37, 0.62] for 126 species. Pollen limitation was observed in 39% of species. Pollination specialization was the factor that best explained the occurrence of pollen limitation. Specifically...

Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil

Neves,EL.; Viana,BF.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 EN
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Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions.

Nectar and flower traits of different onion male sterile lines related to pollination efficiency and seed yield of F1 hybrids

Soto, Verónica S.; Maldonado, Irma B.; Gil, Raul Andres; Peralta, Iris Edith; Silva, Maria Fernanda; Galmarini, Claudio Romulo
Fonte: Entomological Soc Amer Publicador: Entomological Soc Amer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Honey bees are the main pollinators of onion crops for seed production, but owing to low attractiveness of ßowers, pollination is often inadequate. Pollination problems result in low seed yields. This problem is accentuated when male sterile lines (MSL) are used to produce hybrid onion seeds. In this study, the effect of ßoral attributes and nectar composition on the preference of honey bees of four MSLs and one onion open pollinated cultivar were assessed. The chemical composition of nectar was described through the analysis of sugars, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and phenol compounds. The samples studied showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the analyzed traits of ßowers and nectar among the differentlines. Furthermore, Þeld observations showed a great difference on the number of bee visits and seed yield among the onion lines analyzed. For the Þrst time, this study demonstrates that there are marked differences in the chemical composition of nectar and ßoral morphology between open pollinated and MSLs and also within MSLs. In addition, these differences were correlated with the number of visits and seed yield. Therefore, it would be possible to select indirectly the most promising productive MSL using simple determinations of chemical compounds or ßoral morphological characters .; Fil: Soto...

Meadow fragmentation and reproductive output of the SE Asian seagrass Enhalus acoroides

Vermaat, Jan E.; Rollon, Rene N.; Lacap, Cristina Day A.; Billot, Claire; Alberto, Filipe; Nacorda, Hildie M. E.; Wiegman, Frank; Terrados, Jorge
Fonte: Elsevier; Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Publicador: Elsevier; Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 918459 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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8 pages, 3 figures.-- Short communication.-- Printed version published Nov 2004.; Flower and fruit production of the abundant, tall, long-lived, dioecious, surface-pollinating seagrass species Enhalus acoroides (L.) Royle were estimated at seven sites in the reef flats off Bolinao (NW Luzon, The Philippines) featuring different fragmentation of the seagrass meadows. Fragmentation of the seagrass meadow was quantified as cover of E. acoroides and all seagrass species present in 20×20 m plots. E. acoroides and overall seagrass cover were correlated positively. The proportion of female flowers of E. acoroides that developed a fruit increased sharply as overall seagrass cover was around 50%. Apparent sex ratio bore no relationship with overall seagrass cover. This threshold-type of relationship suggests that fragmentation of seagrass meadows can have a major effect on the reproductive output of this species. A possible mechanism underlying these results would be a non-linear increase of the efficiency of trapping the surface-dispersed pollen with increasing seagrass canopy density. This provides the first evidence based on real data that fragmentation can affect the population dynamics of seagrass species.; This work was funded by the INCO-DEV program of the European Commission (project ERBIC18CT980292). C. Billot and F. Alberto acknowledge fellowships from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)...

Atrativo para as abelhas Apis mellifera e polinização em café (Coffea arabica L.); Attractives to africanized honey bees and pollination in coffee flowers (Coffea arabica L.)

Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Nogueira-Couto, Regina Helena; Couto, Leoman Almeida; Souza, Julio César de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2003 POR
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O presente experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, e teve como objetivos estudar uma cultura de café (Coffea arabica L., var. Mundo Novo), quanto à biologia floral, a freqüência e comportamento dos insetos na flor, testar o produto Bee-HereR (Hoescht Shering Agrevo do Brasil Ltda) quanto a sua atratividade para as abelhas Apis mellifera e verificar a produção de frutos com e sem a visita dos insetos. Para isso, foram verificados o tempo do desenvolvimento e quantidade de açúcar solúvel do néctar das flores; freqüência das visitações dos insetos, no decorrer do dia, por meio de contagem do número de insetos visitando as flores, a cada 60 minutos, das 8 às 17 horas, 10 minutos em cada horário; tempo (em segundos) e tipo de coleta (néctar e/ou pólen) dos insetos mais freqüentes; perda de botões florais; porcentagem de flores que se transformaram em frutos; tempo de formação e contagem dos grãos de café, observando-se a porcentagem de frutificação em flores visitadas ou não pelos insetos. Também foram realizados testes por pulverização utilizando-se o produto Bee-HereR , diluído em xarope e em água, em diferentes horários. A flor durou, em média, cerca de 3 dias desde sua abertura até o murchamento. A quantidade de açúcares do néctar apresentou diferença significativa entre os horários...