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Tools for Institutional, Political, and Social Analysis of Policy Reform : A Sourcebook for Development Practitioners

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
This Sourcebook deals with social analysis in policy reform, encompassing the transition from gaining a better understanding of the distributional impacts of proposed or continuing reform to influencing a more informed and locally embedded process of policy review and design. In a generic sense, the term "social analysis" encompasses institutional, political, and social analyses. These three overlapping areas, derived from different disciplinary backgrounds, focus on the rules and relations that underpin and influence reform outcomes: Institutional analysis looks at the rules that people develop to govern group behavior and interaction in political, economic, and social spheres of life. Institutional analysis is based on an understanding that these rules-whether formally constructed or informally embedded in cultural practice-mediate and distort, sometimes fundamentally, the expected impacts of policy reform. Political analysis looks at the structure of power relations and often-entrenched interests of different stakeholders that affect decision making and distributional outcomes. Political analysis is built on recognition that political interests underpin many areas of policy debate and economic reform...

A Framework for Housing Policy Reform in Urban Areas in Egypt : Developing a Well Functioning Housing System and Strengthening the National Housing Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
This document builds upon several recent studies and reports carried out in the 2006-2007 period. The first note, entitled analysis of housing supply mechanisms (World Bank), analyzes the situation of housing supply in urban areas in Egypt, including the study of existing formal and informal mechanisms for the delivery of urban housing, the institutions responsible for supply and regulation, the characteristics of the formal and informal stock, and the institutional and regulatory framework governing land use planning and development. The second is a housing demand study in Greater Cairo (USAID TAPRII), which uses household data surveyed in December 2006 and yields results on the housing demand and household characteristics in the Greater Cairo Region. The third is an analysis of subsidized housing programs (USAID TAPRII), which assesses past, existing and pipeline subsidy programs in Egypt. International Best Practices were presented at a high-level workshop held in April 2007 with the intent of assessing different schemes of housing subsidies and reforms used in other emerging markets...

Aid, Policy, and Growth in Post-Conflict Societies

Collier, Paul; Hoeffler, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Countries emerging from civil war attract both aid and policy advice. This paper provides the first systematic empirical analysis of aid and policy reform in the post-conflict growth process. It is based on a comprehensive data set of large civil wars and covers 27 countries that were in their first decade of post-conflict economic recovery during the 1990s. The authors first investigate whether the absorptive capacity for aid is systematically different in post-conflict countries. They find that during the first three post-conflict years, absorptive capacity is no greater than normal, but that in the rest of the first decade it is approximately double its normal level. So ideally, aid should phase in during the decade. Historically, aid has not, on average, been higher in post-conflict societies, and it has tended to taper out over the course of the decade. The authors then investigate whether the contribution of policy to growth is systematically different in post-conflict countries, and in particular...

The Politics of Economic Policy Reform in Developing Countries

Adams, Richard H., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.52%
Because of politics, some economic policy reforms are adopted and pursued in the developing world, and others are delayed, and resisted. Economic reform is inherently a political act: It changes the distribution of benefits in society, benefiting some social groups, and hurting others. Social groups may oppose reform because of doubts about its benefits, or because they know it will harm their economic interests. The author shows how three types of reform - currency devaluation, the privatization of state enterprises, and the elimination of consumer (food) subsidies - affect the utility of nine different social groups (including international financial institutions). When governments try to privatize state-owned enterprises, for example, more social groups with greater political weight are likely to be disadvantaged than helped. Urban workers, urban bureaucrats, urban students, and the urban poor, are likely to "lose out" and will strongly oppose privatization. But the ruling elite, and urban politicians are also likely to at least partly resist privatization...

Can the World Cut Poverty in Half? How Policy Reform and Effective Aid Can Meet International Development Goals

Collier, Paul; Dollar, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.42%
More effective development aid could greatly improve poverty reduction in the areas where poverty reduction is expected to lag: Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. Even more potent would be significant policy reform in the countries themselves. The authors develop a model of efficient aid in which the total volume of aid is endogenous. In particular, aid flows respond to policy improvements that create a better environment for poverty reduction and effective use of aid. They use the model to investigate scenarios-of policy reform, of more efficient aid, and of greater volumes of aid-that point the way to how the world could cut poverty in half in every major region. The fact that aid increases the benefits of reform suggests that a high level of aid to strong reformers may increase the likelihood of sustained good policy (an idea ratified in several recent case studies of low-income reformers). The authors find that the world is not operating on the efficiency frontier. With the same level of concern...

The balance between equity and efficiency in Australian public policy

Argy, Fred
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 163499 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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56.33%
1. Australia has performed quite well over the last two decades in terms of real GDP per head; the GDP gains have not been fully reflected in other economic welfare measures (section 1). 2. Most economic reforms have important distributional effects, and these are often prolonged and enduring. Since distributional effects are an important dimension of economic welfare, they should be an integral part of the evaluation of policy reform (section 2). 3. How can this be done? Some policy guidelines are proposed in the paper. There are practical and conceptual problems in applying these guidelines e.g. some value judgments are inevitable. However, these problems are not decisive (section 3). 4. Two current policy issues (labour market reform and indigenous land rights) illustrate why it is important for economists to take distributional effects into account (section 4).; Paper delivered to 25th Annual Conference of Economists September 1996 . The paper develops some of the ideas in an earlier and fuller paper on Equity and Efficiency (IC 1995).; no

Department of Defense procurement policy reform : an evolutionary perspective

Gates, William R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 19 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) was established in 1947 and evolved into the Department of Defense (DOD) in 1949. At least part of the reason for forming DOD was to coordinate, rationalize, and increase the efficiency of the defense sector's procurement process. Since its inception, DOD's procurement policies have been studied extensively, a multitude of reforms have been recommended, and many reforms have been implemented. However, after almost 40 years, analysts are still recommending reforms to improve coordination and rationality, and to increase the efficiency of DOD's procurement policies. This paper will trace the evolution of DOD's procurement policies over the last forty years. It will concentrate on five major reform efforts: the McNamara era; the Packard initiatives; OMB Circular A-109; the Acquisition Improvement Program (Carlucci); and the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management (Packard Commission). Procurement policy, DoD procurement policy reform.

Turkey's Party System and the Paucity of Minority Policy Reform

LIARAS, Evangelos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
An earlier version of this paper was presented in Workshop 9: ‘Changing Party Political Constellations and Public Policy Reform in Southern Europe’ at the Tenth Mediterranean Research Meeting, Florence & Montecatini Terme, 25-28 March 2009, organised by the Mediterranean Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute.; The purpose of this paper is to explore the question of small and incremental reform in Turkish minority policies over the last two decades, contrasting with the dramatic economic, social, and political changes that the country has experienced over the same period. The main focus will be on two partly overlapping groups living in Turkey (Alevis and Kurds); comparison with other Southern European countries will be made as background reference. The reason for this focus is analytical: these two groups are structurally different from minorities found in Italy or Greece in that they are both large enough to carry great electoral weight and politically salient enough to affect Turkey's EU accession prospects. Minority policy is an often overlooked realm of public policy, either because it is considered too sensitive or too case-specific, as opposed to fiscal...

Identity and public attitudes to foreign aid: a framework for bottom-up policy reform

Gandy, Kizzy Marie Prem
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
How can we close the gap between the policy commitments governments make at the international level and policy implementation at the domestic level in order to address global problems such as poverty and climate change? I integrate the constructivist perspective in international relations and self-categorization theory in social psychology to propose an identitybased approach to bottom-up policy reform. Identities are context-dependent categorisations of ‘self’ and ‘other’ which help actors navigate reality. I argue that policy outputs are determined by the state’s identity whereas each citizen’s policy preferences are determined by the multiple identities which comprise their self-concept. State identities constitute cultural norms and the state’s international image relative to other states. Citizen identities constitute personal value priorities (personal identities) and group memberships (social identities). Citizens contribute to the state identity but a state’s identity is bigger than the sum of its parts. Therefore, the aggregate preferences of individual citizens may not necessarily correspond to policy outputs. This is not undemocratic because people do not engage in policy issues unless doing so is stereotypical of their current context-dependent identity. In addition...

Relative Returns to Policy Reform : Evidence from Controlled Cross-Country Regressions

de Castro, Alexandre Samy; Goldin, Ian; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The authors aim at contributing to understand the dispersion of returns from policy reforms using cross-country regressions. The authors compare the "before reform" with "after reform" GDP growth outcome of countries that undertook import-liberalization and fiscal policy reforms. They survey a large sample (about 54) of developing countries over the period 1980-99. The benefits of openness to trade and fiscal prudence have been extensively identified in the growth literature, but the evidence from simple cross-section analysis can sometimes be inconclusive and remains vulnerable to criticism on estimation techniques, such as identification, endogeneity, multi-colinearity, and the quality of the data. The authors use a different analytical framework that establishes additional controls. First, they construct a counterfactual control group. These are countries that-under specific thresholds-did not introduce policy reforms under scrutiny. Second, the authors also try to use the most appropriate variable of policy reform...

Setting the Trade Policy Agenda : What Roles for Economists?

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Economists have influenced the trade policy agenda for establishing multilateral trade rules, disciplines, and procedures, and for negotiating most-favored nation and preferential reductions in trade barriers and subsidies, in addition to affecting the agenda for unilateral policy reform. These roles are considered in turn, before focusing on the economists' contribution through quantifying the extent and effects of existing trade distortions and alternative reform initiatives. Many trade distortions remain, however, so the author looks at where trade economists' efforts in agenda-setting need to be focused in the years ahead.

Trade Policy Reform in the East Asian Transition Economies

Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
The performance of the East Asian transition economies in export and income growth has been strikingly better than that of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The East Asian economies have achieved remarkably high growth rates in outputs and exports without the often large declines in output and exports observed in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. East Asian reformers have successfully made many of the parallel changes needed in both domestic and trade policies to secure export and income growth. (It makes no sense, for example, to introduce the trade policy instruments of a market economy when the domestic economy is still based on central planning.) But there has been no single magic formula for their success. The author discusses what each of the economies (Cambodia, China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam) has done. China experienced an extended transition process; the transition ws much shorter in other East Asian transition economies--especially Cambodia. Several of the East Asian transition economies used accession to a regional arrangement as part of their reform strategy. China focused mainly on unilateral reforms and...

2003 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness : The Effectiveness of Bank Support for Policy Reform

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
The Annual Review of Development Effectiveness (ARDE) 2003, examines the effectiveness of Bank support to borrower countries, in particular, the help to foster reform policies, and institutional frameworks. The Review focuses primarily, although not exclusively, on the years from 1999 through 2003. This is done to facilitate the juxtaposition of recent evaluation evidence with trends in policy indicators. Recent trends in developing countries ' policies suggest that the various dimensions of policy, and institutional performance have, on average, improved modestly, although recent reforms have touched most areas of development policy. In most countries that accomplished strong reform over the period 1999-2003, change was driven by necessity, or opportunities such as transition from socialism, economic crisis, European Union accession, and change of government. Development research suggests that such factors tend to galvanize support for change, and thus make the politics of policy reform easier. Countries whose policies improved over the period 1999-03...

Trade Policy Reform and Poverty Alleviation

Hoekman, Bernard; Michalopoulos, Constantine; Schiff, Maurice; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
In this paper, developed as part of the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Sourcebook, the authors examine how to implement trade liberalization as part of a strategy for alleviating poverty in developing countries. They discuss trade policy instruments, institutions, complementary policies, sector issues, adjustment policies, and safety nets in an integrated approach to trade policy as a tool for poverty alleviation. The authors examine the patterns or models of trade policy that have been successful in alleviating poverty. They discuss the role of tariffs, nontariff barriers, contingent protection (such as safeguards and antidumping), special import regimes (such as duty drawback), export taxes, export subsidies, and trade-related institutions (such as standards, marketing, export finance, customs clearance, and regional trade arrangements). The authors also discuss policies that complement successful trade reform, including macroeconomic stability, a competitive exchange rate, flexible labor markets...

The Political Economy of Policy Reform : Issues and Implications for Policy Dialogue and Development Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
This study addresses the political economy of sector reforms. Sustainable reform processes which improve equity, efficiency and effectiveness in key economic and social sectors are often important elements of national poverty reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. For international development agencies wishing to engage in these processes, understanding the significance of power relations within the sector, vested interests, and the links to national political processes can be critical to being an effective actor in policy dialogue. This study explores these issues through the analysis of case studies of World Bank engagement in two areas: agricultural liberalization, and public-private partnerships in water supply and sanitation. The objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to analyze the political economy of reform by looking at stakeholder interests, incentives, institutions, risks, opportunities, and processes from a social analysis perspective; and (b) to illustrate 'what works...

Dominican Republic : Social and Structural Policy Review, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
The report outlines the macroeconomic stability in the Dominican Republic during the 1990s, suggesting its strong economic growth, and poverty reduction, will contribute to the gradual transformation the country is undergoing towards policy reform. It analyzes poverty, especially severe in rural areas, where misdirected agriculture policies, and insufficient public investments, such as education, limit opportunities. But, the advancing trade liberalization, is expected to reduce export taxes, and although displaced industrial, and agricultural activities will be subjected to adjustment costs, there will nonetheless be improvements in consumers' welfare, and real wages. However, public resources for education remain very low, particularly for secondary education, and this should be considered as key element of the government's poverty reduction strategy, in addition to the establishment of safety nets to curtail malnutrition, and expand health, and sanitation programs, to tackle the extreme poverty. Recommendations suggest...

Dominican Republic : Social and Structural Policy Review, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
The report outlines the macroeconomic stability in the Dominican Republic during the 1990s, suggesting its strong economic growth, and poverty reduction, will contribute to the gradual transformation the country is undergoing towards policy reform. It analyzes poverty, especially severe in rural areas, where misdirected agriculture policies, and insufficient public investments, such as education, limit opportunities. But, the advancing trade liberalization, is expected to reduce export taxes, and although displaced industrial, and agricultural activities will be subjected to adjustment costs, there will nonetheless be improvements in consumers' welfare, and real wages. However, public resources for education remain very low, particularly for secondary education, and this should be considered as key element of the government's poverty reduction strategy, in addition to the establishment of safety nets to curtail malnutrition, and expand health, and sanitation programs, to tackle the extreme poverty. Recommendations suggest...

Best Practices in Customs Reform - Lessons from Morocco

De Wulf, Luc; Finateau, Emile
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Successful trade policy reform, often requires customs reform. In the 1990s Morocco's trade policies were strongly influenced by its agreement with the European Union, with the World Trade Center, and the Multi-fiber Agreement, which led the Customs and Indirect Taxes Administration to examine its procedures. Customs reforms were based on the principles of the World Customs Organization, supported by technical assistance provided by the International Monetary Fund and bilateral partners. Such reforms were the result of public-private partnerships, focused on four main areas: 1) simplified procedures and selective controls; 2) increased use of information technology; 3) improved management of special customs procedures; and, 4) enhanced transparency and partnerships with the private sector.

Going beyond Conflict: Secular Feminists, Islamists, and Gender Policy Reform

Shehabuddin, Sarah Tasnim
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Today, most Muslim-majority countries must contend with two realities: Islamists’ increasing access to political participation on the one hand and domestic and international pressures for women’s rights on the other. This dissertation seeks to identify the conditions necessary for resolving tensions between Islamist demands for political inclusion and secular feminists’ demands for the institutionalization of women’s rights in Muslim-majority countries. Attempts at gender reform have not only been rare, but have also usually excluded either secular feminists or Islamists due to state actors’ inability or unwillingness to resolve conflict between them. In some contexts, however, power holders have initiated inclusive consultative arrangements, mechanisms (commissions, committees, and mediation) that enable both secular feminists and Islamists to participate in gender policy-making processes, in spite of divergent ideological preferences, and thereby generated more broadly supported reforms. This dissertation argues that attempts at conflict resolution between secular feminists and Islamists are more likely to arise in the context of an autonomous state where the power holder needs the support of both groups. Such a state has both the flexibility and willingness to include both Islamists and secular feminists in the policy-making process. In states that do not enjoy autonomy from non-state actors...

The Political Economy of Policy Reform: The Case of the Dominican Republic

Andújar-Scheker,Julio G.
Fonte: UNAM, Facultad de Economía Publicador: UNAM, Facultad de Economía
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political economy of policy reform in developing countries with presidential regimes. Drawing from the Dominican Republic's reform experience in the mid-nineties, I build a model aimed to replicate interactions between political agents throughout the discussion process of a policy reform in the Congress of a developing country. A reform-committed president is the agenda-setter and decides between total liberalization and a protectionist status quo. If the president decides to liberalize, he submits to an opposition-led Congress a tariff-reform. Congress' decision on approving or rejecting the proposal depends on the contribution of rival lobbies, which plays a non-cooperative game within the overall game. The model shows how lobby's behavior depends on the decision made by its rival and how the equilibrium of the lobbying game ultimately determines the president's choice. In addition, it explains why in developing countries with a large authoritarian history, reforms are constantly delayed.