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Building Equality and Opportunity through Social Guarantees : New Approaches to Public Policy and the Realization of Rights

Gacitúa-Marió, Estanislao; Norton, Andrew; Georgieva, Sophia V.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
The book showcases an innovative approach to social policy that the author believes can act to transform the capacity of states to implement policies to enhance equality of opportunity among citizens. The approach is built around the framework of social guarantees and emphasizes multiple dimensions in the delivery of services and the realization of rights. The social guarantees approach converts abstract rights into defined standards that can be used as a framework for making public policy accountable to citizens. It emphasizes that effective realization of social rights requires attention not just to dimensions of access, but also to elements of quality, financial protection, and the availability of mechanisms of redress. Social guarantees strengthen citizenship through an emphasis on the policy mechanisms and democratic processes needed to define and support such standards. Rigorous analysis of available public resources and of institutions, programmatic approaches, and legal frameworks is essential to underpin the provision of social guarantees and to ensure that the set standards can be delivered to all.

Somalia Joint Needs Assessment : Macroeconomic Policy Framework and Data Development Cluster Report

World Bank; United Nations
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Since 1991, the Somali economy has suffered from droughts, the absence of government, and local conflicts. Unlike the 1970s and 1980s when most of the output of the small industrial sector and many services were provided by the public sector, there has been significant (but unmeasured) private investment in commercial ventures, including in trade and marketing; money transfer services; transport; communications; airlines; telecommunications; other services including construction and hotels; education and health; and fishery equipment. In regard to the macroeconomic policy framework, the short to medium-term objectives are to: establish and maintain macroeconomic stability; develop a stable currency and a sound and growing public revenues base; establish core civil service institutions along with accountable budgetary processes, public finance management, and revenue systems; and reestablish financial services. In addition, it is important to establish data systems to secure the data needed to monitor social and economic developments and to inform sound policy and institutional development.

Labor Markets and School-to-Work Transition in Egypt : Diagnostics, Constraints, and Policy Framework

Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Semlali, Amina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.02%
Analysis in this policy note indicates a rapid deterioration in employment opportunities for young individuals transitioning from school to work in Egypt. Despite substantial improvements in labor market outcomes in recent years (in raising employment and participation and in lowering unemployment), unemployment rates in Egypt remain exceedingly high among youth entering the labor market for the first time. A slow school-to-work transition remains the main reason behind high unemployment rates. Young entrants to the labor market have become more educated than ever before: the share of the working-age-population with university education in Egypt has increased significantly between the years 1998 and 2006 (from 14% to 19% among men and from 9% to 14% among women). However, youth are unable to capitalize the time and resources invested in their education as the labor market is not providing enough good-quality jobs for them. To cope with scarce formal jobs, young-educated workers are opting to work in the informal sector and/or withdraw from the labor force...

Long-Term Policy Options for the Palestinian Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.21%
In light of deteriorating economic relations between Israel and the West Bank and Gaza, and suspended peace negotiations, it is timely at this juncture between the lapsed Interim Period and a final status agreement to examine past experience with a view to assessing the policy choices facing Palestinian policymakers in the future. The post-Oslo experience points to failed economic normalization and income convergence with Israel. Several reasons for these failures have been advanced, including poor implementation of the Paris Protocol, as well as fundamental flaws inherent to the protocol itself. The experience under the Paris Protocol illustrates the degree to which political and economic factors are intertwined; both types of factors need to be addressed in a comprehensive framework. The fact that political pressures from Israeli security concerns introduced severe economic hardship on the Palestinians and threatened newly-gained Palestinian autonomy contributed to the unraveling of the interim agreement. The economic environment of uncertainty...

Macroprudential Policy Framework : A Practice Guide

Krishnamurti, Damodaran; Lee, Yejin Carol
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
This practice guide is primarily intended as a reference and guidance for emerging market economies in their migration to a formal macroprudential policy framework. It relies largely on the existing wisdom, knowledge, and experience and was written with the intention of assisting policy makers (and the World Bank staff working with these authorities) in the implementation of macroprudential policy frameworks in jurisdictions with the following characteristics representative of a typical emerging market and developing economy: 1) a simple and bank-dominated financial system where other financial sector segments are much smaller, but growing; 2) banking supervision function is within the central bank; 3) financial sector regulation/supervision is not integrated; 4) uncertain availability of quality data. A macroprudential policy framework is not a silver bullet for safeguarding financial stability. It is also useful to highlight that a macroprudential policy framework cannot take the place of other public policy frameworks. While pursuing macroprudential policy to build a more resilient financial system...

Electronic Security : Risk Mitigation in Financial Transactions - Public Policy Issues

Glaessner, Thomas; Kellermann, Tom; McNevin, Valerie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.14%
This paper builds on a previous series of papers (see Claessens, Glaessner, and Klingebiel, 2001, 2002) that identified electronic security as a key component to the delivery of electronic finance benefits. This paper and its technical annexes (available separately at http://www1.worldbank.org/finance/) identify and discuss seven key pillars necessary to fostering a secure electronic environment. Hence, it is intended for those formulating broad policies in the area of electronic security and those working with financial services providers (for example, executives and management). The detailed annexes of this paper are especially relevant for chief information and security officers responsible for establishing layered security. First, this paper provides definitions of electronic finance and electronic security and explains why these issues deserve attention. Next, it presents a picture of the burgeoning global electronic security industry. Then it develops a risk-management framework for understanding the risks and tradeoffs inherent in the electronic security infrastructure. It also provides examples of tradeoffs that may arise with respect to technological innovation...

Sharing Natural Resource Revenues with Affected Communities : Policy Options for Mozambique

Nombora, Dionisio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.09%
This note analyzes the institutional and policy context in which Mozambique allocates and manages resource revenues at the subnational level. Its objectives are: (i) to better understand the extent to which the current revenue-sharing system advances the countries stated development goals, (ii) to identify any significant weaknesses or constraints in the current system, and (iii) to provide recommendations for strengthening the policy framework and institutional mechanisms for sharing resource revenues. This analysis is informed by the international experience with allocating and managing resource revenues at the subnational level, and it applies a number of important lessons learned. The policy note is divided into five sections. Section one presents projections for future resource revenue transfers to subnational governments, both in absolute terms and as a share of each district s total budget. Section two reviews the international experience with resource sharing and identifies key lessons to inform successful policies. Section three presents a broader look at fiscal decentralization in Mozambique. Section four discusses the main findings of the analysis and situates them in the context of Mozambique s current revenue-sharing policies. Section five concludes the note by laying out recommendations to improve Mozambique s institutional and policy framework for allocating resource revenues at the subnational level. This policy note is based on a survey of the international literature on fiscal decentralization in general and resource revenue sharing in particular.

The legal dimension of the migration-development nexus in the European Union policy framework

SILGA, Janine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
Examining Board: Professor Bruno de Witte, European University Institute/Maastricht University (Supervisor) Professor Marise Cremona, European University Institute Professor Vincent Chétail, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva Doctor Georgia Papagianni, European External Action Service, Brussels.; Defence date: 5 September 2013; This thesis enquires into the legal dimension of the Migration-Development Nexus (MDN) within the policy framework of the European Union (EU). Departing from the observation of the paradoxical absence of more legal analyses of this notion in the current context, this research aims at defining the contours of the MDN as both a policy and legal notion. In particular, this thesis looks at the evolution of the notion and its various meanings in the EU policy context. This analysis reveals the existence of different policy practices to implement the MDN, whether at the supranational or national level. By examining such practices, I intend to show that the way in which the MDN is conceptually framed and concretely implemented is influenced by competing 'policy logics’ underlying the understanding of the nexus by different policy actors. The aim of such an analysis is to identify ways for genuine policy integration of both migration and development in the EU context. To achieve this purpose...

An entrepreneurship policy framework for high-growth firms: Navigating between policies for picking winners and market failure

Hindle, K.; Yencken, J.; O'Connor, A.
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
This paper outlines an analysis of high-growth technology ventures framed within a time when innovation and entrepreneurship were clearly central pillars of economic policy in Australia. The paper first outlines the case that entrepreneurship policy is highly reliant upon supporting high entrepreneurial potential firms. It next outlines the innovation and entrepreneurship policy environment of the Australian Government between 2001 and 2006 and discusses its shortcomings. Using a series of mini cases of technology-based high-growth firms coincidental with this policy environment, the policy areas that require attention in order to support high-growth technology ventures are highlighted. The paper concludes by providing a policy framework conceived through the lens of high-growth business ventures. When viewed in this way it is apparent that neither policy designed to pick winners or policy that addresses market failure fully support or facilitate high-growth ventures.; Kevin Hindle, John Yencken, Allan O'Connor

Explaining policy failure: the case of equity policy: Observations of Australian Government policy 1989-99 designed to increase the participation of people of low socio-economic status backgrounds in higher education.

Wright, Kathleen Marcella
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 67869 bytes; 350 bytes; text/html; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Ten years ago the Australian Government developed a strategy that has been described as 'unique in providing a national commitment to, and framework for, equity, which has itself been the stimulus for action in all institutions' (NBEET 1996: 11). One of the policy's objectives was to increase the representation of people from low socio economic (SES) backgrounds in higher education. Statistical data suggests that has not been achieved. Yet despite this evidence and changes of government the 1989 framework survives intact today. This report explores the development and of the policy framework, some of the current explanations of the policy's failure and asks if it is time to look afresh at equity in higher education.; no

Lao PDR - Production Forestry Policy : Status and Issues for Dialogue, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Forestry contributes 7-10 percent of Lao Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 15-20 percent of non-agricultural GDP. In rural areas forest exploitation is one of the few available economic activities, and non-timber products provide more than half of family income. The sector contributes 34 percent of total export value, and even more of net foreign exchange. Forestry royalties as a share of government revenues have decreased from 20 percent in the mid-1990s to 6 percent of tax revenues and 5 percent of all revenues last year. Collection rates are low, around 50 percent, and royalty revenues have been declining since mid-1990s. Over the last five years, Treasury has realized only about one-third of the estimated market value of the timber harvested. Current wood industries' capacity exceeds long-term sustainable AAC, and despite heavy investment, their performance has not met expectations. There is no evidence that wood production has had a positive impact on rural poverty; rather it has had a negative one by destroying the environment on which the poor depend. This report concludes that fundamental problems in the forest policy framework can...

Case Study 1 - Ireland : Participation in Macroeconomic Policy Making and Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Since 1987, Ireland has developed five "social partnership" agreements, with the latest launched in February 2000 called the "Program for Prosperity and Fairness"1. This program outlines a comprehensive set of economic and social objectives finalized over extensive consultations among the government and a range of civil society organizations from November 1999 to February 2000. The idea of social partnerships evolved in the late 80s when Ireland was going through a tough recession (1980-87), aggravated by high inflation, heavy public borrowing and deficit, and loss of manufacturing base. The NESC (National Economic and Social Council), formed in 1973 to play an advisory role to the government on "the development of the national economy and the achievement of social justice", has, since 1986, been facilitating consultations among a range of social partners to go through a process of shared learning for an inclusive overview of socioeconomic 'options, challenges and trade offs'. In 1990, NESC identified essential elements for a consistent policy framework within a national strategy as follows: i) macro-economic policy securing low inflation and steady growth...

iMENA - Learning from the Innovation Policy Experience in Eastern Europe, Korea and Turkey

Kacem, Rimal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.01%
Innovation is often touted as a key component in unleashing private sector growth and the dynamism necessary for solving the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region's employment challenges. The region's innovation strategy identifies the major development challenges including youth unemployment, low diversification of exports, low share of medium and high tech exports, and the need to move from privilege to competition. The MENA region does not perform well on innovation and education indicators, and scores below the world average on the knowledge index (2011). Innovation policies should first focus on improving the business environment, innovation finance, and skills. While developing the innovation policy framework, it will be important to leverage international linkages and to focus on promoting inclusive innovation. MENA's innovation policy agenda will be country specific and difficult to operationalize.

Seychelles Programmatic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Health, Education, and Investment Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.18%
Since 2008, the Government of Seychelles has successfully undertaken major reforms to secure macroeconomic stability and create conditions for sustainable, private sector-led growth. The continuous strengthening of Seychelles' public financial management (PFM) system plays a central role in facilitating fiscal consolidation and improving the delivery of government services. Over the past few years, the government has implemented a series of reforms to address public sector governance, including: (i) modernizing the public sector and improving the alignment of institutions with policy and service delivery mandates; (ii) rolling back the government's role in commercial activities by reducing the large number of parastatals, improving management, and introducing a new wage bill together with the private sector; and (iii) redefining the accountability structure between the government agencies responsible for service delivery. Despite the government's ambitious macroeconomic reform program and its efforts to strengthen the PFM system...

East Timor : Policy Challenges for a New Nation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The main challenge facing East Timor, is how to reconcile a simultaneous existence of acute poverty and severe shortage of human management skills, with solid prospects of future flows from the country's natural resource wealth. Policies to meet these two priorities - sustained poverty and sound management of natural resources - are the focus of this report. It looks at the pressing concerns of managing the economic transition from the United Nationals Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) within the next two years; at the issue of wealth creation and the need to enhance the private investment climate; at the need to devise a framework for saving the oil and gas revenues; at the importance of raising human development standards; at the limited number of qualified personnel able to formulate high priority development objectives, compounded by the need to build effective governance; and, at the overwhelming incidence of poverty in rural areas, and the strong correlation between consumption poverty, and low levels of education. In setting a strategy for growth and poverty reduction...

What Matters Most for Early Childhood Development : A Framework Paper

Neuman, Michelle J.; Devercelli, Amanda E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Around the world, inequalities in child development are stark. These inequalities often begin before birth and expand during a child's early years. A child's earliest years present a window of opportunity to address inequality and improve outcomes later in life. The potential benefits from supporting early childhood development (ECD) include: improved cognitive development, better schooling outcomes, and increased productivity in life. In response to the convincing evidence on the benefits of investing in young children, and demand from client countries, the World Bank is increasingly supporting ECD around the world. To guide the implementation of the Bank's education strategy 2020 and achieve the goal of learning for all, the human development network has launched systems approach for better education results (SABER) to help countries systematically examine education policies. Despite the manifold benefits of investing in ECD, and government interest in promoting ECD, the policy environment in many countries remains deeply inadequate to ensure that all children have the opportunity to achieve full potential. The SABER-ECD framework utilizes a comparable and comprehensive approach to multisectoral data collection and analysis. This information will assist client countries to develop country-specific roadmaps and improve ECD policies to ensure that all children have equal opportunity to succeed in life. This paper provides the evidence base and a present framework for analyzing ECD policies and programs cross-nationally. The paper is organized as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two presents a brief overview of ECD and the rationale for investment in ECD. Section three presents the SABER-ECD analytical framework and describes the identified three key policy goals of effective ECD systems. Section four reviews the literature and provides the evidence base on what matters most for ECD policies. Section five briefly details efforts to link SABER-ECD with related World Bank initiatives and those led by other institutions engaged in similar work. In section six...

Monetary Policy under Flexible Exchange Rates : An Introduction to Inflation Targeting

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
In the past few years, a number of central banks have adopted inflation targeting for monetary policy. The author provides an introduction to inflation targeting, with an emphasis on analytical issues, and the recent experience of middle- and high-income developing countries (which have relatively low inflation to begin with, and reasonably well-functioning financial markets). After presenting a formal analytical framework, the author discusses the basic requirements for inflation targeting, and how such a regime differs from money, and exchange rate targeting regimes. After discussing the operational framework for inflation targeting (including the price index to monitor the time horizon, the forecasting procedures, and the role of asset prices), he examines recent experiences with inflation targets, providing new evidence on the convexity of the Phillips curve for six developing countries. His conclusions: Inflation targeting is a flexible policy framework that allows a country's central bank to exercise some degree of discretion, without putting in jeopardy its main objective of maintaining stable prices. In middle- and high-income developing economies that can refrain from implicit exchange rate targeting, it can improve the design...

Leveling the Field for Renewables : Mexico's New Policy Framework for Incorporating External Costs of Electricity Generation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Mexico has started a number of efforts to develop adequate policy frameworks in several areas including the energy sector, transportation and industrial policies, and forestry and natural resources management. Its Climate Change Law and the National Strategy on Climate Change envision is changing the upward trend of its carbon dioxide emissions towards a total decline of emission of thirty percent by 2020, and fifty percent by 2050. Achieving these ambitious policy goals is challenging for the country and will require many distinct efforts to mainstream climate change in policy design. Careful economic analysis will be critical to effectively reduce emissions while allowing for sustainable development. The policy evaluated in the study is part of Mexico's policy framework to promote renewable energy. The Ministry of Energy in Mexico, SENER, has issued a Methodology to incorporate external costs of electricity generation. While external costs are not privative of fossil energy, the Mexican government has started this process by focusing on the external costs on health and climate change...

Upgrading the Investment Policy Framework of Public Pension Funds

Vittas, Dimitri; Impavido, Gregorio; O'Connor, Ronan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Public pension funds have the potential to benefit from low operating costs because they enjoy economies of scale and avoid large marketing costs. But this important advantage has in most countries been dissipated by poor investment performance. The latter has been attributed to a weak governance structure, lack of independence from government interference, and a low level of transparency and public accountability. Recent years have witnessed the creation of new public pension funds in several countries, and the modernization of existing ones in others, with special emphasis placed on upgrading their investment policy framework and strengthening their governance structure. This paper focuses on the experience of four new public pension funds that have been created in Norway, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand. The paper discusses the safeguards that have been introduced to ensure their independence and their insulation from political pressures. It also reviews their performance and their evolving investment strategies. All four funds started with the romantic idea of operating as 'managers of managers' and focusing on external passive management but their strategies have progressively evolved to embrace internal active management and significant investments in alternative asset classes. The paper draws lessons for other countries that wish to modernize their public pension funds.

Assessing the technical, economic and policy-centered feasibility of a proposed satellite communication system for the developing world

Samuels, Ayanna Terehas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 217 p.; 11571112 bytes; 11585349 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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56.04%
Satellite communication systems remain one of the most under utilized development mediums in less industrialized countries. This research proposes to establish a low cost satellite communications system tailored specifically for the developing world (+/- 30⁰ latitude). The technical, economic and policy related frontiers of the problem are integrated within a MATLAB based satellite communication constellation simulation which is used to assess the feasibility of the proposed satellite system. The analysis demonstrates that with technical advances that would allow higher capacity systems at lower costs and a renewed policy framework in line with the present state of the satellite system industry, it could be feasible to establish a low earth orbit satellite communications system for the developing world. The inputs to the satellite simulation are the proposed system's desired design variables and other relevant parameters. The outputs are system performance, capacity and cost. The Pareto optimal solution trade space is generated by the simulation model using a full-factorial run that probes the entire design space. The application of choice is short messaging services (SMS), chosen for its ability to provide proven connectivity at moderate costs. The capacity and cost of the most ideal Pareto architecture is contrasted against demand in the defined developing world region. The simulation also accounts for the necessary policy considerations and assesses the feasibility of the proposed system amidst the existing industry policy and regulatory framework. Additionally...