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The Credit Channel Transmission of Monetary Policy in the European Union

Ferreira, Maria Cândida
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
This paper confirms the importance of the financial systems behaviour conditions to the credit channel of monetary policy in the entire European Union (EU). It uses panel fixed-effect estimations and quarterly data for 26 EU countries for the period from Q1 1999 to Q3 2006 in an adaptation of the Bernanke and Blinder (1988) model. The findings also reveal the high degree of foreign dependence and indebtedness of the EU banking institutions and their similar reactions to the macroeconomic and the monetary policy environments.

Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness

McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Green, Beth L.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school.

The Effects of Business Environments on Development : Surveying New Firm-Level Evidence

Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
In the past decade, the World Bank has promoted improving business environments as a key strategy for development, which has resulted in a significant amount of investment in collecting firm-level investment climate surveys across countries. What lessons have emerged from the papers using these new data? The key finding is that the effects of business environments are heterogeneous and depend crucially on industry, initial conditions, and complementary institutions. Some elements of the business environment, such as labor flexibility, low entry and exit barriers, and a reasonable protection from the "grabbing hands" of the government, seem to matter a great deal for most economies. Other elements, such as infrastructure and contracting institutions (courts and access to finance), hinge on their initial status and the size of the market.

Social and Governance Dimensions of Climate Change : Implications for Policy

Foa, Roberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This paper addresses two vital concerns in the debate on adaptation to climate change. First, how can countries prepare to manage the impact of climate-change induced natural disasters? Second, how can countries ensure that they have the governmental institutions required to manage the phenomenal challenge of adaptation to climate change? A range of economic and institutional measures are tested for their potential effects on natural disaster resilience and the quality of environmental governance. The findings suggest an important role is played by social and political institutions in determining the ability of countries to adapt to climate change and respond to natural disasters, in particular in the degree to which countries have succeeded in gender empowerment and the development of a robust civil society and nonprofit sector. As the climate change challenge moves from that of "proving the facts" to that of "implementing change," the authors suggest that international policymakers, donors, and activists must increasingly focus on building domestic policy environments that are conducive to the delivery of more effective environmental legislation...

Global Good Practice in Incubation Policy Development and Implementation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This paper was based on a desk review of the literature relating to best practice in public policy supporting business incubation, supplemented by four national case studies covering Brazil, Ma-laysia, New Zealand and South Africa. These country studies were prepared through engage-ment of stakeholders, site visits and other sources of primary and secondary information collection. In the context of the study, we focused on best practice in policy development, meaning that public bodies should identify clear objectives and goals to be achieved within the resources avail-able and take steps to measure and assess what has actually been achieved, allowing changes to overcome unexpected barriers, as well as to identify and disseminate best practices to improve overall performance.

CPIA Africa, June 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
This report is the second in a series of annual reports describing the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of policies and institutions that underpin development. It presents Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) scores for the 39 African countries that are eligible for support from the International Development Association (IDA). The development literature identifies the components of the CPIA as being broadly relevant for sustaining growth and reducing poverty. The data provide some support for this association. All country groups exhibit similar patterns across the four CPIA clusters. The gap in scores between the macroeconomic management cluster and the governance cluster is just as pronounced for fragile as for non-fragile states. In contrast, the gap between the economic management cluster and the social policies and structural policies clusters is small. Overall, the macroeconomic policy stance in Sub-Saharan Africa was supportive of growth, with monetary policy focused on managing inflation and fiscal policy focused on pro-poor spending and infrastructure development. Inflation declined in 2012...

Enabling environments? Insights into the policy context for climate change and health adaptation decision-making in Cambodia

Bowen, Kathryn J; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va; McMichael, Anthony J; Friel, Sharon
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human health directly and indirectly, including through agricultural changes and urban warming. Adaptation to climate change is receiving increasing attention, given, now, the inevitability of further climate change and its diverse impacts. However, with increased international funding for adaptation comes challenges such as ensuring supportive national policy environments for developing and implementing effective adaptation activities. Adaptation at community and population levels is underpinned by governance processes, such as the nature by which decisions are taken and implemented by government, community and private organizations. Thus an understanding of the policy context is necessary to identify the factors that enable or inhibit adaptation policy and programmes. This article examines to what degree there exist enabling factors to support the development of adaptation policy and activities, with relevance to the health sector. Results of a policy analysis are presented, which used stakeholder participation to investigate the context in which adaptation decisions were made within organizations across different sectors in Cambodia. Five factors were identified as critical components of the governance environment: (1)policy development processes; (2)the existence of a political recognition of climate change and (3–5) the organizational barriers relating to coordination...

Monitoring policy and actions on food environments: rationale and outline of the INFORMAS policy engagement and communication strategies

Friel, Sharon; Brinsden, H.; Lobstein, T.; Landon, J.; Kraak, V.; Sacks, G.; Kumanyika, S.; Swinburn, B.; Barquera, S.; Hawkes, C.; Kelly, B.; L’Abbé, M.; Lee, A.; Ma, J.; Macmullen, J.; Mohan, S.; Monteiro, C.; Neal, B.; Rayner, M.; Sanders, D.; Snowd
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) proposes to collect performance indicators on food policies, actions and environments related to obesity and non-communicable diseases. This paper reviews existing communications strategies used for performance indicators and proposes the approach to be taken for INFORMAS. Twenty-seven scoring and rating tools were identified in various fields of public health including alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, infant feeding and food environments. These were compared based on the types of indicators used and how they were quantified, scoring methods, presentation and the communication and reporting strategies used. There are several implications of these analyses for INFORMAS: the ratings/benchmarking approach is very commonly used, presumably because it is an effective way to communicate progress and stimulate action, although this has not been formally evaluated; the tools used must be trustworthy, pragmatic and policy-relevant; multiple channels of communication will be needed; communications need to be tailored and targeted to decision-makers; data and methods should be freely accessible. The proposed communications strategy for INFORMAS has been built around these lessons to ensure that INFORMAS’s outputs have the greatest chance of being used to improve food environments.

2003 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness : The Effectiveness of Bank Support for Policy Reform

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The Annual Review of Development Effectiveness (ARDE) 2003, examines the effectiveness of Bank support to borrower countries, in particular, the help to foster reform policies, and institutional frameworks. The Review focuses primarily, although not exclusively, on the years from 1999 through 2003. This is done to facilitate the juxtaposition of recent evaluation evidence with trends in policy indicators. Recent trends in developing countries ' policies suggest that the various dimensions of policy, and institutional performance have, on average, improved modestly, although recent reforms have touched most areas of development policy. In most countries that accomplished strong reform over the period 1999-2003, change was driven by necessity, or opportunities such as transition from socialism, economic crisis, European Union accession, and change of government. Development research suggests that such factors tend to galvanize support for change, and thus make the politics of policy reform easier. Countries whose policies improved over the period 1999-03...

The Impact of Market and Policy Instability on Price Transmission between Wheat and Flour in Ukraine; European Review of Agricultural Economics

Brummer, Bernhard; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Zorya, Sergiy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Analysis of price transmission in transition countries is often complicated by unstable policy environments. We use a Markov-switching vector error-correction model (MSVECM) to model multiple regime shifts in the relationship between wheat and wheat flour prices in Ukraine from June 2000 to November 2004. Unlike common alternative error correction specifications, the MSVECM does not require an explicit transition variable but rather permits changes between regimes to depend on an unobserved state variable. The analysis reveals four regimes whose timing coincides with political and economic events in Ukraine. Strong coincidence between a 'high-uncertainty' regime and discretionary policy interventions suggests that policy responses to fluctuations in Ukrainian harvests may have amplified instability.

Bulgaria's Policy for Regulatory Reform in the European Union : Converging with Europe's Best Regulatory Environments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Bulgaria's entry into the EU Single Market raises new opportunities and new risks for the national economy. As shown in the rest of Europe, a program of regulatory reform offers an effective strategy for managing the risks of more intense competition while preparing Bulgarian companies to prosper within the largest economy in the world. Bulgaria has already made significant progress in regulatory reform, with an emphasis on developing regulatory impact analysis (RIA) in Bulgaria's public administration. To support these activities, the Council of Ministers agreed in August 2006 to the proposal of the Ministry of Economy and Energy to develop a national plan for better regulation. The goal is to progressively achieve a low-cost, low-risk regulatory system that both supports national competitiveness and effectively protects public interests. To achieve its potential, Bulgaria should converge, not with a minimum standard of regulatory reform, but with the best performers in Europe. This policy paper identifies nine tasks for setting up a modern regulatory system and meeting European obligations. These nine tasks are intended to improve the ability of the central government to promote regulatory reform...

CPIA Africa, June 2014; 2013 CPIA Results for Africa; Assessing Africa's Policies and Institutions

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Institutional and Governance Review (IGR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
This report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of policies and institutions that underpin development. It presents Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) scores for the 39 African countries that are eligible for support from the International Development Association (IDA). This year's report expands coverage to include Djibouti and Yemen from the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). The scores, which are on a scale of 1 to 6 with 6 being the highest, are an indicator of the quality of these countries' policy and institutional framework across 16 dimensions grouped into four clusters: economic management (Cluster A), structural policies (Cluster B), policies for social inclusion and equity (Cluster C), and public sector management and institutions (Cluster D). The overall quality of policies and institutions in Sub-Saharan African countries held steady in 2013, with divergent performance across countries. The average CPIA score for Sub-Saharan Africa held steady at 3.2 in 2013. But beyond the flat regional average...

Assessing the Investment Climate for Rural Enterprises

Larson, Gunnar; Lamb, John; VanDer Meer, Cornelis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The 2008 World Development Report identifies competition as an important variable of the rural investment climate. Competition triggers innovation and the productivity gains that drive economic growth, and with it the creation of jobs. Employment is generally the principal pathway that people have out of poverty. Fostering such competitive environments entails inducing the entry of local, mainly small-and-medium enterprises as well as the development of agribusinesses that enable small farmers, entrepreneurs, and investors to participate in expanding markets. The barriers to entry confronting prospective small rural enterprises include all the risks and costs and market failures characteristic of many rural economies, in addition to poor access to financial and public services, weak business skills, and extremely limited or non-existent information about what demand consists of in the non-local markets they hope to sell to. Improving the opportunities and incentives for rural firms to invest productively, expand...

Uruguay Policy Notes : Challenges and Opportunities 2010-2015; Uruguay - Notas de politica : desafios y oportunidades 2010-2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The policy notes have two objectives: (i) to present the incoming government team with a menu of policy options in areas where the World Bank has local and international experience; and (ii) to provide a framework for the dialogue between the new governments and the World Bank on the new Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). As such, the discussion of these notes with the authorities was also an opportunity to undertake preliminary consultations on the Bank's support to Uruguay for 2010-2015. The themes of the notes were selected by the outgoing authorities based on ongoing and completed World Bank work, and they prioritize areas where Bank cooperation would add the most value. Uruguay's economy is small, but it has many strengths and high potential for growth and social development. The country has a long democratic tradition, a political system characterized by clear rules of the game and governability, and solid institutions at all levels. Uruguay is one of the most equitable countries in Latin America and enjoys a social peace notable in the region. Good macroeconomic management following the 2002 crisis has reduced country vulnerabilities and strengthened confidence in its institutions. These characteristics are very valuable assets for promoting foreign and domestic investment...

Feedback loops in educational environments using web-based survey tools : new technology development and three implementation case studies

Spead, Benjamin, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 240 p.; 19147252 bytes; 19178657 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
This thesis presents lessons from the development of an on-line, web-based feedback system and preliminary analysis of the socio-technical interactions associated with the specification, design and use of this system. The system has been designed to facilitate many forms of feedback in educational environments. Novel technical components of the system include: (1) a highly detailed and flexible data model representing the social-system feedback loops, (2) reusable feedback objects and sub-objects which minimize content entry requirements while improving data aggregation capabilities, and (3) feedback objects which respond dynamically based on the context in which they are used. Novel social system learning associated with this thesis centers on the mechanisms to facilitate feedback in academic and industry learning environments. This thesis features the design, implementation, and preliminary use of the Online Feedback Organization, Requesting and Monitoring for Educators (OnFORME) system. OnFORME was created to enable ubiquitous feedback collection in a semi-transparent manner for educators in both academic and corporate training environments. OnFORME provides a way for educators to quickly author feedback objects (e.g. surveys) and publish them via the World Wide Web so that students can easily respond. The author used agile development methodology to design and implement this application directly from customer use cases in a bottom-up approach. Inductive research methods included observations of thirteen potential adoption trials...

Perspectives on the satellite services industry : analysis of challenges and opportunities in the market, policy and regulatory environments

Torres-Padilla, Juan Pablo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 197 p.; 10918326 bytes; 10930610 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
This thesis focuses on Space Communications and combines engineering, economics, market, and policy analyses to identify challenges and opportunities in the industry that are beyond the scope of any one isolated discipline. This work is divided in two parts. The first part begins by discussing the background of the communications satellite industry, its value-chain, service applications, history and evolution, and then explores two questions of significant importance to the survival and sustained growth of this industry: 1) are satellite communications solutions competing or complementary alternatives to terrestrial networks-in what context and for what service applications? And 2) what are the characteristics of the regulatory and policy environments and how do they affect the satellite communications industry? In order to address the first question, a framework to analyze the tradeoffs associated with satellite versus terrestrial solutions is developed around three axes: type of solution, service application, and geographic market. It is then argued that satellite solutions and terrestrial networks have a dual character: they are simultaneously competing and complementary technologies. The case is made that satellite solutions have important competitive advantages for voice and data transmission in rural markets and urban areas where terrestrial networks are not available. It is found that consumer video applications represent the most dynamic market with the highest potential of growth for satellite operators. Then...

Managing global software development teams : technology and policy proposals for knowledge sharing

Seshasai, Satwiksai, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 97 leaves; 5688748 bytes; 5693778 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This thesis uses an in-depth case study, with integrated data analysis, to compare and contrast globally distributed and co-located software teams within the IBM Corporation. Important differences in information sharing, collaboration and other behaviors were observed, along with a range of innovations in work operations. Technology and policy implications that draw on the benefits of each model are identified. The development of this thesis began with a seminar that was conducted at MIT to invite stakeholders in various areas of knowledge-based offshore outsourcing to discuss strategic, economic, organizational and technical issues raised in various environments. Large and small firms, various industries, and various business models were covered. The context provided by these stakeholders was used to design an in-depth case study at IBM, with the focus on a matched pair of software teams, which were studied for a period of one year. Both software teams were identical in aspects such as product scope, team size and domain; however, they differed in the key aspect that one team's members all work on the same hallway while the other team's members are geographically dispersed among multiple locations in the United States and India Quantitative technical data from the source control system of each team...

HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia; A Systematic Review with Implications for Policy

Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live.

Intersections of Qanalysis and computing: developing taxonomy and scenario tools for computer aided policy analysis

Claes, Nathan
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
The advent of computer aided modeling has provided excellent opportunities for expanding the scope and accuracy of policy analysis. In order to take advantage of new technology however, traditional analytic tools must be made to function alongside computer modeling environments. Through the course of this thesis I discuss two primary foci. The first describes the development and implementation of a policy taxonomy specifically designed for use in computer aided policy analysis environments. Policy taxonomies acceptable for use in traditional theoretical environments may not be adequate and so must be modified for use in the new information technology environment that modern computer modeling demands. I will present a taxonomy specifically designed for use in the context of computer aided policy analysis (CAPA) systems. The second focus discusses the use of scenario analysis methods in those same systems. Scenario analysis is traditionally a rhetorical exercise which requires new approaches in order to maximize effectiveness in computer modeling environments. I will present an analysis of traditional methods of scenario analysis along with a discussion of some of the limitations of those methods in computer aided environments. I will document some of the foreseeable challenges to the future of scenario analysis as well as presenting some possible evolutions of the method for use in CAPA environments.

An International Comparison of the Economics of Building Integrated PV in different Resource, Pricing and Policy Environments: The Cases of the U.S., Japan and South Korea

Byrne, John; Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Boo, Kyung-Jin; Wang, Young-Doo; Alleng, Gerard
Fonte: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Publicador: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 46098 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
In recent years, the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (CEEP), working with affiliated academic and research institutions in the U.S. and East Asia, has investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using dispatchable photovoltaic (DPV) systems in distributed peak-shaving (PS) applications. In each case, modest amounts of battery storage are used in conjunction with a PV array to achieve firm peak shaving for commercial building operators. Recent investigations have added emergency power as a second function of DPV-PS systems installed on commercial buildings. This paper reports on CEEP’s latest studies carried out in the US, Japan and South Korea which offer a cross-national review of the performance of dual-function DPV systems designed to serve peak shaving and emergency power needs of the commercial buildings sector. The market assessment results for each country are derived from PV Planner, a spreadsheet analytical tool developed at CEEP to run simulations of building integrated PV applications under different resource, pricing and policy environments. The analyses in all three countries rely on electricity load data from actual buildings, resource data for specific national locations...