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Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.13%
This report, Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization, studies the food price instability and risk problem in low-income countries and investigates the benefits and costs of alternative policy responses, and provides guidance on how to make the transition from state-dominated markets to private markets. The report concludes that problems of food price instability and food insecurity need to be addressed by developing: measures to improve overall productivity of food staples, measures to promote irrigation or crop diversification to reduce climate risks, improvements of the overall efficiency of markets, including investments in transport and communication infrastructure, storage, information systems, and market regulations. The report stresses that direct public interventions in food markets to manage food price risk should be a last resort. Specific policy recommendations are made to achieve these objectives.

Managing Trade Policy During the Economic Crisis

Saez, Sebastian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
The global economic crisis has triggered rapid responses by governments worldwide to counteract its domestic effects, through fiscal stimulus packages, expansionary monetary policies, and financial bailouts. Ad hoc trade policy measures are increasingly being put in place. All countries share the responsibility of preserving a stable and predictable trade policy environment. To this end, trade policies must contribute to maintaining an open trading system consistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) principles. With the sharp decline in global merchandise trade volumes, expected to fall by 9 percent in 2009, countries have resorted to an array of measures to counter the detrimental effects of the crisis on their respective economies. Because this decline is a consequence of a deterioration of global demand, trade measures are not an effective response to this problem. On the contrary, policies that contribute to an open and stable trading system are the best policy option for the world community, especially in the current context.

Private Health : Policy and Regulatory Options for Private Participation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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55.97%
Many developing countries face a critical gap between the demand for health care services and their supply. Public resources often fall short of what is needed to provide universal health care, and the typical incentive structure in the public sector may not always be conducive to expanding access, improving the quality of care, and ensuring efficient use of limited funding and expertise. This Note defines options for mobilizing private resources to achieve public health objectives. A government seeking to encourage private participation in health care provision can choose among six basic policy and regulatory options that vary widely in the risks and responsibilities borne by the private (for-profit or nonprofit) entity. At one end of the spectrum the private sector takes on limited responsibilities while the public sector remains the primary provider of health care services. At the other, the government establishes a policy environment in which qualified private entities may freely enter and exit the health care market. In this option private providers assume the full risks and responsibilities associated with service provision...

Jordan - Development Policy Review : A Reforming State in a Volatile Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Since the early 1990s, Jordan has initiated efforts toward far-reaching stabilization and structural reform. The reforms have aimed at laying the foundations for a reduced role of the state, private-sector-export-oriented-growth, employment, poverty reduction, and overall improvement in the welfare of the population. Due to this intensive effort, inflation has been reduced, the current account of the balance of payments has been stabilized, and budget deficits have been reduced. In addition, structural reforms have encompassed domestic taxation/subsidy policies, trade liberalization policies, monetary/financial sector policies, exchange rate policies, administered prices, and privatization. The reforms initiated since 1989 have made Jordan one of the leaders of reform in the Middle East and north Africa region, despite its experiencing several changes in government and adverse external shocks in the 1990s. The country has further integrated into the global economy, with a major shift in trade policy that included an Association Agreement with the European Union in 1999...

Long-Term Policy Options for the Palestinian Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.18%
In light of deteriorating economic relations between Israel and the West Bank and Gaza, and suspended peace negotiations, it is timely at this juncture between the lapsed Interim Period and a final status agreement to examine past experience with a view to assessing the policy choices facing Palestinian policymakers in the future. The post-Oslo experience points to failed economic normalization and income convergence with Israel. Several reasons for these failures have been advanced, including poor implementation of the Paris Protocol, as well as fundamental flaws inherent to the protocol itself. The experience under the Paris Protocol illustrates the degree to which political and economic factors are intertwined; both types of factors need to be addressed in a comprehensive framework. The fact that political pressures from Israeli security concerns introduced severe economic hardship on the Palestinians and threatened newly-gained Palestinian autonomy contributed to the unraveling of the interim agreement. The economic environment of uncertainty...

Kazakhstan : Solid Growth, Unsettled Global Environment - Kazakhstan Economic Update, Fall 2013

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.09%
While the world economy continues to be unsettled, economic growth in Kazakhstan has been solid. Strong domestic demand, coupled with increased oil output and favorable weather conditions, is likely to boost economic growth. An expansion of credit was the key driver of growth in private consumption and investment activity in 2013. Income growth in the country had a positive impact on poverty indicators, with prosperity shared broadly. Prudent macroeconomic policy has helped the economic performance. Prospects of additional oil output with Kashagan coming on stream will help boost economic activity in the coming years and increase Kazakhstan s vulnerability to external shocks unless the country succeeds in diversifying its endowments from natural resources to stronger institutions and higher quality human capital. In his recent speech on the strategic vision Kazakhstan-2050, the President of Kazakhstan highlighted the need to diversify the endowments of the country to achieve its development objectives. He reiterated the key development priorities for the country to become one of the top 30 developed countries by 2050. Trade policy will remain a central instrument to help the country integrate into the global economy...

Stabilization and Association Process in the Banlkans : Integration Options and their Assessment

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; de la Rocha, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The stabilization and association process launched by the European Union in the aftermath of the Kosovo war in 1999 has created a new policy environment for five South East European countries (SEE-5). In exchange for EU assistance, the prospect of EU accession, and the continuation of preferential access to EU markets, SEE-5 governments have to upgrade their institutions and governance by European standards and engage in mutual regional cooperation, including stability pact member-countries. The authors examine the benefits to SEE-5 of trade liberalization along two dimensions and suggest conditions under which these could be maximized. They argue that the process of regional trade liberalization should be extended to multilateral liberalization, aligning SEE-5 most-favored-nation (MFN) applied tariffs on industrial products with EU MFN tariffs, and that priority be given to structural reforms and regional cooperation aimed at trade facilitation. As inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade dominates intra-SEE-5 trade...

An entrepreneurship policy framework for high-growth firms: Navigating between policies for picking winners and market failure

Hindle, K.; Yencken, J.; O'Connor, A.
Fonte: Inderscience Publishers Publicador: Inderscience Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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56.1%
This paper outlines an analysis of high-growth technology ventures framed within a time when innovation and entrepreneurship were clearly central pillars of economic policy in Australia. The paper first outlines the case that entrepreneurship policy is highly reliant upon supporting high entrepreneurial potential firms. It next outlines the innovation and entrepreneurship policy environment of the Australian Government between 2001 and 2006 and discusses its shortcomings. Using a series of mini cases of technology-based high-growth firms coincidental with this policy environment, the policy areas that require attention in order to support high-growth technology ventures are highlighted. The paper concludes by providing a policy framework conceived through the lens of high-growth business ventures. When viewed in this way it is apparent that neither policy designed to pick winners or policy that addresses market failure fully support or facilitate high-growth ventures.; Kevin Hindle, John Yencken, Allan O'Connor

Food aid, food policy and the Uruguay round: implications for Bangladesh

Warr, Peter; Ahammad, Helal
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 65645 bytes; 348 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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55.95%
The relationship between the effects of food aid and those of the completion of the Uruguay Round of the GATT are studied in this paper, focussing upon the food aid recipient countries, taking Bangladesh as an illustrative example. The magnitudes of these effects depend crucially on the policy environment within the food aid recipient country itself, particularly the government's policy with respect to commercial food imports, as well as the way food aid donors respond to the Round. When the quantity of Bangladesh's commercial food imports is controlled by the government, the benefits derived from food aid are smaller, and the negative effects of the Uruguay Round will be larger, than when these imports are liberalised.; no

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Main Report and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.99%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) looks at the broad reform program, including institutional, governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy, by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply focused on the provision of essential public goods. Implementing the institutional reform agenda is the first priority in the accession-led reform, having the country the largest increase in its share of EU external imports among the Central Eastern European Countries (CEECs), with trade diversification providing a robust foundation for trade expansion. But, to deepen trade integration, Romania would need to broaden its trade performance throughout the economy. On restructuring the enterprise sector, the CEM indicates enterprise reform needs to be accelerated, and budget constraint discipline needs to be extended to the transaction interface between the state and enterprises. As for implementing agricultural transformation...

Sri Lanka : Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.12%
This Poverty Assessment report reviews the evolution, and nature of poverty in Sri Lanka, by examining why its significant, recent economic downturn contrasts sharply with its considerable, economic advances during the 1960s; why poverty fell rapidly, and to a relatively, low level in some areas, though it remained high in other parts of the country; and, whether the large resources given to re-distributive programs, really helped reduce poverty. In response, Sri Lanka's hesitant attitude towards progressive economic, and social policies is seemingly the answer, for these policies would have removed the regulations that hinder effective markets, and the private sector, and, would have provided needed infrastructure, and social services, accommodating diversity within its social policies, through resources, and opportunities for the poorest. Notwithstanding gradual, economic liberalization, the economy is still more protected than in countries which started liberalization much later. The regulatory environment - particularly restrictions on labor...

Kenya : A Policy Agenda to Restore Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.16%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) - the first since 1995 - is a contribution to the government's economic recovery strategy, and to its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), being finalized. It examines Kenya's economic performance during the past decade, and identifies the structural weaknesses that have contributed to the decline in productivity, and the competitiveness of the economy during this period. It also recommends policy, and institutional reforms to revitalize economic growth, and to reduce poverty. The message from the CEM is a sober one: increased poverty is the legacy from almost two decades of slow growth; and, the burden of disease, particularly malaria and HIV/AIDS will constrain growth in the years to come. However, given the improved economic policy environment, the potential for economic growth is significantly better than the poor performance in the 1990s would indicate. But even in our high-case scenario Kenya is unlikely to reach the Millennium Development Goal of cutting in half by 2015 the proportion of Kenyans living in poverty in 1990. Reducing poverty will remain a tremendous challenge. The CEM is organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 reviews recent economic developments...

Guyana - Development Policy Review : The Challenges of Governance and Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Development Policy Review (DPR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The objective of this Development Policy Review, is to provide an up-to-date, integrated assessment of Guyana's development policy agenda, with the main focus on governance, growth, and poverty alleviation. The report consists of three parts: assessment of development outcomes, discussion of the development policy agenda, and, assessment of the medium-term outlook. It discusses some of the key political economy issues, critical to this review - ethnic and political tensions, as well as the surge in crime and violence. The report draws on the extensive wealth of existing analysis, within, and outside the Bank, and, highlights critical areas where further research is needed. Among the key structural measures adopted recently, are the amendment of the tax law, and of the procurement law, and the start of implementation of the sugar restructuring program. These achievements come on top of progress made in other reform areas, since the adoption of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) in 2001. The pressing issue is the implementation of the remaining reform agenda. The PRSP needs to be updated...

Colombia : Land Policy in Transition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
Unequal land distribution and the negative social and economic implications resulting from such polarization in Colombia have long been of concern to policymakers. A 1950 World Bank mission identified unequal land distribution as a key impediment to economic and social development in the country. Since then, a wide range of policies has been adopted to deal with this issue and its consequences. Numerous studies show that the success of these policies was often limited by a combination of an inappropriate policy environment, limited financial resources, cumbersome processes loaded with bureaucratic obstacles, drug money, and violence. This report uses new empirical evidence to describe the dimensions and impact of the problem of land access and land distribution and past policies to deal with this issue, and to identify possible avenues to address land issues in an integrated manner in future interventions. It complements contemporaneous studies by the Bank on rural finance and agricultural competitiveness...

Mauritius - Enhancing and Sustaining Competitiveness : Policy Notes on Trade and Labor

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Mauritius is a well known successful development story. The country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita rose from 38 percent below the world average in 1981 to 16 percent above the average by 2008. Such a performance is not the fruit of luck or use of natural advantages as it was accomplished through man-made efforts and policy actions. The combination of (i) active industrialization policies together with opportunistic use of preferential trade access; and (ii) participatory institutions that assured voice and rent redistribution across the society ensured labor intensive growth and the emergence of a virtuous cycle in development. Mauritius knew what needed to be done. A National Long-Term Perspective Study (NLTPS), also known as Vision 2020, started in 1990 and was completed in 1997. The goal of opening up and diversifying the economy by moving towards high value-added, skill and knowledge intensive service sectors was already well articulated in the study - with explicit reference to the potential of 'computer services' which today is embedded in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector. The global crisis in 2008 was a threatening reminder of vulnerabilities. Mauritius is structurally vulnerable to external shocks. With a small domestic market unable to promote or sustain production growth by itself and a high dependence on raw materials...

Understanding Policy Change : How to Apply Political Economy Concepts in Practice

Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Hamilton, Alexander; Ferrer, Issel Masses
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The introductory chapter sets the stage and outlines the logic of the rest of the handbook. First, we present the main learning objectives; second, we introduce the pedagogical approach, methodology, and structure of the book. This handbook is intended to introduce the concepts of political economy to a wide audience of development practitioners, including civil society activists, journalists, students, and bureaucrats. Since the target readers vary widely in their previous exposure to the subject matter, the book summarizes a vast academic field and presents a comprehensive repertoire of concepts, theories, and empirical examples. Rather than offering a 'do-it-yourself' framework, we opted for developing a step-by-step analytical puzzle. First, the paper introduces the core mechanisms of political economy and their inner logic, and, subsequently, we help our readers learn how to recognize these mechanisms in their daily development-related work. By the end of the book, the authors hope that readers will be able to: recognize core development problems stemming from the political-economic environment; link theoretical concepts to real-life situations; diagnose the symptoms and the root causes of malfunctions; and understand the short-term and long-term consequences of poor governance and low institutional equilibria. This handbook is also designed to provide trainers with some of the pedagogical materials they need to develop an introductory course on political-economy analysis for policy practitioners. The content focuses on the what...

Dominican Republic : Social and Structural Policy Review, Volume 1

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The report outlines the macroeconomic stability in the Dominican Republic during the 1990s, suggesting its strong economic growth, and poverty reduction, will contribute to the gradual transformation the country is undergoing towards policy reform. It analyzes poverty, especially severe in rural areas, where misdirected agriculture policies, and insufficient public investments, such as education, limit opportunities. But, the advancing trade liberalization, is expected to reduce export taxes, and although displaced industrial, and agricultural activities will be subjected to adjustment costs, there will nonetheless be improvements in consumers' welfare, and real wages. However, public resources for education remain very low, particularly for secondary education, and this should be considered as key element of the government's poverty reduction strategy, in addition to the establishment of safety nets to curtail malnutrition, and expand health, and sanitation programs, to tackle the extreme poverty. Recommendations suggest...

Zambia Economic Brief, October 2013 : Zambia's Jobs Challenge--Realities on the Ground

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Zambia shares its robust economic growth and capital inflows in the past few years with other Sub-Saharan countries, growth supported by high commodity prices that while declining are still at historical high levels. High commodity prices have induced large foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, mainly in extractive industries but also in services sector, supporting growth. Zambia's mining sector has benefited from FDI, receiving almost 1 billion dollar in 2011 alone. A large gap has emerged between available resources and likely spending in 2013. The government is responding with a full range of adjustments, including cutting recurrent spending (such as on travel and motor vehicles), cutting capital projects, and stepping up revenue collection. The government has raised fuel prices and reduced maize and fertilizer subsidies, but the medium-term fiscal impact of these initiatives is uncertain. These reforms aimed to create space for expanding better targeted spending programs. Zambia's economy has seen far too many unexpected policy changes in recent years. Persistent and even escalating perceptions of an uncertain policy environment can weaken investment...

Fundamentos de política pública en medio ambiente en Colombia; Fundamentals of public policy environment in Colombia

Ayala Pérez, Juan Manuel; Florian, Adelina
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Especialización en Derecho Administrativo Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Especialización en Derecho Administrativo
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Colombia es uno de los países del mundo con mayor riqueza de recursos naturales, sin embargo el uso y abuso de estos ha llevado a un estado de crisis, en cuanto a su disponibilidad. Aunque desde los años sesenta en el país se han adoptado políticas que conllevan a la protección de los recursos naturales, es partir de la década del noventa con la Constitución del 91 que se ha propendido por la generación de mecanismos de protección para el medio ambiente. El propósito de este ensayo es establecer si Colombia cuenta con una política pública en materia de medio ambiente. Para este fin el ensayo se divide en tres partes: en una primera parte se define el concepto o acepción de “política pública” y los fundamentos, parámetros o elementos que debe tener, para denominarse como tal, teniendo en cuenta diferentes autores; en una segunda parte se presenta el concepto o definición de “medio ambiente” y se profundiza en el tema de desigualdad, justicia y medioambiente. En una tercera parte se aborda el tema de la política pública en medio ambiente desde el fundamento normativo internacional en el que se sustenta la normatividad nacional, luego se plantea el marco jurídico integral que aborda la situación de la política medioambiental en Colombia. Por último se abarca el tema de las políticas públicas que desarrollan las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y se dan las conclusiones pertinentes.; Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest wealth of natural resources...

Political Fragmentation and the Policy Environment in Vanuatu, 1980-2004

Morgan, Michael
Fonte: Asia Pacific Press Publicador: Asia Pacific Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
This article charts the broad shifts in Vanuatu's policy environment caused by progressive political fragmentation over the past 24 years. Recent electoral returns show an upsurge in support for independents and minor parties with strong local credibility, suggesting a move away from the 'big-picture' politics of the 1970s and 1980s, and a shift away from the major parties.