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Divina tradição ilumina Mogi das Cruzes: o Espírito Santo faz a festa; Divine tradition iluminates Mogi das Cruzes: Holy Ghost makes the party

Mariano, Neusa de Fátima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Herança portuguesa, as festividades em homenagem ao Espírito Santo encontraram terreno fértil no Brasil, onde ganharam contornos populares. Em Mogi das Cruzes, município pertencente à Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, a Festa do Divino Espírito Santo é realizada, segundo os documentos consultados, há quase duzentos anos. Em vários momentos, a tradição quase sucumbiu na luta pela sua manutenção diante do processo urbano-industrial, que fragmenta a vida e enfraquece as relações próximas. No início da década de 1990, alguns moradores de Mogi, interessados na manutenção da Festa do Divino do Espírito Santo se reuniram com o objetivo de fundar uma associação que auxiliasse na sua realização, a fim de não deixar a tradição desaparecer. Para isso, a Associação Pró-Festa do Divino, como foi denominada, passou a buscar recursos financeiros junto a empresas (de grande e de pequeno porte) em troca de divulgação de seus logotipos na Festa, colocados em cartazes, panfletos, livros de cânticos, uniformes, etc. Divulgada pelos meios de comunicação, a Festa do Divino de Mogi das Cruzes ganhou impulso, agregando cada vez mais, novos participantes. Nesta "euforia" de crescimento e de arrecadação de recursos, a Festa do Divino foi se configurando também como mercadoria...

Sistematização da assistência litisconsorcial no processo civil brasileiro: conceituação e qualificação jurídica; A system for third-party joinder intervention in Brazilian civil procedure: concepts and legal classification

Coelho, Gláucia Mara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Com a presente tese de doutoramento procurou-se sustentar que o ingresso voluntário do terceiro nas hipóteses hoje tratadas pela doutrina como sendo de assistência litisconsorcial revela, na realidade, a intervenção de um verdadeiro litisconsorte, o qual, com a sua admissão no processo em curso, assume a qualidade de parte para todos os fins. Para demonstração da tese proposta, iniciou-se com um exame histórico do instituto, por meio do qual foi possível localizar suas raízes mais remotas no direito italiano medieval até ser positivado pelo §69 da ZPO alemã em 1877. Esse mesmo estudo histórico foi realizado em face do ordenamento brasileiro, apresentando-se a evolução do instituto nos sucessivos diplomas legais, culminando com o artigo 54 do atual Código de Processo Civil (Capítulo 2). Na sequência, foram examinadas as figuras de intervenção de terceiros naqueles ordenamentos estrangeiros considerados mais relevantes para o estudo da assistência litisconsorcial no Brasil (Capítulo 3). Prosseguiu-se com a análise do tratamento conferido ao instituto pela doutrina brasileira contemporânea, objetivando elencar as principais características que são costumeiramente atribuídas à (assim conhecida) modalidade qualificada da assistência (Capítulo 4). Esse estudo...

A evolução do PT paulista: uma abordagem sobre a organização do partido e seu desenvolvimento eleitoral no estado; The evolution of the Workers Party (PT) in São Paulo: an approach on the organization of the party and its electoral development

Davidian, Andreza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Este trabalho se volta à evolução do Partido dos Trabalhadores no estado de São Paulo. No contexto mais amplo do debate sobre partidos políticos, o PT sempre se apresentou como um contraponto nas abordagens sobre o sistema político brasileiro que, partindo de diferentes paradigmas teóricos, chegou sempre ao diagnóstico de que estas instituições estariam fadadas a serem organizações frágeis. Daí a análise do partido sob o ponto de vista da organização ser particularmente interessante. Serão observados os movimentos de expansão e retração da estrutura do partido para além do seu núcleo de origem a partir da base de filiados, do comportamento nas disputas no nível local e do desempenho nas eleições proporcionais. Todos esses aspectos se mostram relacionados no desenvolvimento da organização no estado onde nasceu.; This dissertation seeks to understand the evolution of the Workers Party (PT) in the state of São Paulo. In the broader context of the debate on political parties, the PT was always presented as a counterpoint in the approaches of the Brazilian political system that, starting from different theoretical paradigms, the researchers always concluded that these institutions were bound to be fragile organizations. Therefore...

Bicameralism, nationality and party cohesion in the European Parliament

Costello, Rory; Thomson, Robert
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
peer-reviewed; Party cohesion in legislatures is a topic of longstanding concern to political scientists because cohesion facilitates democratic representation. We examine the cohesion of transnational party groups in the European Parliament, which is part of the EU’s bicameral system, and study the oftentimes competing pressures to which MEPs are subject from their EP party groups and national governments. Our explanation focuses on the conditions under which MEPs take policy positions that differ from those of their party groups. We propose that national governments lobby their national MEPs more intensely on issues of high national salience and on which they are in a weak bargaining position in the Council. The analyses offer a unique approach to the study of party cohesion that is based on the policy positions taken by each national delegation of MEPs in each of the three main party groups and national governments on specific controversial issues.

Leadership in the Liberal Party: Bolte, Askin and the Post-War Ascendancy

Abjorensen, Norman
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The formation of the Liberal Party of Australia in the mid-1940s heralded a new effort to stem the tide of government regulation that had grown with Labor Party rule in the latter years of World War II and immediately after. It was not until 1949 that the party gained office at Federal level, beginning what was to be a record unbroken term of 23 years, but its efforts faltered at State level in Victoria, where the party was divided, and in New South Wales, where Labor was seemingly entrenched. The fortunes were reversed with the rise to leadership of men who bore a different stamp to their predecessors, and were in many ways atypical Liberals: Henry Bolte in Victoria and Robin Askin in New South Wales. Bolte, a farmer, and Askin, a bank officer, had served as non-commissioned officers in World War II and rose to lead parties whose members who had served in the war were predominantly of the officer class. In each case, their man management skills put an end to division and destabilisation in their parties, and they went on to serve record terms as Liberal leaders in their respective States, Bolte 1955-72 and Askin 1965-75. Neither was ever challenged in their leadership and each chose the time and nature of his departure from politics...

Dynamics of inter-party and intra-party coalition building: a nested-game interpretation of legislator defection from a dominant political party in Japan

Horiuchi, Yusaku; Tay, Thiam Chye
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 219903 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Under what conditions do legislators defect from a dominant political party? We ask this question with a focus on the case of Japan’s Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) split in 1993. Based on a nested-game model, which depicts factions engaging in intra-party and inter-party coalition building simultaneously in two arenas, we argue that the anti-mainstream faction defected because it was marginalized and had little chance of being powerful within the LDP while the possible change in the electoral system and the success of a new conservative party enhanced its expectations of gaining power within the Diet.; no

Does who wins matter more or less? An analysis of major party candidate views on some aspects of economic policy, 1987-1996

Taft, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 234364 bytes; 2130 bytes; 2233 bytes; 2237 bytes; 2144 bytes; 2396 bytes; 3124 bytes; 11349 bytes; 10184 bytes; 9933 bytes; 10541 bytes; 2167 bytes; 159 bytes; 3420 bytes; text/html; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/gif; image/
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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As Australia becomes increasingly absorbed into the global economy, the intensity in the debate over the desirability of the trend towards free market policies has been growing. Under particular scrutiny has been the redistribution of income and wealth via both direct means (such as welfare spending) and indirect means (for example, labour market regulation). In this paper, data collected by the Social Science Data Archives (SSDA) at the Australian National University (ANU) are used to show that the views of Coalition (that is, Liberal and National Party) and Australian Labor Party (ALP) candidates on some of these economic issues have converged over the past decade. As a group, ALP candidates have become more inclined to support free market policy prescriptions, and Coalition candidates less so. However, Coalition candidates are still substantially more likely to support free market prescriptions than are ALP candidates. By developing a regression model based on some personal characteristics of the surveyed candidates, it is shown that these characteristics have little relationship with the holding of free market views by candidates, disputing suggestions made elsewhere that such individual characteristics are significant determinants of views on the economic issues considered here. The conclusions are: * the convergence between the parties in the overall view can be explained by an increasing acceptance by candidates of both parties in redistribution via employment opportunities rather than by the direct funding of services; that is...

The Puzzle of Non-Party Actors in Party Democracy: Independents in Ireland

BOLLEYER, Nicole; WEEKS, Liam
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
It is an accepted truth that parties are the central political actors in liberal democracy. This dominance of parties is often considered the logical outcome of rational politicians’ attempts to maximize their utility in terms of votes and policy influence. However, the last twenty years have seen a number of significant Independent (i.e. nonparty) actors emerge in more than a few political systems. From an actor-centred point of view, party affiliation can, depending on the particular environment, be rather a liability than an advantage which has significant implications for the role of non-party actors in face of weakening party democracies. To demonstrate this point, we deliver an account of the rise of Independents in the Irish political system, opposed to the dominant scholarly perspective that tends to consider Independents as an idiosyncrasy. We show that the choice of organizational independence over party affiliation represents a reaction to incentives inherent in the electoral, parliamentary and governmental stages that can disfavour party as the most efficient vehicle for individual goal attainment. This becomes evident when avoiding the misleading comparison between parties as collective bodies with that of Independents as individuals...

Party Competition in the Spanish Regions

WILSON, Alex
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Party politics in multi-level systems has become a growing research field in political science (see Hough et al, 2003; Hough and Jeffery, 2006), but has rarely focused on comparing structures of multi-level party competition. Regional party competition is particularly important in political systems where state decentralisation has significantly shifted the electoral and coalitional incentives available to party actors, whether statewide or nonstatewide. This paper will compare structures of party competition in the Spanish regions, using three principal dimensions of analysis: electoral support for statewide parties in regional elections; patterns of coalition formation at regional level; and patterns of alternation in regional government. The paper finds that multi-level party competition in Spain displays ‘vertical’ (central-regional) and ‘horizontal’ (inter-regional) incongruence (Thorlakson, 2006; 2007). This incongruence has never undermined party competition at central level, due partly to the weakness of systemic linkages between regional and central party systems. The main exception is Catalonia, where systemic linkages with Spanish politics are so strong that all parties (statewide and non-statewide) have sought to pursue a strategy of coalitional congruence. Divergent patterns of regional party competition have encouraged some regional branches of statewide parties to become more autonomous from the central leadership...

The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement

MAIR, Peter; KATZ, Richard S.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
We restate and clarify the idea of the “cartel party,” a concept that has found considerable traction in studies of parties throughout the democratic world, including those far from the original research site and data on which the cartel model was based. The cartel party thesis holds that political parties increasingly function like cartels, employing the resources of the state to limit political competition and ensure their own electoral success. The thesis has been subject to varied empirical testing and to substantial theoretical evaluation and criticism. Against this background, we look again at the cartel party thesis in order to clarify ambiguities in and misinterpretations of the original argument. We also suggest further refinements, specifications and extensions of the argument. Following a background review of the original thesis, we break it down into its core components, and then clarify the terms in which it makes sense to speak of cartelization and collusion. We then go on to explore some of the implications of the thesis for our understanding of contemporary democracies and patterns of party organization and party competition and we identify a possible agenda for future research in party scholarship.

The European Dilemma of Social-Democratic Parties. A Study of Debates at National Party Conferences of the PS, SPD and Labour Party

GUINAUDEAU, Isabelle
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
While the extant literature of EU politicization has revolved around parties anchored at the margins of the political spectrum, this working paper considers the political and electoral implications of European integration for social-democratic parties, and the EU-related debates within these parties. My extensive study of speeches at the national party conferences of the British Labour Party, the French Parti Socialiste and the German Sozial-demokratische Partei Deutschlands reveals that members and leaders of each party have to contend with a tension between their perceived (country-specific) constraints and opportunities in relation to European integration. Faced with differentiated motivations – on the one hand, the perception of a strong adaptive pressure as regards social-democratic programmes; on the other, strategic responses to European integration designed to maximize electoral scores – leaders and representatives of the party minority tend to opt for different trade-offs. Among all three party organizations, EU-optimistic views tend to predominate while EU-contestation stems mainly from representatives of each party’s internal opposition. Studying party internal debates thus reveals the existence of a contestation of European integration stemming from mainstream parties...

Nacionalização e localismo nos sistemas eleitorais e partidários; Nationalization and localism in electoral systems and party systems

Vasselai, Fabricio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Esta pesquisa traz 3 estudos independentes, sobre temas ligados às questões do que é nacionalização partidária e como nacionalização, regionalização e localismo são afetados por e afetam os sistemas eleitorais e partidários. Mais especificamente, no capítulo 1 proponho uma nova definição teórica de nacionalização dos partidos e sistemas partidários. Argumento que tal conceito pode ser dividido em 4 dimensões, que são a nacionalização da organização partidária, da oferta eleitoral, da demanda eleitoral e dos resultados eleitorais. Em seguida, aplico esse quadro teórico ao caso brasileiro para mostrar como, de fato, maior precisão conceitual altera a leitura empírica que se faz de um sistema. No capítulo 2, exploro uma das consequências da nacionalização partidária, que vem sendo teorizada pela literatura mas nunca testada de modo direto. Trata-se da ideia de que nacionalização seria o que conecta as circunscrições eleitorais e faz as proposições de Duverger passarem do nível local ao nacional. Para testar isso, incluirei nacionalização dos sistemas partidários pela primeira vez num modelo de número de partidos - aptos lidar com problemas de endogeneidade que vêm impedindo autores de fazerem isso. Assim...

Картельная партия: Возвращение к тезису; The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement

KATZ, Richard S.; MAIR, Peter
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
OTHER
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Translation of an article previously published in English 'The Cartel Party Thesis: A Restatement'; We restate and clarify the idea of the «cartel party», a concept that has found considerable traction in studies of parties throughout the democratic world, including those far from the original research site and data on which the cartel model was based. The cartel party thesis holds that political parties increasingly function like cartels, employing the resources of the state to limit political competition and ensure their own electoral success. The thesis has been subject to varied empirical testing and to substantial theoretical evaluation and criticism. Against this background, we look again at the cartel party thesis in order to clarify ambiguities in and misinterpretations of the original argument. We also suggest further refinements, specifications and extensions of the argument. Following a background review of the original thesis, we break it down into its core components, and then clarify the terms in which it makes sense to speak of cartelization and collusion. We then go on to explore some of the implications of the thesis for our understanding of contemporary democracies and patterns of party organization and party competition and we identify a possible agenda for future research in party scholarship.

Political parties at the European level - their organization and activities: The case of the European People's Party and the Party of European Socialists

GAGATEK, Wojciech
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Examining Board: Prof. Peter Mair, EUI (Supervisor) Prof. Stefano Bartolini, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, EUI Prof. Luciano Bardi, University of Pisa Prof. Thomas Poguntke, University of Bochum; Defence date: 17 December 2008; The literature devoted to political parties at the European level - also known as the ‘Europarties’ - frequently argues that due to the impact of the EU’s peculiar institutional environment and the need to adapt to it, Europarties have converged on some common organizational features. Building on neo-institutional theories of party change and adaptation, and especially on historical and sociological institutionalism, this thesis offers an alternative set of explanations for the organizational forms of the Europarties. In so doing, it brings into question both the extent of their organizational convergence and the primary focus of the literature on environmental factors, as well the limits of the few comparisons between Euroand national level party organizations that have been made thus far. To this end, the research focuses on the organization of the two largest Europarties - the European People’s Party (EPP) and the Party of European Socialists (PES) - and on how and why they differ from one another. Europarty organizational development is explained through an assessment of the impact of the organizational traditions of the individual member parties on their EU-level counterpart. Building on data gathered through in-depth interviews...

Party preferences in the digital age : the impact of voting advice applications

ALVAREZ, Michael R.; LEVIN, Ines; MAIR, Peter; TRECHSEL, Alexander H.
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Election campaigns in modern democracies are increasingly affected by the rise of Internet-based information and communication technologies. Here, one of the most significant developments concerns the rapidly spreading voting advice applications' (VAAs). VAAs help online users to find their parties by matching a series of party positions with the positions taken up by the users themselves. This article analyses whether such tailor-made campaign information affects the party preferences of voters. It hypothesizes that the impact of the VAA-produced information is dependent on the representative deficit', a concept which captures the part of political preferences of a user that are not reflected by any party in the political system. The empirical analysis is conducted using a dataset stemming from users of the EU Profiler', a VAA produced for the 2009 European Parliamentary elections campaign. We find that less than one out of five users matches best with her initially preferred party. While a large majority of those users who are advised to vote for a better-fitting party are hardly affected by the VAA output, 8 percent of these do change their first preference to the party proposed by the VAA. Switching party preferences can be explained by the size of the representative deficit: the higher the deficit...

Doctrinal and strategic problems of the Communist Party of Australia, 1945-1962

Playford, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
xii, 453p; In writing this thesis my object has been to discuss the development of the strategy and doctrine of the Communist Party of Australia from 1945 to the present day. I have been especially interested in showing that the formulation of strategies and the periodical modifications of doctrine were affected by the Party's problems in Australian politics. While being fully aware of the Party's attachment to the Soviet Union land more recently Communist China), and to the ideas and influence of the international Communist movement, my main concern has been to examine it as part of the Australian political system, the demands of which it constantly tries to reconcile with the necessity of acting out the international Communist line. Having adopted this emphasis, I have not made a detailed examination of such topics as the mechanics of the Party's internal organisation, its social composition, its electoral performance, or its specific policies e.g. on foreign affairs, for their own sake. These subjects have been treated in so far as they are relevant to the central theme. Similarly, the doctrinal problems of the Party have been discussed in terms of their formulation by Australian leaders such as Sharkey and Dixon...

The Paradox of Adversity: New Left Party Survival and Collapse in Latin America

Van Dyck, Brandon Philip
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
Political parties are the basic building blocks of representative democracy. They reduce information costs for voters, enhance executive accountability, and contribute to democratic governability by facilitating legislative organization and aggregating the interests of powerful societal groups. Yet we continue to know relatively little about the conditions under which strong parties form. The dominant theories of party-building are mostly based on historical studies of the United States and Western European countries, almost all of which developed stable party systems. Drawing on this literature, a segment of the early scholarship on party-building in third-wave democracies optimistically took "party development" for granted, assuming that parties would follow from democracy, cleavages, or certain electoral rules. Yet party-building outcomes in third-wave democracies fell short of scholars' initial, optimistic expectations. In many third-wave polities, social cleavages, attempts at electoral engineering, and decades of democratic competition did not produce durable parties. On the other hand, in numerous third-wave democracies, new political parties did take root. What accounts for the variation in party-building outcomes observed across the developing world? More generally...

Why (So many) Parties? The Logic of Party Formation in Senegal

Kelly, Catherine Lena
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Political parties proliferated in Senegal and other competitive authoritarian regimes in post-Cold War Africa. This dissertation examines the causes and consequences of that proliferation. Why do so many politicians create their own parties in this context and what are the consequences of party proliferation for opposition party behavior and presidential turnover? The dissertation addresses these questions with original data collected over sixteen months of fieldwork in Senegal, including over one hundred interviews, material from party archives, local press clippings, political biographies, and data on elections and party behavior. Party formation, strategy, and competition are shaped by the "uneven playing field," a hallmark of competitive authoritarian regimes that entails systematic, deep advantages for the ruling party in terms of access to political finance, media, and the state. Focused on Senegal, a critical case of party proliferation, the dissertation traces how the uneven playing field not only empowers the president to create incentives for proliferation; it also renders life in the opposition so difficult that many politicians form parties to negotiate their way into the state. A significant subset of Senegalese party leaders is primarily concerned not with competing in elections; they focus instead on patronage negotiation...

Rallying Around the Party: A Theory of Party Identity Linkage

Freeze, Melanie Sue
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%

This dissertation proposes that party identification, as a social identity, fundamentally alters individual processing of and reactions to political information and events. I present a party identity linkage theory in which I argue party identity can lead to heightened, specific emotional responses to threatening political competition and biased, polarized perceptions of politicalized objects if the link between self and party is sufficiently strong. Because people are strongly motivated to protect the positive perceptions they have of themselves, they should be motivated to maintain and protect their positive perceptions of groups that are linked to their self-concept through social identities. Furthermore, because people tend to engage in self-serving biases that result in a degree of positive illusions about themselves, especially when the positive self-view is threatened, evaluations of closely linked groups should also be subject to a degree of positive bias, especially when the positive image of the group is threatened. Drawing on both experimental and survey data, I provide evidence that strong partisans are fundamentally different from weak partisans and independents in the degree a party is included in their self-concepts...

Parties in the electorate: public perceptions and party attachments in Brazil

Kinzo,Maria D'Alva
Fonte: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais Publicador: Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This article examines the impact of party politics on the Brazilian electorate. An important indicator of the consolidation of the party system is the emergence of image and party ties among voters. As the party system tends to stabilize, we suppose that voters start fixing the profiles of parties and express party preference or loyalty. It meant that electoral volatility, high in the beginning, would tend to decrease along the time and that, the main parties at least, would create their identity, working as shortcuts for voters in their search for information about the political options in the electoral contests. The main concern of this analysis it to verify at what level such knowledge and party identity construction process have occurred in Brazil, taking as empirical basis a research carried out in the São Paulo city's metropolitan area during the 2002 pre-election period.