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Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide

Tufte, Thomas; Mefalopulos, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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46.47%
Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. However, what is new is the proliferation of institutions, especially governmental but also nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that seek participatory approaches in their development initiative. This guide concerns to provide perspectives, tools and experiences regarding how to go about it with participatory communication strategies. It is conceived as a guide to be of relevance and utility for development workers in the field. It is targeted at both at government and their officials, the World Bank staff, and at civil society. The particular relevance of this guide is three-fold: 1) placing the practitioner debate about participatory communication within a conceptual framework...

Participatory Approaches to Attacking Extreme Poverty : Cases Studies Led by the International Movement ATD Fourth World

Godinot, Xavier; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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56.25%
Relying on contributions from the International Movement ATD Fourth World, this book deals with questions such as: What does it mean to live in poverty, and especially in extreme poverty? How can very poor people be reached through development projects? How can we assess whether projects succeed in changing the lives of the poorest individuals? In answering these questions, the emphasis is on exploring what type of knowledge is needed to fight extreme poverty. A key argument is that apart from academic knowledge, a concerted effort is needed to listen to the knowledge of poor people themselves, as well as to the knowledge of practitioners who are engaged with them on a daily basis to fight poverty. After the introductory chapter, the text of a speech by Joseph Wresinski (founder of the International Movement ATD Fourth World) at a congress of social scientists held at UNESCO, is reproduced. The next contribution is based on comments by the International Movement ATD Fourth World on the World Bank s World Development Report 2004 Making Services Work for Poor People. Thereafter...

Water Allocation Strategies for the Kat Basin in South Africa : Comparing Negotiation Tools and Game Theory Models

Dinar, Ariel; Farolfi, Stefano; Patrone, Fioravante; Rowntree, Kate
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.37%
Governments and developing agencies promote participatory approaches in solving common pool resource problems, such as in the water sector. Two main participatory approaches have been applied separately, namely negotiation and mediation. In this paper the authors apply the Role-Playing Game that is a component of the Companion Modeling approach, a negotiation procedure, and the Cooperative Game Theory (Shapley value and the Nucleolus solution concepts) that can be mirrored as a mediated mechanism to a water allocation problem in the Kat watershed in South Africa. While the absolute results of the two approaches differ, the negotiation and the cooperative game theory provide similar shares of the benefit allocated to the players from various cooperative arrangements. By evaluating the two approaches, the authors provide useful tips for future extension for both the Role-Playing Games and the Cooperative Game Theory applications.

Monitoring and Evaluating the Poverty Impacts of Agricultural Water Investments

Sur, Mona
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Monitoring and evaluating (M&E) the poverty impact of agricultural water investments may allow some conclusions about returns on different types of investments and their contributions to poverty reduction. This paper recommends the following: involve beneficiaries early in the M&E process -- broad consultations and early involvement of users in the design and implementation of the M&E system will do much to build consensus and ownership; use beneficiary self-assessments and other participatory approaches so that assessments can be made midcourse -- there may be a long time lag in realizing a reduction in poverty from agricultural water-related projects, and the poverty impact often cannot be evaluated until well after a project ends; keep the number of indicators collected within manageable proportions; and ensure that a good baseline survey is undertaken -- without a proper baseline, it is difficult to monitor progress and evaluate the impacts of investments.

Case Study 5 - Uganda : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Budget allocation alone can be a poor indicator of the quality and quantity of public service delivered on the frontline in countries with weak institutions. While shifting of budgetary resources to priority sectors is a good first step, it is crucial to ascertain where and how the allocated sum gets spent. The 1996 Uganda-World Bank attempt at tracking public expenditure in primary education (and health) has revealed a set of surprising findings, prompting fresh thinking on issues such as service "capture", decentralization, cost efficiency, and accountability. The Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS), as quantitative exercises separate from, but complementary to qualitative surveys on the perception of consumers on service delivery, have been found to be very influential in highlighting the use and abuse of public money. In the absence of a strong institutional infrastructure to manage information flow, surveys such as the one done in Uganda has been seen to not only provide a realistic portrayal of the status of demand and supply of services but also prompt creation of cost effective mechanisms of public accountability through...

Participatory Approaches to Country Assistance Strategies : Lessons from Africa

Boyd, Barbara L.; Stokes, Ellery; Edgerton, Jim; Donnelly-Roark, Paula; Reinikka, Demba; Kasozi, Mary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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66.49%
This note focuses on the experiences, in four African countries, of using participatory approaches to allow borrower counterparts and civil society groups, to influence country assistance strategies (CAS) priorities. While it is demonstrated that each process needs to be tailored to the specific situation of a given country at a particular time, it also highlights significant commonalities. Cases are compared in Kenya, where the current CAS is focused on public sector reform in response to civil society demands, and in Sierra Leone, where the CAS process assisted the Government in ascertaining the development priorities of local stakeholders, during the hardships of post-conflict instability, as well as comparisons in Senegal, and Uganda. The reasons for undertaking CASs in a participatory manner include improving the Bank understanding of the CAS document, by tapping into local knowledge to ensure community concerns, and, helping to increase transparency, and public understanding of Bank/government partnerships...

Nepal : The Distributional Impact of Participatory Approaches on Reproductive Health for Disadvantaged Youth

Malhotra, Anju; Mathur, Sanyukta; Pande, Rohini; Roca, Eva
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.53%
This paper presents findings from a community-based study testing the effectiveness of participatory approaches in improving services and outcomes for youth reproductive health in Nepal. The study was motivated by the desire to test the impact of participatory approaches in improving youth reproductive health. Nepal was chosen because it is a country where youth reproductive health needs are especially acute and little is being done to meet them. In this study, the authors test whether many of the key principles advocated by development practitioners for making services work for poor people can be effectively operationalized through small, community-based programmatic interventions. In particular, the study seeks to establish whether participatory intervention programs can increase empowerment of poor and disadvantaged populations and accountability to them.

Participatory Conservation for Protected Areas : An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Sources (1996-2001)

Diamond, Nancy; Nkrumah, Elisabeth; Isaac, Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.37%
This report provides annotated summaries of recent publications on participatory conservation for protected areas. The report focused on lessons learned and good practices for donor-funded projects. The summaries include study objectives, methodology and findings. A keyword search list is also available at the end of the report.

Participation in Project Preparation : Lessons from World Bank-assisted Projects in India

Vedeld, Trond
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.53%
The study assesses the extent to which the India program, is meeting the Bank's objective of mainstreaming participatory approaches, in project preparation, and design. From a variety of social, and natural resource management sectors, ten projects were selected, appraised during 1990 and 1998, in which participation was an overall project objective. Key findings suggest that beneficiary participation was successful, contributing to participatory designs in many projects. Social assessments were used more often than before, while involvement of primary beneficiaries improved during the 1990s, reflecting a change in the ways of thinking of, both Bank staff, and Government officials. Participatory work improved significantly, showing a move from a focus on social mitigation of potentially adverse impacts, to proactive work, with broader operational frameworks for participation in project planning. Direct beneficiary participation, was less common in strategy, and policy formulation, but more common in formulating local-level project approaches...

Case Study 1 - Bangalore, India : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Inspired by a private sector practice of conducting client satisfaction surveys, a small group of people in Bangalore2, concerned about the city' deteriorating standards of public services3, initiated an exercise in 1993 to collect feedback from users. User perceptions on the quality, efficiency, and adequacy of the various services were aggregated to create a 'report card' that rated the performance of all major service providers in the city. The findings presented a quantitative measure of satisfaction and perceived levels of corruption, which, following coverage in the media, not only mobilized citizen and government support for reform, but also prompted the rated agencies themselves to respond positively to civic calls for improvement in services. This exercise was repeated in 1999, and has been replicated in at least five other Indian cities, as well as the State of Karnataka in the interim. By systematically gathering and disseminating public feedback, report cards may serve as a "surrogate for competition" for monopolies - usually government owned - that lack the incentive to be as responsive as the private enterprises to their client's needs. They are a useful medium through which citizens can credibly and collectively 'signal' to agencies about their performance and pressure for change.

Case Study 2 - Porto Alegre, Brazil : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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46.49%
Run by dictators for over 20 years (1964-1985), Brazil only had a democratic constitution promulgated in 1998 that allowed an already active civil society to function more freely. A country of 156 million, Brazil has been dubbed one of the most unequal, with one of the largest numbers of poor people among comparable middle-income countries. After the end of dictatorship in 1998, people who had earlier opposed dictatorships formed the Workers Party (PT) to seriously take up the agenda of deepening democracy through "popular administration" of government. Having won several municipal elections in 1989, including Sao Paolo with over 10 million people, the PT began a creative experiment of engaging a wide spectrum of people to formulate city budgets. The Porto Alegre case has, in particular, having been nominated by the 1996 UN Summit on Human Settlements in Istanbul as an exemplary 'urban innovation', stood out for demonstrating an efficient practice of democratic resource management. The largest industrial city in Rio Grande do Sul with 1.3 million inhabitants...

Case Study 4 - Indonesia : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Following a dramatic drop in per capita GNP from US$ 1200 in early 1997 to US$ 680 in 1998, the Indonesian government began implementing social safety net (SSN) programs targeting the adversely affected - those who became poor after the crisis and everyone already living in poverty. These were aimed at supplementing their purchasing power through the Special Market Operation (OPK) of subsidized rice distribution, preserving access to critical social services such as education through student scholarships, and augmenting incomes through labor intensive employment opportunities. To monitor the implementation of these SSN programs and to provide donors and government with qualitative information about the social impacts of the 1997 financial crisis, the World Bank formed the Social Monitoring and Early Response Unit (SMERU) with major assistance from AusAid, Asia-Europe Meeting Fund, and USAID. SMERU has five different units with tasks of, i) building local capacity for rapid assessments of potential 'danger' situations in the field...

Community-Driven Approaches in Lao PDR : Moving Beyond Service Delivery - Summary Overview

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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This report reviews Community Driven Development (CDD) projects in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) to determine their effectiveness in channeling resources to communities for poverty reduction. The study examines three CDD projects in depth: the Poverty Reduction Fund, the Village Investment for the Poor (both supported by the World Bank), and the Government-financed Village Development Fund. Through close analysis of these projects and cursory analysis of other CDD projects, the report concludes that overall, the CDD approach in Lao PDR improves the well-being of communities in a cost-effective manner. The study, however, identifies three challenges that remain for CDD projects to be wholly successful. The first challenge is a call for harmonization of CDD mechanisms within the country. CDD approaches are not currently coordinated geographically, technically, or financially. This leaves communities who need help without resources, an excess of skills in some areas and a dearth of skills in others...

Community-Driven Approaches in Lao PDR : Moving Beyond Service Delivery, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
This report reviews Community Driven Development (CDD) projects in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) to determine their effectiveness in channeling resources to communities for poverty reduction. The study examines three CDD projects in depth: the Poverty Reduction Fund, the Village Investment for the Poor (both supported by the World Bank), and the Government-financed Village Development Fund. Through close analysis of these projects and cursory analysis of other CDD projects, the report concludes that overall, the CDD approach in Lao PDR improves the well-being of communities in a cost-effective manner. The study, however, identifies three challenges that remain for CDD projects to be wholly successful. The first challenge is a call for harmonization of CDD mechanisms within the country. CDD approaches are not currently coordinated geographically, technically, or financially. This leaves communities who need help without resources, an excess of skills in some areas and a dearth of skills in others...

Uruguay - Strengthening Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Social Policy : Nonlending Technical Assistance Project, Report on Phase 2; Uruguay - Fortaleciendo la evaluacion y el monitoreo participativo de la politica social : Proyecto de Asistencia Tecnica No Reembolsable - informe de la fase two

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
The objectives of the Uruguay Nonlending Technical Assistance Project (UY NLTA) were to: (i) evaluate the impact of providing a safety net program's (PANES's) social emergency programs; (ii) inform a dialogue about the future role of social programs and of MIDES as a lead authority responsible for the coordination and oversight of social policy in Uruguay; and (iii) strengthen Ministry of Social Development's (MIDES's) capacity to assess, monitor, and evaluate social policy in Uruguay, with considerable weight given to participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Expected outcomes of the project included: (a) increased efficiency in the implementation of Uruguay's social programs through the consolidation of existing and dispersed databases and the strengthening of MIDES's Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system; (b) increased transparency and strengthened accountability in selected departments through the piloting of a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) approach; (c) stronger engagement of civil society in public sector reform in Uruguay; and (d) informed decisions about the future of social programs under the Plan Nacional de Equidad...

Agricultural Extension Services in Indonesia : New Approaches and Emerging Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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Indonesian agriculture is at a crossroads. Supporting the livelihood of millions of Indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth of the economy; and be a key component of the Government's poverty alleviation strategy. The challenge for the future is to reinvigorate productivity gains among rural producers, and provide the foundation for long run sustainability of these productivity gains. Productivity gains are key to farmer income growth, and for this rebuilding the research and extension systems that have seen a marked deterioration in recent years will be critical. The experience of the Indonesian decentralization of its extension system has been mixed, with adverse impact on extension through sharp reductions in funding, and removal of central-level guidance. At the same time, a series of positive debates and experimentation in management have taken place from a shift on top-down to participatory approaches, input and technology dissemination to dissemination of market and upstream information and technology...

Bridging Diversity : Participatory Learning for Responsive Development

Salmen, Lawrence F.; Kane, Eileen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Today, one of the central tenets of development is the necessity for learning about and building upon stakeholders' and beneficiaries' insights, needs, culture, social organization, resources and active participation. This publication clarifies the myriad approaches to social research being used in the World Bank today. The focus is on participatory research as presently practiced and as a potential for forms of research which are not now particularly participatory. It makes a number of recommendations to enhance the utility of social research in and outside of the Bank.

A Review of the Literature on Participatory Approaches to Local Development for an Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support for Community-Based and Driven Development Approaches

Pozzoni, Barbara; Kumar, Nalini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
This paper explores the available literature on participatory approaches to development as an input to the operations evaluation department (OED) evaluation of World Bank-supported community-based development (CBD) and community-driven development (CDD) interventions. Participatory approaches to development have gained substantial support in the international community over the past quarter century, and have become increasingly important in the work of the World Bank and other donors. Undertaking this literature review has been a particularly challenging exercise for two reasons. The Bank categories CDD approaches in a three-fold typology, which encompasses both community participation efforts and participatory governance initiatives. This paper is primarily concerned with regularized participatory spaces, in which community members deliberate over the provision of services and the allocation of resources, rather than transient spaces, which entail one-off events or exercises aimed at generating discussion on specific policy issues with no direct link to decision making. This review was undertaken with a four-fold objective. First...

Uruguay : Strengthening Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Social Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
The Uruguay Non-lending Technical Assistance (UY NLTA) for Uruguay was undertaken at the request of the Government of Uruguay's Ministry of Social Development (MIDES). Following a devastating financial and macroeconomic crisis in 2002, MIDES was established with a view to coordinating social programs and providing a safety net program for Uruguayans affected by the crisis: the National Assistance Plan of Social Emergency (PANES), which was established in 2005. The objectives of the UY NLTA are to: (i) evaluate the impact of PANES social emergency programs; (ii) inform a dialogue about the future role of social emergency programs and of MIDES as the lead authority responsible for the coordination and oversight of social policy in Uruguay, and (iii) strengthen MIDES capacity to assess, monitor and evaluate social policy in Uruguay, with considerable weight on participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation.

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

Mitchell,Claudia; de Lange,Naydene
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.