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Avaliação do estado oxidante/antioxidante e da defesa eritrocitária antioxidante em felinos com linfoma; Evaluation of oxidant/antioxidant total status and erythrocyte antioxidant defense in cats with lymphoma

Pinto, Camila Ferreiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/07/2010 PT
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35.97%
Os linfomas constituem um grupo de neoplasias que têm origem nas células linforreticulares e acomete tecidos linfóides primários, secundários como o baço e linfonodos e demais tecidos onde há presença de linfócitos circulantes, comumente descritos em cães, gatos e humanos. As síndromes paraneoplásicas são definidas como alterações sistêmicas não relacionadas com lesões metastáticas de forma direta ou indireta no hospedeiro. Dentre as alterações descritas como síndrome paraneoplásica, as alterações hematológicas constituem as mais freqüentes, apresentando destaque para os processos anêmicos. A anemia presente pode ser decorrente de alterações do metabolismo do ferro, perda sanguínea, distúrbios hemolíticos, infiltrado medular e hiperesplenismo. Atualmente tem se associado a redução da vida média das hemácias frente a presença do estresse oxidativo, que gera um desequilíbrio entre a excessiva produção de espécies reativas ao oxigênio e/ou a diminuição dos mecanismos de defesa antioxidante das hemácias. Esse processo pode ocasionar a peroxidação de lipídios da membrana eritrocitária, gerando hemólise e assim resultando em anemia e/ou exacerbando a mesma. Com o objetivo de avaliar a existência do estresse oxidativo e a presença de anemia assim como...

Mecanismos moleculares da ação tóxica pró-oxidante de 1,4-diamino-2-butanona, um análogo de putrescina, sobre células de mamíferos e Trypanosoma cruzi; The Molecular mechanisms of pro-oxidant activity of 1,4-diamino-2-butanone, a putrescine analogue, to mammalian cells and Trypanosoma cruzi

Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Compostos α-aminocarbonilícos como ácido 5-aminolevulínico (ALA) e aminoacetona (AA) apresentam um grande potencial pró-oxidante, pois sofrem reações de enolização e subseqüente oxidação aeróbica, com a formação de espécies radicalares de oxigênio, íons NH4+ e α-oxoaldeídos potencialmente citotóxicos. A α-aminocetona 1,4-diamino-2-butanona (DAB), um análogo da putrescina, é um agente microbicida de vários parasitas incluindo Trypanosoma cruzi. Acredita-se que o mecanismo de morte desencadeado por DAB nos parasitas seja por meio da inibição competitiva da ornitina descarboxilase (ODC), importante enzima do metabolismo de poliaminas, muito embora tenha sido observado de igual forma danos oxidativos nestes parasitas quando tratados com DAB. O objetivo deste trabalho é esclarecer o mecanismo de oxidação química de DAB e sua ação pró-oxidante à cultura de células de mamíferos (LLC-MK2 e RKO), assim como sua atividade microbicida contra tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi. Demonstramos aqui que DAB, quimicamente similar ao ALA e AA, sofre reação de oxidação catalisada por íons fosfato, e por íons de metais de transição como Fe(II) e Cu(II), resultando na formação de radicais de oxigênio...

Cinética e mecanismo de redução de espécies de ferro-heme hipervalentes pelo H2S, cisteína e CO em relação à proteção do trato gastrointestinal e a qualidade da carne; Kinetic and mechanism of reduction of heme-iron species by H2S, Cysteine and CO in relation to the gastrointestinal tract protection and meat quality.

Libardi, Silvia Helena
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Estudos da reatividade de espécies oxidantes e a interação destas espécies com estruturas sensíveis a oxidação e antioxidantes em condições biológicassão de grande importância no entendimento dos processos redox em alimentos e no corpo humano. A mioglobina é a ferro heme proteína majoritária do músculo esquelético de mamíferos e a sua ativação por peróxido de hidrogênio dá origem às espécies reativas de ferro heme hipervalentes,perferrilmioglobina e ferrilmioglobina, que podem induzir a condição de estresse oxidativo. A reação das espécies de ferro heme hipervalentes com constituintes do meio biológico ou alimentos como proteínas ou membranas podem tanto afetar a qualidade de produtos cárneos quanto causar danos celulares no trato gastrointestinal durante sua digestão.Pequenas moléculas tais como o NO, H2S e CO são produzidas endogenamente em sistemas biológicos e, além de desempenharem importantes funções na manutenção dometabolismo celular,podem apresentar atividade antioxidante.A presente Tese procurou investigara cinética e o mecanismo para a redução das espécies perferrilmioglobina e ferrilmioglobina pelo monóxido de carbono, reação esta que apresentaconstante de velocidade de segunda ordem de k2 =(3...

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases?

Vellosa, J. C R; Khalil, N. M.; Fonseca, L. M.; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Oliveira, O. M M F
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 65-70
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of oxidant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H 2O 2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

Oxidação de compostos β-dicarbonílicos por peroxidase

Rodrigues, Ana Paula
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 141 f.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Pós-graduação em Biociências e Biotecnologia Aplicadas à Farmácia - FCFAR; A terapia ADEPT (antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy) tem sido caracterizada, em vários estudos experimentais focalizados na destruição de células tumorais, como uma alternativa à fármacos citotóxicos sistêmicos (anti-proliferativos). Nesta técnica, o pró-fármaco é ativado por enzimas exógenas que são levadas à célula tumoral por meio de anticorpos monoclonais (Mab). Neste contexto, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) e ácido 3-indolacético (IAA) constituem um dos sistemas mais citados de enzima e pró-fármaco aplicados à destruição de células tumorais com conjugados HRP-Mab. Peroxidases são enzimas inespecíficas e várias moléculas podem ser oxidadas pela suas formas ativas HRP-l e HRP-ll no ciclo clássico da peroxidase, que é dependente de peróxido de hidrogênio ou hidroperóxidos orgânicos. Por outro lado, somente NADH, dihidroxifumarato e a auxina de planta IAA, têm sido descritos como substratos para HRP em reação independente de peróxido de hidrogênio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o mecanismo pelo qual compostos β-dicarbonílicos são oxidados por HRP e explorar suas aplicações. Foi demonstrado que os compostos dicarbonílicos 2...

Contribuição de espécies reativas de oxigênio para a hiperreatividade plaquetária em ratos tratados com dieta hiperlipídica; Contribution of reactive ¿oxygen species to the platelet hiperreactivity in high-fat fed rats

Priscila Fukumura Monteiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
As plaquetas desempenham uma função fisiológica importante no sistema hemostático, em resposta a lesão vascular através da prevenção da hemorragia. A adesão ou agregação plaquetária são eficazes na contribuição sinérgica de várias interações de múltiplos receptores, que transmitem sinais de ativação que iniciam uma série de respostas bioquímicas e morfológicas, associadas à remodelação do citoesqueleto, a secreção granular e a geração e liberação de agonistas endógenos solúveis, tais como ADP e tromboxano A2 (TXA2). O NO derivado da célula endotelial exerce um efeito inibitório na função da plaquetaria através da ativação de cGMP / PKG, a qual, por sua vez leva a uma redução na concentração de Ca2 + prevenindo assim a adesão e agregação de plaquetas à parede vascular. No entanto, a disfunção endotelial, presente em certas condições patológicas é caracterizada por uma diminuição da biodisponibilidade de NO que leva a ativação anormal das plaquetas conduzindo a trombose vascular À disfunção plaquetária é considerada uma fase final de complicações cardiovasculares no diabetes mellitus tipo II, obesidade, aterosclerose, levando ao resultado clínico, tais como enfarte do miocárdio...

Does cotinine act upon reactive oxygen species and peroxidases?

Vellosa,J.C.R.; Khalil,N.M.; Fonseca,L.M.; Brunetti,I.L.; Oliveira,O.M.M.F.
Fonte: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP Publicador: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Nicotine, an oxidizing agent, is certainly one of the most widely used alkaloids in the world. It is, together with its main metabolite, cotinine, responsible for tobacco-dependence. The use of tobacco is closely associated with lung disease, morphological leukocyte modification and generation of oxidant species. The aim of this study was to look for a possible relationship between cotinine, oxidant species generation and oxidative processes. After studying the action of cotinine in some chemical oxidation models and on the enzymatic kinetics of peroxidases (myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase), we concluded that cotinine does not act directly upon H2O2, HOCl, taurine chloramines, horseradish peroxidase or myeloperoxidase.

Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

Vieira,Tiago O.; Seifriz,Ilana; Charão,Carla C. T.; Oliveira,Simone Q. de; Creczynski-Pasa,Tânia B.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
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35.92%
The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam.) Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam.) Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

Profile of Maytenus aquifolium action over free radicals and reactive oxygen species

Vellosa,José Carlos Rebuglio; Barbosa,Vanessa de Frias; Khalil,Najeh Maissar; Santos,Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo dos; Furlan,Maysa; Brunetti,Iguatemy Lourenço; Oliveira,Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria
Fonte: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
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46.01%
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating, accompanying or causing many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Maytenus species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and others gastric problems and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae) root bark ethanol extract was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. The extract was efficient against studied reactive species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 35.5 ± 1.3 %), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.0036 ± 0.0003 mg/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 0.002 ± 0.0001 mg/mL ), O2•- (obtained inhibition = 36.0 ± 2.1 %), and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18.3 ± 0.4 %).

Oxidant-induced DNA damage of target cells.

Schraufstätter, I; Hyslop, P A; Jackson, J H; Cochrane, C G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
In this study we examined the leukocytic oxidant species that induce oxidant damage of DNA in whole cells. H2O2 added extracellularly in micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) induced DNA strand breaks in various target cells. The sensitivity of a specific target cell was inversely correlated to its catalase content and the rate of removal of H2O2 by the target cell. Oxidant species produced by xanthine oxidase/purine or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes induced DNA breakage of target cells in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated. These DNA strand breaks were prevented by extracellular catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase. Cytotoxic doses of HOCl, added to target cells, did not induce DNA strand breakage, and myeloperoxidase added extracellularly in the presence of an H2O2-generating system, prevented the formation of DNA strand breaks in proportion to its H2O2 degrading capacity. The studies also indicated that H2O2 formed hydroxyl radical (.OH) intracellularly, which appeared to be the most likely free radical responsible for DNA damage: .OH was detected in cells exposed to H2O2; the DNA base, deoxyguanosine, was hydroxylated in cells exposed to H2O2; and intracellular iron was essential for induction of DNA strand breaks.

Endonuclease-induced DNA damage and cell death in oxidant injury to renal tubular epithelial cells.

Ueda, N; Shah, S V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA damage and cell death have been attributed to the direct cytotoxicity of H2O2 and other oxidant species generated from H2O2. We examined the possibility that oxidants activate endonucleases leading to DNA damage and cell death in renal tubular epithelial cells, similar to that described for apoptosis. Within minutes, H2O2 caused DNA strand breaks in a dose-dependent manner, followed by cell death. DNA fragmentation was demonstrated both by the release of [3H]thymidine in 27,000-g supernatant as well as the occurrence of low molecular weight DNA fragments on agarose gel electrophoresis, characteristic of endonuclease cleavage. Endonuclease inhibitors, aurintricarboxylic acid, Evans blue, and zinc ion prevented H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks, fragmentation, and cell death. Inhibitors of protein or mRNA synthesis had only minor protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage in contrast to complete protection reported in apoptotic thymocytes. Micrococcal endonuclease induced similar DNA strand breaks in LLC-PK1 cells, and the endonuclease inhibitors prevented the events confirming the ability of endonucleases to induce DNA damage. The protective effect of aurintricarboxylic acid was not due to the prevention of the rise in intracellular free calcium. We conclude that endonuclease activation occurs as an early event leading to DNA damage and cell death in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to oxidant stress and...

H2O2-induced O2⋅‒ Production by a Non-phagocytic NAD(P)H Oxidase Causes Oxidant Injury*

Li, Wei-Gen; Miller, Francis J.; Zhang, Hannah J.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Oberley, Larry W.; Weintraub, Neal L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases have been implicated as major sources of reactive oxygen species in blood vessels. These oxidases can be activated by cytokines, thereby generating O2⋅‒, which is subsequently converted to H2O2 and other oxidant species. The oxidants, in turn, act as important second messengers in cell signaling cascades. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species, themselves, can activate the non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases in vascular cells to induce oxidant production and, consequently, cellular injury. The current report demonstrates that exogenous exposure of non-phagocytic cell types of vascular origin (smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts) to H2O2 activates these cell types to produce O2⋅‒ via an NAD(P)H oxidase. The ensuing endogenous production of O2⋅‒ contributes significantly to vascular cell injury following exposure to H2O2. These results suggest the existence of a feed-forward mechanism, whereby reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 can activate NAD(P)H oxidases in non-phagocytic cells to produce additional oxidant species, thereby amplifying the vascular injury process. Moreover, these findings implicate the non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase as a novel therapeutic target for the amelioration of the biological effects of chronic oxidant stress.

β-Glucan Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neutrophils to Improve the Killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Isolates from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; de Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

Rapid Increases in the Steady-state Concentration of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Lungs and Heart After Particulate Air Pollution Inhalation.

Gurgueira, Sonia A; Murthy, G G Krishna; González-Flecha, Beatriz; Lawrence, Joy E.; Coull, Brent Andrew
Fonte: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
In vitro studies suggest that reactive oxygen species contribute to the cardiopulmonary toxicity of particulate air pollution. To evaluate the ability of particulate air pollution to promote oxidative stress and tissue damage in vivo, we studied a rat model of short-term exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). We exposed adult Sprague-Dawley rats to either CAPs aerosols (group 1; average CAPs mass concentration, 300 +/- 60 micro g/m3) or filtered air (sham controls) for periods of 1-5 hr. Rats breathing CAPs aerosols for 5 hr showed significant oxidative stress, determined as in situ chemiluminescence in the lung [group 1, 41 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 1 counts per second (cps)/cm2] and heart (group 1, 45 +/- 4; sham, 24 +/- 2 cps/cm2) but not liver (group 1, 10 +/- 3; sham, 13 +/- 3 cps/cm2). Increases in oxidant levels were also triggered by highly toxic residual oil fly ash particles (lung chemiluminescence, 90 +/- 10 cps/cm2; heart chemiluminescence, 50 +/- 3 cps/cm2) but not by particle-free air or by inert carbon black aerosols (control particles). Increases in chemiluminescence showed strong associations with the CAPs content of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the lung and with Fe, aluminum, silicon, and titanium in the heart. The oxidant stress imposed by 5-hr exposure to CAPs was associated with slight but significant increases in the lung and heart water content (approximately 5% in both tissues...

GH overexpression modifies muscle expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and increases spinal curvature of old zebrafish

Fonseca, Duane Barros; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da; Kuradomi, Rafael Yutaka; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Lanes, Carlos Frederico Ceccon; Figueiredo, Márcio de Azevedo; Dytz, Aline Guerra; Marins, Luis Fernando Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Growth hormone (GH) excess causes an increment in the metabolic rate and in reactive oxygen species generation, which accelerate the ageing process in mammals. Considering that there is no information on this subject in fish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the excess GH effect on senescence in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) transgenic model. In order to reach this objective, we analyzed the phenotype of spinal curvature and expression of genes related to the anti-oxidant defense system and myogenesis in muscle of 8 and 30 months old GH-transgenic males. Gene expression analyses revealed that both superoxide dismutase isoforms were down-regulated only in 30 months old animals, while glutamate cysteine igase was down-regulated in GH-transgenic zebrafish. Acceleration of the spinal curvature and a reduction in the expression of miogenin at both ages and MyoD in the old fish were also observed. Although neurolipofuscin accumulation was not significant in GH-transgenic zebrafish, the estimation of maximum longevity based on the von Bertalanffy growth function was significantly lower in this group. The results obtained here indicate that GH overexpression reduces the transcription of anti-oxidant defense system and myogenesis-related genes...

The Role of Redox Signaling in the Molecular Mechanism of Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer

Garba, Nana Aisha
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
The emergence of tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor resistance is a major problem in the treatment of breast cancer. The molecular signaling mechanism of antiestrogen resistance is not clear. Understanding the mechanisms by which resistance to these agents arise could have major clinical implications for preventing or circumventing it. Therefore, in this dissertation we have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying antiestrogen resistance by studying the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced redox signaling pathways in antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells. Our hypothesis is that the conversion of breast tumors to a tamoxifen-resistant phenotype is associated with a progressive shift towards a pro-oxidant environment of cells as a result of oxidative stress. The hypothesis of this dissertation was tested in an in vitro 2-D cell culture model employing state of the art biochemical and molecular techniques, including gene overexpression, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, confocal imaging, ChIP, Real-Time RT-PCR, and anchorage-independent cell growth assays. We observed that tamoxifen (TAM) acts like both an oxidant and an antioxidant. Exposure of tamoxifen resistant LCC2 cell to TAM or 17 beta-estradiol (E2) induced the formation of reactive oxidant species (ROS). The formation of E2-induced ROS was inhibited by co-treatment with TAM...

Reconstituted high-density lipoproteins inhibit the acute pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular changes induced by a periarterial collar in normocholesterolemic rabbits

Nicholls, S.; Dusting, G.; Cutri, B.; Bao, S.; Drummond, G.; Rye, K.A.; Barter, P.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
BACKGROUND: HDLs have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro. This study investigates these properties in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chow-fed, normocholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbits received a daily infusion of (1) saline, (2) reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing 25 mg apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and 50 mg of either 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), (3) 25 mg lipid-free apoA-I, or (4) 50 mg of either PLPC-small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) or DPPC-SUVs on each of 3 consecutive days. Nonocclusive carotid periarterial collars were implanted after the second dose of treatment. Forty-eight hours after insertion of the collars, the arteries were removed and analyzed for the presence of reactive oxygen species, the infiltration of neutrophils, and the expression of adhesion proteins and chemokines. Insertion of the periarterial collar induced a 4.1-fold increase in presence of vascular wall reactive oxygen species. This effect was completely abolished in the animals infused with rHDL. The periarterial collar was associated with a dense infiltration of the arterial wall by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This infiltration was inhibited by 73% to 94% in the animals infused with rHDL...

Mechanisms of oxidant generation by catalase

Heck, Diane E.; Shakarjian, Michael; Kim, Hong Duck; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Vetrano, Anna M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
The enzyme catalase converts solar radiation into reactive oxidant species (ROS). In this study, we report that several bacterial catalases (hydroperoxidases, HP), including Escherichia coli HP-I and HP-II also generate reactive oxidants in response to ultraviolet B light (UVB). HP-I and HP-II are identical except for the presence of NADPH. We found that only one of the catalases, HPI, produces oxidants in response to UVB light, indicating a potential role for the nucleotide in ROS production. This prompts us to speculate that NADPH may act as a cofactor regulating ROS generation by mammalian catalases. Structural analysis of the NADPH domains of several mammalian catalases revealed that the nucleotide is bound in a constrained conformation and that UVB irradiation induces NADPH oxidation and positional changes. Biochemical and kinetic analysis indicate that ROS formation by the enzyme is enhanced by oxidation of the cofactor. Conformational changes following absorption of UVB light by catalase NADPH have the potential to facilitate ROS production by the enzyme.

Exposure of glia to pro-oxidant agents revealed selective Stat1 activation by H2O2 and Jak2-independent antioxidant features of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490

Gorina, Roser; Sanfeliu, Coral; Galitó, Aída; Messeguer Peypoch, Ángel; Planas, Anna M.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 162 bytes; application/msword
ENG
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36.17%
12 paginas, 7 figuras.; The JAK/STAT pathway is activated in response to cytokines and growth factors. In addition, oxidative stress can activate this pathway, but the causative pro-oxidant forms are not well identified. We exposed cultures of rat glia to H2O2, FeSO4, nitroprussiate, or paraquat. We assessed oxidative stress by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidated proteins, we determined phosphorylated Stat1 (pStat1), and we evaluated the effect of antioxidants (trolox, propyl gallate, and N-acetylcysteine) and of Jak2 (Janus tyrosine kinases) inhibitors (AG490 and Jak2-Inhibitor-II). Pro-oxidant agents induced ROS and protein oxidation, excluding nitroprussiate that induced protein nitrosylation. H2O2, and to a lesser extent FeSO4, increased the level of pStat1, whereas nitroprussiate and paraquat did not. Trolox and propyl gallate strongly prevented ROS formation but they did not abolish H2O2-induced pStat1. In contrast, NAC did not reduce the level of ROS but it prevented the increase of pStat1 induced by H2O2, evidencing a differential effect on ROS formation and on Stat1 phosphorylation. H2O2 induced pStat1 in mixed glia cultures and, to a lesser extent, in purified astroglia, but not in microglia. Jak2 inhibitors reduced H2O2-induced pStat1...

Perfil de ação da Maytenus aquifolium sobre radicais livres e espécies reativas do oxigênio; Profile of Maytenus aquifolium action over free radicals and reactive oxygen species

Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Barbosa, Vanessa de Frias; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Santos, Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo do; Furlan, Maysa; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2007 ENG
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Espécies Reativas do Oxigênio (ERO) e radicais livres têm tido implicações na iniciação e evolução de muitas doenças ou nas causas das mesmas em organismos vivos; há portanto, necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes para inativar ERO/radicais livres. Estudos sobre extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado suas ações antioxidante e seqüestradora de radicais livres. Espécies do gênero Maytenus são utilizadas, em vários países, como medicamentos tradicionais no combate a úlceras gástricas, dispepsia e outras desordens gástricas, bem como por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da raiz da Maytenus aquifolium (Celastraceae) foi avaliado quanto à sua habilidade em seqüestrar radicais livres e outras espécies reativas do oxigênio. Os resultados são expressos como porcentagem de inibição das espécies ativas. O extrato foi eficiente contra as espécies estudadas: radical DPPH (inibição alcançada = 35,5 ± 1,3 %), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0,0036 ± 0,0003 mg/mL), HOCl (IC50 = 0,002 ± 0,0001 mg/mL ), O2•- (inibição alcançada = 36,0 ± 2,1 %), and NO· (inibição alcançada = 18,3 ± 0,4 %).; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical species have been implicated in initiating...