Although both genetic factors and features of the social environment are important predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few data examining gene-social environment interactions in studies of PTSD. The authors examined whether features of the social environment (county-level crime rate and unemployment) modified the association between the serotonin protein gene (SLC6A4) promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and risk of current PTSD in a sample of 590 participants from the 2004 Florida Hurricane Study. Interviews conducted in 2005 were used to obtain individual-level risk factor measures and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD diagnoses. DNA was extracted from salivary samples. County-level crime and unemployment rates were assessed from Federal Bureau of Investigation and US Census data, respectively. There was a significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR genotype and both crime rate (odds ratio = 2.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 6.57) and unemployment rate (odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.42, 9.50) in logistic regression models predicting PTSD risk, after adjustment for individual-level determinants of PTSD. Stratified analyses indicated that the “s” allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of PTSD in low-risk environments (low crime/unemployment rates) but increased risk of PTSD in high-risk environments. These results suggest that social environment modifies the effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on PTSD risk.
Little is known about where suicides take place. We collected data from coroners’ files on all suicides and undetermined deaths in one large English county from 2000 to 2004. The data show that >30% of suicides occurred in public places. A quarter of these involved jumping from a height and nearly a quarter involved car exhaust poisoning. Several sites were associated with multiple methods of suicide. Identifying and managing high-risk locations should be an important part of an overall suicide prevention strategy and is best tackled at local level.
Mathematical and computer models can provide guidance to public health officials by projecting the course of an epidemic and evaluating control measures. The authors built upon an existing collaboration between an academic research group and the Los Angeles County, California, Department of Public Health to plan for and respond to the first and subsequent years of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) circulation. The use of models allowed the authors to 1) project the timing and magnitude of the epidemic in Los Angeles County and the continental United States; 2) predict the effect of the influenza mass vaccination campaign that began in October 2009 on the spread of pandemic H1N1 in Los Angeles County and the continental United States; and 3) predict that a third wave of pandemic influenza in the winter or spring of 2010 was unlikely to occur. The close collaboration between modelers and public health officials during pandemic H1N1 spread in the fall of 2009 helped Los Angeles County officials develop a measured and appropriate response to the unfolding pandemic and establish reasonable goals for mitigation of pandemic H1N1.
A best-evidence topic in vascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether screening asymptomatic individuals for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is feasible and improves disease-free survival. Seven studies presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and limitations of the studies are tabulated. In total, four randomized population-based studies have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA: two British studies, Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) and the Chichester trial, and one each in Viborg County, Denmark and Western Australia. Participants were randomized to receive an invitation to screen or not. The MASS trial randomized 67 770 men, followed participants over 10 years and concluded that screening would almost half AAA-related deaths in men aged 65–74 years. The smaller Chichester trial included only 6040 men but demonstrated a 42% reduction in AAA-related mortality at 5 years, with ongoing benefit at 15 years (11% reduction). The Viborg County trial recruited 12 639 men aged 64–73 years, showed a 66% reduction in AAA-related mortality over 14 years. Finally...
Although dietary fat has been associated with prostate cancer risk, the association between specific fatty acids and prostate cancer survival remains unclear. Dietary intake of 14 fatty acids was analyzed in a population-based cohort of 525 Swedish men with prostate cancer in Örebro County (1989–1994). Multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for time to prostate cancer death by quartile and per standard deviation increase in intake were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Additional models examined the association by stage at diagnosis (localized: T0-T2/M0; advanced: T0-T4/M1, T3-T4/M0). Among all men, those with the highest omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid and total marine fatty acid intakes were 40% less likely to die from prostate cancer (Ptrend = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). Among men with localized prostate cancer, hazard ratios of 2.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.93, 4.59; Ptrend = 0.03) for elevated total fat, 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 5.38) for saturated myristic acid, and 2.88 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 6.67) for shorter chain (C4-C10) fatty acid intakes demonstrated increased risk for disease-specific mortality for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile. This study suggests that high intake of total fat and certain saturated fatty acids may worsen prostate cancer survival...
The authors used a mathematical model to simulate the use of the test-and-treat policy for control of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Los Angeles County. They found the significant epidemiologic benefits predicted by the model are counterbalanced by substantial increases in multidrug resistance.
Spring emergence of Rhagoletis fausta (Osten Sacken) and R. cingulata (Loew) in a mixed population was determined from 1948–72 in Erie County, Pa., by using emergence cages placed over infested cherries. Date of first emergence ranged from June 3 to June 23 over a 25-year period. Temperature and precipitation from Mar. 1 to first emergence accounted for 42% of the variation in date of emergence. The date of 950 thermal unit (degree-day) accumulation using a threshold temperature of 4.4°C gave a reasonable estimate of emergence date. Rainfall greater than 1.3 cm after date of first emergence retarded occurrence of 10% emergence from 6–11 days. Flies always emerged several days earlier in emergence cages placed under the south quadrant of the cherry trees than under the north quadrant. R. fausta emerged an average of 5 days earlier than R. cingulata.
The current study evaluated the potential of using counts of winged adults captured in suction traps to forecast the local abundance of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., fields. The abundance of aphids was evaluated weekly by sampling plants in four to 11 soybean fields and recording the number of aphids in suction traps between 2006 and 2008 in four counties in Indiana and Illinois. Fields in each county were located within 10 km of their respective suction trap, which allowed us to evaluate the relation between aphid abundance on soybean plants and in suction traps at the county level. Migrant soybean aphids caught in suction traps exhibited distinct seasonal trends each year: in 2006, trapped migrants consisted predominantly of individuals dispersing from soybean to buckthorn (Rhamnus sp.); in 2007, in contrast, the majority of trapped migrants were apparently individuals dispersing among soybean fields. The cumulative number of aphids captured in suction traps was positively related to aphid densities on soybean plants. However, the utility of suction traps as a monitoring tool may be limited by the variation in temporal patterns observed in suction traps and on soybean plants each year...
Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Meigen are two of the most abundant mosquitoes in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based methodology was used to identify the sources of blood meals taken by these two species. Ae. vexans was found to take a large proportion of its meals from mammals. Although less specific in terms of its blood meal preferences, Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to feed more commonly on birds. The results for Ae. vexans are similar to those reported for this species in other parts of their geographic range. Cx. quinquefasciatus appears to be more variable in terms of its host feeding under different environmental or seasonal circumstances. The implications of these results for arbovirus transmission are discussed.
This study examines the effects of federal and state financial transfers on county–nonprofit relationships. An assessment of production choices for 122 U.S. counties reveals that federal transfers to county governments stimulate county–nonprofit relationships and promote arrangements based upon collaboration. Supporting evidence shows these effects to be more prevalent in areas with lower population density. Meanwhile, state transfers influence choices for less collaborative arrangements among more urbanized areas. The findings provide important insight regarding county–nonprofit relationships within the face of fiscal federalism. The author demonstrates that the fiscal instruments of centralized governments play an important role in choices for decentralized units to engage in collaborative arrangements with nonprofits.
The effects of aldicarb on boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman; Heliothis larvae; and beneficial predators was investigated in large fields of cotton with and without boll weevil sex-attractant traps. Three of the fields in the Monroe County, Miss., boll weevil diapausecontrol area had boll weevil sex-attractant traps, and with 2 lb (0.9 kg) active ingredient of aldicarb applied as a side-dress application to cotton in the pin-head square stage, season-long boll weevil control was obtained. Three aldicarb-treated fields without boll weevil sex-attractant traps had 39 days of boll weevil control. Heliothis larvae became an economic problem earlier in the aldicarb-treated fields than in the control fields. Predator reduction was drastic in the aldicarb-treated fields after the first rain. The predator population generally increased in the control fields until they were treated for control of Heliothis larvae or boll weevils later in the season.
Indenture stating that Benjamin Middough of Stamford sold a tract of land in the County of Oxford, district of London to William Woodruff of Niagara. The land consisted of 200 acres on lot 34 of the 2nd Concession. This transaction was registered on August 4, 1834 - instrument no. 2413. The date of sale was January 17, 1823.
Indenture of sale between Joseph Hamilton of London and Joseph Hart of Montgomery County. This is regarding Lot no. 25 in the 5th concession in the Township of Norwich in the County of Oxford, May 11, 1833.
Indenture between Robert Sparrow Delatre of Stamford Township, Thomas Sheppard Smyth of Brussels, Belgium, formerly of Stamford Township and Thomas Hector of Quebec, trustees of the last will and testament of Philip Chesneau Delatre to the Bank of Upper Canada and Arthur Shaw of Niagara Township regarding Lot no. 3 in the 1st Concession and Lot no. 4 in the 1st Concession, part of Lot no. 3 in the 2nd Concession, 50 acres of Lot no. 4 in the 4th Concession, 200 acres in Lot no. 8 in the 11th Concession in Blandford in the County of Oxford and broken Lot no. 11 in the 18th Concession in the Township of Zorra - instrument no. 6083. This is listed in the Blandford folio 184 and 185 in folio 63 and 64. Joseph Woodruff has signed this as conveyancer, March 29, 1853.
Province of Upper Canada Grant (vellum) to Philip Chesneau Delatre, late Lieutenant Colonel from
the Township of Stamford. He is granted 633 acres in lot no.4 of the 4th Concession; lot no.2 in
the 2nd Concession; lot no. 3 in the 3rd Concession and lot no.9 in the 5th Concession in Blandford
in the County of Oxford. This was registered Nov. 3, 1836 – Folio no. 67, Oct. 31, 1836.
Province of Upper Canada Grant (vellum) to Philip Chesneau Delatre, late Lieutenant Colonel, of
the Township of Stamford. He is granted 600 acres in the north and south halves of lot no. 2 in
the 3rd Concession; south and north halves of lot no. 3 in the 2nd Concession; south and north
halves of lot no. 2 in the 3rd Concession and south and north halves of lot no. 8 in the 11th
Concession in the Township of Blandford in the County of Oxford. This was registered Nov. 13,
1837 – Folio no. 51, Oct. 25, 1837.
Province of Upper Canada Grant (vellum) to Philip Chesneau Delatre, late Lieutenant Colonel, of
the Township of Stamford. He is granted 74 acres in the east and west halves of lot no. 36 in the
16th Concession and broken lot no. 11 in the 18th Concession in the Township of Zorra in the
County of Oxford. This was registered Nov. 13, 1837 – Folio 50, Oct. 26, 1837.