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A homogenization approach for the limit analysis of out-of-plane loaded masonry walls

Milani, G.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Tralli, A.
Fonte: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Publicador: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.67%
This paper addresses the usage of a simplified homogenization technique for the analysis of masonry subjected to out-of-plane loading. The anisotropic failure surface, based on the definition of a polynomial representation of the stress tensor components in a finite number of sub-domains, is combined with finite element triangular elements employed for the upper and lower bound limit analyses. Several comparisons between the proposed model and experimental data available in the literature are presented, for wallettes subjected to bending at different orientations and for different panels loaded out-of-plane. The limit analysis results allow to identify the distribution of internal forces at critical sections and to obtain the collapse modes, as well as the failure loads. Excellent results are found in all cases, indicating that the proposed simple tool is adequate for the safety assessment of out-of-plane loaded masonry panels. The combined usage of upper and lower bound approaches, and their respective simplifications, allow to define a narrow interval for the real collapse load.

Blast analysis of enclosure masonry walls using homogenization approaches

Milani, G.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.66%
A simple rigid-plastic homogenization model for the analysis of enclosure masonry walls sub- jected to blast loads is presented. The model is characterized by a few material parameters, is numerically inexpensive and very stable, and allows full parametric studies of entire walls subject to blast pressures. With the aim of considering the actual brickwork strength along vertical and horizontal axes, masonry out-of-plane anisotropic failure surfaces are obtained by means of a compatible homogenized limit analysis approach. In the model, a 3D system of rigid infinitely strong bricks connected by joints reduced to interfaces is identified with a 2D Kirchhoff-Love plate. For the joints, which obey an associated flow rule, aMohr-Coulomb fail- ure criterion with a tension cutoff and a linearized elliptic compressive cap is considered. In this way, the macroscopic masonry failure surface is obtained as a function of the macroscopic bending, torque, and in-plane forces by means of a linear programming problem in which the internal power dissipated is minimized. Triangular Kirchhoff-Love elements with linear in- terpolation of the displacements field and constant moment within each element are used at a structural level. In this framework, a simple quadratic programming problem is obtained to analyze entire walls subjected to blast loads. The multiscale strategy presented is adopted to predict the behavior of a rectangular wall supported on three sides (left...

Definition of interaction curves for the in-plane and out-of-plane capacity in brick masonry walls

Najafgholipour, M. A.; Maheri, M. R.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.85%
During an earthquake a wall is subjected to a three dimensional acceleration field and undergoes simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane loading. The action of one type of loading on the wall affects the strength of the wall against another type of loading. In this paper, a numerical investigation, supported by experiments, is conducted aimed at deriving appropriate relations for the in-plane/out-of-plane capacity interaction in unreinforced brick walls. Through a comprehensive parametric study, the main affecting parameters are recognized and their influences on the capacity interaction are established. The parametric study indicates that the aspect ratio of the wall and the elastic and inelastic material properties in tension have the most influence on the level of the in-plane and out-of-plane capacity interaction in masonry walls. Based on the results of these investigations, representing empirical analytical relations for evaluating the interaction are derived and their accuracy is verified.

Analysis of masonry walls subjected to high strain rate out-of-plane loads with a rate dependent interface model

Rafsanjani, Seyedebrahim Hashemi; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Peixinho, Nuno
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.68%
Masonry is a composite material composed of individual units laid in and bound together by mortar. Appropriate Understanding of masonry material properties results in secure and efficient protection and strengthening of historical structures. Due to high computation costs and difficulties deal with detailed modelling of masonry structures, few studies are available in open literature dedicated to micro numerical modelling of masonry structures subjected to blast loading. In present study, the objective is to propose a dynamic interface model obeying non-associated flow rule with high strain rate effects to apply as material model for interface elements. In order to introduce the strain rate effects of brick and mortar properties, a recent developed model is applied here. Verifying the capability of the model proposed, numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the behaviour of unreinforced brick masonry walls subjected to explosive blast loading by using the finite element (FE) code ABAQUS. The results obtained are compared with field test data to find good agreement. A comprehensive parametric analysis is finally accomplished with different main material properties to evaluate the effect of each parameter on high strain rate response of masonry walls.

Experimental study on masonry infill walls under blast loading

Pereira, João M.; Campos, José; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.75%
The vulnerability of the masonry envelop under blast loading is considered critical due to the risk of loss of lives. The dynamic behaviour of masonry infill walls subjected to dynamic out-of-plane loading was experimentally investigated in this work. Confined underwater blast wave generators (WBWG) allows applying an extremely high rate conversion of the explosive detonation energy into the kinetic energy of a thick water confinement, which, in turn, allows a surface area distribution avoiding the generation of high velocity fragments and reducing atmospheric sound wave. In the present study water plastic containers, having in its centre a detonator inside a cylindrical explosive charge, were used. Tests were performed in unreinforced walls with 1.7 by 3.5 m, which are 1:1.5 scaled. Besides the usage of pressure and displacement transducers, pictures were recorded with high-speed video cameras to process the deflections and identify failure modes.

Masonry infill walls under blast loading using confined underwater blast wave generators (WBWG)

Pereira, João M.; Campos, José; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.76%
The vulnerability of the masonry envelop under blast loading is considered critical due to the risk of loss of lives. The dynamic behaviour of masonry infill walls subjected to dynamic out-of-plane loading was experimentally investigated in this work. Using confined underwater blast wave generators (WBWG), applying the extremely high rate conversion of the explosive detonation energy into the kinetic energy of a thick water confinement, allowed a surface area distribution avoiding also the generation of high velocity fragments and reducing atmospheric sound wave. In the present study water plastic containers, having in its centre a detonator inside a cylindrical explosive charge, were used. Studies were performed in both unreinforced and reinforced walls with 1.7 by 3.5 meters. Bed joint reinforcement and grid reinforcement were used to strengthen the infill walls. Besides the usage of pressure and displacement transducers, pictures with high-speed video cameras were recorded to enable processing of the deflections and identification of failure modes. Two different strengthening solutions were studied under blast loading and the results are presented and compared.

Security evaluation and design of structures subjected to blast loading

Pereira, João Miguel
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 27/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.87%
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil; The work presented in this thesis was developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Minho. This work involves experimental and numerical campaigns and intends to give a contribution for a better understanding of the effect of explosions. Blast loading is a subject of much actuality and considerable lack of expertise. Europe has never been so rich and safe, where the violent years of the first half of the 20th century lead to an unprecedented period of peace and stability. Despite the terrorist decades, e.g. connected to ETA and IRA in Europe, the attacks of Madrid (2004), London (2005) and worldwide (New York, Oklahoma, Mumbai) had a major psychological effect in the societies. Clearly, the understanding about the effect of blast loading in structures and their subsystems saves lives and reduces damage in buildings. The Buncefield explosion (2005) resulted in tremendous damage to the outlying area and huge fires involving 23 large oil fuel tanks. Experimental and finite element analyses are carried out for the static and dynamic response of lightweight metal boxes that are similar to the steel junction boxes on the site of this explosion. During the Buncefield Explosion Mechanism Phase I research...

The stress and flexibility analysis of thin-walled curved pipes under out-of-plane bending with the semi-membrane ring element

Melo, F. J. M. Q. de; Castro, P. M. S. T. de
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.68%
A semi-membrane curved ring element, described in a previous paper, is reformulated to take into account more general loading conditions, such as the out-of-plane bending. A new displacement field was defined so that the out-of-plane bending moment could be considered. Results concerning transverse section stresses and flexibility factors are presented and discussed.

Performance of masonry enclosure walls: lessons learned from recent earthquakes

Vicente, R.; Rodrigues, H.; Varum, H.; Costa, A.; Mendes da Silva, J.
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.64%
This paper discusses the issue of performance requirements and construction criteria for masonry enclosure and infi ll walls. Vertical building enclosures in European countries are very often constituted by non-load-bearing masonry walls, using horizontally perforated clay bricks. These walls are generally supported and confi ned by a reinforced concrete frame structure of columns and beams/slabs. Since these walls are commonly considered to be nonstructural elements and their infl uence on the structural response is ignored, their consideration in the design of structures as well as their connection to the adjacent structural elements is frequently negligent or insuffi ciently detailed. As a consequence, nonstructural elements, as for wall enclosures, are relatively sensitive to drift and acceleration demands when buildings are subjected to seismic actions. Many international standards and technical documents stress the need for design acceptability criteria for nonstructural elements, however they do not specifi cally indicate how to prevent collapse and severe cracking, and how to enhance the overall stability in the case of moderate to high seismic loading. Furthermore, a review of appropriate measures to improve enclosure wall performance and both in-plane and out-of-plane integrity under seismic actions is addressed.

Out-of-plane seismic performance of stone masonry walls: experimental and analytical assessment; Desempenho sísmico para fora do plano de paredes de alvenaria de pedra: avaliação experimental e analítica

Ferreira, Tiago Miguel dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.71%
This PhD thesis is focused on the characterisation of the out-of-plane seismic performance of stone masonry walls, where the development of an innovative fragility-based approach, founded on solid experimental outputs, analytical formulation and post-earthquake damage observation, was outlined as main objective. In order to achieve it, two groups of specific objectives were distinguished in function of the genesis of the work, and are discussed throughout the seven chapters that compose this document. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the main topic of the work, the description of the general and specific objectives to be achieved and each one of the tasks performed to fulfil them. Chapter 2 presents a compact state-of-art review wherein the principal methodologies proposed to assess the out-of-plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry structures are presented and discussed. The experimental part of this research begins in the third chapter, where an in situ experimental campaign, performed on three masonry wall piers of an existing building, is presented. Chapter 4 aims at describing an experimental program conducted in laboratory environment to characterise the out-of-plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry piers. In the scope of this experimental campaign...

Dynamic response behaviour of unreinforced masonry walls subject to out of plane loading

Vaculik, J.; Lumantarna, E.; Griffith, M.; Lam, N.; Wilson, J.
Fonte: AEES; Australia Publicador: AEES; Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.72%
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls have been traditionally considered to possess very limited ductility and hence designed to behave in a linear elastic manner when subject to out of plane loading. This notion contradicts recent findings which have found significant displacement capacity of URM walls beyond their linear elastic limit. This paper presents an overview of recent research progress on URM walls subject to out of plane two-way bending. Parametric studies based on non-linear time history analyses have been undertaken to identify the displacement demand behaviour of URM walls. Hysteretic models used in the studies were representative of hysteretic behaviour observed from cyclic testings. Analytical simulations of URM walls using the representative hysteretic models have then been evaluated by comparison with the dynamic response of the walls recorded from shaking-table testings. The materials presented in this paper represent an important part of the research outcomes from a joint ARC Discovery research project undertaken between the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne.; http://www.aees.org.au/Proceedings/Proceedings.html; Jaroslav Vaculik, Elisa Lumantarna, Mike Griffith, Nelson Lam and John Wilson

Design of FRP retrofitted masonry under out-of-plane bending

Willis, C.; Griffith, M.; Ingham, J.
Fonte: Hanyang University; Korea Publicador: Hanyang University; Korea
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.78%
The severity of damage possible in unreinforced brick masonry (hereafter termed ‘masonry’) construction subjected to high levels of out-of-plane loading has been well demonstrated in recent times. Due to the large global building stock of masonry structures, it is essential that efficient methods for retrofit of masonry structures be developed. The use of efficient fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strips has been shown to improve the load carrying and displacement capacities of masonry sections subjected to out-of-plane loading. This paper presents principles for design of masonry elements strengthened with vertically oriented FRP strips and subjected to out of- plane bending. Design considerations are given, along with recommendations based on experimental observations. Design variables discussed include retrofitting technique (i.e. externally bonded or near-surface mounted), FRP material (i.e. carbon or glass) and FRP placement (i.e. relative to mortar joints). A design methodology for masonry retrofitted with vertical FRP strips with intermediate crack (IC) debonding as the failure mode is also presented.; http://www.apfis2009.hanyang.ac.kr/; C.R. Willis, M.C. Griffith and J.M. Ingham

Out-of plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer strips

Dizhur, D.; Derakhshan, H.; Lumantarna, R.; Griffith, M.; Ingham, J.
Fonte: New Zealand Structural Engineering Society Publicador: New Zealand Structural Engineering Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.72%
The development of cost effective minimally-invasive seismic retrofit techniques is required for clay brick unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings because of their recognised poor seismic performance. A laboratory-based experimental study with well defined but artificial boundary conditions, which utilises constituent construction materials that replicate the material properties of masonry found in historic URM buildings, is currently addressing this need. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips as a seismic retrofit solution for out-of-plane lateral loading of the walls in URM buildings. In addition, five retrofitted URM walls located in four different buildings were tested in-situ by applying out of plane loading, to complement the laboratory-based study. Testing confirmed that the NSM CFRP retrofit technique is an excellent minimally-invasive and cost effective option for seismic strengthening of URM buildings. Provisional details of the design methodology for the NSM CFRP retrofit technique, and laboratory and in-situ test results are reported. Two recent projects that implemented the NSM CFRP technique are also briefly presented.; Dmytro Dizhur...

Unreinforced masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane seismic actions.

Vaculik, Jaroslav
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.69%
During a seismic event, the walls within an unreinforced masonry (URM) building must possess sufficient capacity to withstand out-of-plane collapse. Traditionally, design against this type of failure has been performed using a force-based (FB) approach, in which the engineer must ensure that the force capacity of the wall is not exceeded during a design earthquake. In recent years, however, seismic design philosophy for ductile systems has experienced a move away from FB methods and toward displacement-based (DB) methods, where the aim is to ensure that structural deformations are kept within acceptable displacement limits. URM walls subjected to out-of-plane actions make a prime candidate for the development of such methodology. This is particularly true for two-way spanning walls, which have significant displacement capacity as well as good energy dissipation capability during cyclic response—both highly favourable characteristics with respect to seismic performance. This thesis documents research undertaken at the University of Adelaide into the seismic response of two-way URM walls subjected to out-of-plane actions. The aims of this work were to facilitate improvements to the presently-used FB design methods and to provide a basis for the development of a reliable DB design approach. The following outcomes have been achieved: • Characterisation of the load-displacement behaviour of two-way walls through quasistatic cyclic testing using airbags; • Verification of this behaviour under true seismic loading conditions by means of dynamic shaketable tests; • Improvements to the current state-of-the-art design approach for predicting the ultimate load capacity of walls possessing tensile bond strength; • A probabilistic approach to deal with the different modes of possible failure in horizontal bending; • Development of analytical methodology for predicting the load capacity of walls using the assumption of zero tensile bond strength; • A proposed model for representing the nonlinear inelastic load-displacement behaviour of two-way walls; and finally...

Time-history analysis for unreinforced masonry walls in two-way bending

Vaculik, J.; Griffith, M.
Fonte: Seismological Press of China; China Publicador: Seismological Press of China; China
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.79%
Unreinforced masonry (URM) walls have been traditionally perceived to possess very little displacement capacity with respect to out-of-plane loading. This view, which has arisen due to low tensile strength of URM and therefore small displacements at which such walls begin to crack, has led to the widespread misconception among engineers that such walls possess no ductility and perform poorly under earthquake loading. However, both theoretical and experimental research have in fact shown that URM walls have the capacity to undergo significant deformations before collapse occurs, due to the rigid block action and frictional resistance mechanisms present in such walls. In addition, walls supported at their vertical edges have been shown to possess good energy dissipation characteristics which is further beneficial to seismic resistance. This paper presents a time history analysis model developed for simulating the dynamic response of URM walls subjected to out-of-plane loading. The hysteresis model incorporated into the analysis is capable of representing the nonlinear load versus displacement behaviour of walls with a range of boundary conditions that include one-way and two-way walls. The various parameters in the model can be calculated as a function of the properties of the URM wall...

Out-of-plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using FRP.

Kashyap, Jaya
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures constitute both a significant portion of the world’s heritage buildings and a significant component of the modern residential building stock, and are particularly susceptible to damage from out-of-plane loads such as those generated by earthquakes (Ingham and Griffith 2011). Consequently, there is a considerable need for the development of economical and effective seismic strengthening techniques for URM construction. This study investigates the performance of near surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthened clay brick masonry walls under monotonic and cyclic out-of-plane bending with particular attention to the FRP-to-masonry joint behaviour. Fourteen NSM carbon FRP-to-masonry pull tests were conducted to study the FRP-to-masonry bond behaviour and to investigate the effect that variables such as cyclic loading and FRP strip dimensions have on the debonding resistance of a NSM FRP-to-masonry joint. The pull tests results were then incorporated into a large database of FRP retrofitted masonry pull test results by various researchers over the past 10 years. An empirical model was derived for the intermediate crack (IC) debonding resistance of FRP-to-masonry joints using a large set of test data from the open literature (Kashyap et al. 2012). Further...

Out-of-plane singular stress fields in V-notched plates and welded lap joints induced by in-plane shear load conditions

Berto, F.; Lazzarin, P.; Kotooussov, A.; Harding, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
When a crack or sharp notch is subjected to antisymmetric plane loading the Poisson's effect leads to the generation of a coupled out-of-plane singular mode. The latter was known to exist for problems with cracks for a long period of time; meanwhile this mode was largely ignored in theoretical studies of V-shaped notches subjected to in-plane loading as well as in practical fracture problems associated with such geometries. Only recently a characteristic equation describing the strength of the singularity of this mode was derived within the first order plate theory. Preliminary numerical investigations confirmed that a highly localized out-of-plane singular state linked to the transverse shear stress components does exist in the close vicinity of the notch tip with the singular behaviour as theoretically predicted. However, until now it is unclear how significant this mode is and whether it has to be taken into consideration in the stress analysis of engineering structures. This paper is aimed to discuss important features of this recently identified singular mode, out-of-plane singular mode, conduct a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical study of a typical problem of a welded lap joint to investigate the contribution of this mode into the overall stress state in the close vicinity of the notch tip and discuss the implementation of these new results to the failure and integrity assessment of plate structures with sharp notches.; F. Berto...

Out-Of-Plane Bending Of Masonry Walls With Near-Surface-Mounted And Externally-Bonded Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement

Mierzejewski, Wojciech
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.67%
Masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane loading, such as in a seismic event, require reinforcement to improve the ductility of the system. In current masonry construction practice, reinforcement is placed internally and fully grouted. For new construction this can make the wall unjustifiably heavy by not taking advantage of its light, hollow structure. For existing construction, it is difficult to retrofit using this technique. Additionally, the reinforcement is located close to the neutral axis which reduces its effectiveness. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars, strips and sheets are becoming increasingly popular in construction applications due to their noncorrosive nature and ease of installation. Also, stainless steel bars are used where the structure is exposed to a corrosive environment but have not found wider application for masonry structures. This study is an experimental investigation of the structural performance of masonry walls reinforced with Near-Surface-Mounted (NSM) FRP and stainless steel reinforcement under out-of-plane bending. Additionally, walls with Externally Bonded (EB) FRP sheets were tested. The study simulates retrofitting applications and also proposes the NSM technique for new wall construction, using pre-grooved blocks...

Out-of-plane behavior of masonry infill walls

Akhoundi, Farhad; Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Palha, Carlos Alberto Oliveira Fernandes; Martins, Andreia
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
115.79%
In order to investigate the out-of-plane behaviour of masonry infill walls, quasi-static testing was performed on a masonry infill walls built inside a reinforced concrete frame by means of an airbag system to apply the uniform out-of-plane load to each component of the infill. The main advantage of this testing setup is that the out-of-plane loading can be applied more uniformly in the walls, contrarily to point load configuration. The test was performed under displacement control by selecting the mid-point of the infill as control point. Input and output air in the airbag was controlled by using a software to apply a specific displacement in the control point of the infill wall. The effect of the distance between the reaction frame of the airbag and the masonry infill on the effective contact area was previously analysed. Four load cells were attached to the reaction frame to measure the out-of-plane force. The effective contact area of the airbag was calculated by dividing the load measured in load cells by the pressure inside the airbag. When the distance between the reaction walls and the masonry infill wall is smaller, the effective area is closer to the nominal area of the airbag. Deformation and crack patterns of the infill confirm the formation of arching mechanism and two-way bending of the masonry infill. Until collapse of the horizontal interface between infill and upper beam in RC frame...

Blast loading of masonry infills: testing and simulation

Pereira, João Miguel; Campos, José; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /03/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.77%
This work intends to present a newly developed test setup for dynamic out-of-plane loading using underWater Blast Wave Generators (WBWG) as loading source. Underwater blasting operations have been, during the last decades, subject of research and development of maritime blasting operations (including torpedo studies), aquarium tests for the measurement of blasting energy of industrial explosives and confined underwater blast wave generators. WBWG allow a wide range for the produced blast impulse and surface area distribution. It also avoids the generation of high velocity fragments and reduces atmospheric sound wave. A first objective of this work is to study the behavior of masonry infill walls subjected to blast loading. Three different masonry walls are to be studied, namely unreinforced masonry infill walls and two different reinforcement solutions. These solutions have been studied previously for seismic action mitigation. Subsequently, the walls will be simulated using an explicit finite element code for validation and parametric studies. Finally, a tool to help designers to make informed decisions on the use of infills under blast loading will be presented.