Dissertação de mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de especialização em Intervenção Psicossocial em Crianças, Jovens e Famílias); Este estudo pretende perceber a relação entre tempo de permanência na instituição,
idade de acolhimento e rendimento académico de sujeitos com um passado de maltrato.
Procurou-se também perceber se existiam diferenças ao nível do rendimento académico entre
sujeitos por motivo de acolhimento: negligência ou negligência associada a outro tipo de
abuso, bem como analisar as trajectórias de desempenho escolar dos sujeitos maltratados. Os
participantes são sujeitos acolhidos numa instituição de protecção de menores e cujos
processos judiciais constam dos ficheiros da instituição. Os resultados baseados em modelos
de regressão linear e multinível, sugerem que o tempo de permanência na instituição tem um
impacto positivo, em particular nas classificações a Matemática e que os sujeitos vítimas de
negligência associada a outro tipo de abuso apresentam piores desempenhos. O modelo
testado permite ainda perceber que, no caso das trajectórias a Matemática, há uma progressão
aproximadamente linear das classificações, embora seja mais evidente nos primeiros anos da
institucionalização. Os progressos individuais seguem trajectórias próprias...
This paper profiles the family and social background, and psychosocial wellbeing of 364 children (Mean age = 12.9 years) with a high level of placement instability in Australian out-of-home care. Children were selected based on reliable predictors of instability and detailed interviews were conducted with case-workers, along with extensive case-file readings. The children in this population were found to originate from families that share many risk factors. In most cases, a family history of domestic violence, physical abuse, and parental substance abuse dominated over a history of sexual abuse and neglect. Based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), over 75% of children were found to have clinical level conduct disorder, two-thirds have peer problems, and around a half are clinically anxious or depressed. The results provided some evidence that children with the poorest overall psychosocial adjustment were most prone to placement breakdowns, but there was no clear relationship between the overall number of family background problems and the level of placement instability. However, individual risk factors, including a history of family violence and abuse were related to more disrupted placement histories for children in care.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/556/description#description; Alexandra L. Osborn...
The research presented in this thesis was predicated on the need to improve service provision and care for children in out-of-home care. Although behavioural concerns are prevalent in this population, and frequently serve as the focus for interagency discussion, little is known about how the respective stakeholder groups in the out-of-home care sector understand and manage challenging behaviour. While the complexity of children’s needs necessitates effective collaboration between multiple services, relatively little theoretical or practical guidance exists about how this can be achieved, particularly in relation to supporting children with challenging behaviour. The long term significance of unaddressed behavioural issues for placement stability and educational outcomes provided the compelling impetus for this research.
The research had two broad aims. First, to identify barriers to collaborative practice, using the specific example of stakeholders’ experiences in supporting young people in out-of-home care to resolve challenging behaviours. Second, to identify what accounts of behaviour are dominant amongst key stakeholders and further, to understand what these accounts might mean for the practice of collaboration and for the support provided to children in out-of-home care. Accordingly...
Young people transitioning from out-of-home care are known to have poor educational outcomes compared to their non-care peers. Yet little is known about the experiences or needs of the small numbers of Australian care leavers who enter higher education. This article critically examines existing Australian and international research on the access of care leavers to higher education. A group of pre-care, in-care, transition from care and post-care factors are identified as either hindering or assisting care leavers to maximise their educational opportunities. Some specific policy reforms are recommended to enhance opportunities for Australian care leavers to participate in and complete higher education.; Philip Mendes, Dee Michell, and Jacqueline Z. Wilson
The review question is: What is the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve academic outcomes in children and adolescents in out-of-home care?; Dagmara Riitano, Alan Pearson
The aim of this study was to examine the nature and predictors of family reunification patterns across three jurisdictions in Australia. A sample of 1,337 children were sampled from three Australian States if they had entered care for a period of at least 7 days between January 1st 2006 and December 2007. Administrative data were collected using a consistent sample frame (until the end of 2009) and using a standardised data collection protocol. The results confirmed the findings of previous studies by showing that 80% of reunification typically occur within the first year after entry into care and that factors relating to poverty as well as abuse, rejection and abandonment emerged as the most consistent risk factors associated with a reduced likelihood of reunification. Some differences between the States were observed and these were attributed to differences in the availability of kinship care and in legislation relating to the timing of long-term placement decisions. The findings are discussed in relation to the challenges associated with studying multiple clustered risk factors as well as the need for nationally consistent data collection systems that enable nationally comparative child welfare data to be collected on a regular basis.; Paul Delfabbro...
Leaving statutory out-of-home care (OOHC) is a challenging time for many young people; however, certain groups have greater difficulty transitioning to independence. This includes young people with multiple and complex needs, such as those suffering from mental health problems and disabilities, as well as young people with borderline conditions or who disengage from services. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the service issues pertaining to these vulnerable groups in South Australia, as well as to identify ways that policy and practice can be enhanced to better facilitate service engagement. Twenty-nine individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with people working in organisations who have knowledge of, or contact with, young people leaving care (N = 66). Thematic analysis was used to organise responses according to two overarching themes: (1) Issues with current leaving care services and preparation, and (2) Enhancing policy and practice. The principal challenges related to difficulties in matching the structure of formal services to a population with highly unstructured living arrangements, a history of problematic engagement with the care system, and difficulties arising due to service ineligibility issues. Potential improvements to the current system and program delivery are discussed.; Catia Malvaso and Paul Delfabbro
Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to supporting children with challenging behaviour. Participants were teachers, foster carers, child statutory workers, child mental health workers, and residential care workers. These semi-structured interviews were subject to thematic analysis. Results: The analysis revealed several ways of understanding challenging behaviour: behaviour as learnt, behaviour as purposeful, behaviour as a choice, behaviour arising from constant change, behaviour reflecting strong emotions, and behaviour reflecting attachment history. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that professionals seeking to engage in collaborative casework on behalf of children may need to accommodate a range of diverse views about the origin and solution to challenging and aggressive behaviour. The possible implications of these divergent understandings for placement policy and practice are discussed. These apparently disparate frameworks are discussed in terms of their underlying assumptions...
One of the major challenges currently being faced by out-of-home care services is the issue of placement breakdown and multiple placements, and the psychological effects of these experiences. Previous longitudinal research by Barber and Delfabbro (2004) indicates that approximately 15-20% of young people in Australian out-of-home care have significant emotional and behavioural problems or 'high support needs' that often condemns them to a life of repeated placement instability and further psychosocial harm.
This thesis reports the findings of Australia's first national comparative study of 364 children with this placement profile in four Australian States (Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia). Based on detailed interviews with case-workers, case-file reading, and comprehensive analysis of objective placement data, this study provides a detailed analysis of the social and family background of this population of children, their psychosocial profile, service history, and their placement experiences. It was found almost all of the children with high support needs in Australian out-of-home care had been subjected to traumatic, abusive, and highly unstable family backgrounds. A proportion of young people had experienced over 30 placement changes and approximately 70% scored in the clinical range of emotional and behavioural disturbance. The young people in the sample were generally very similar in their characteristics. Children within this population appear to form one single cluster based upon very common family experiences; namely...
Children in out-of-home care that demonstrate challenging behaviour are often thought of as ‘attachment disordered’. Our understanding of what this might mean for practice is not well developed. In this study, 92 South Australian stakeholders were interviewed about how they understood extremely challenging behaviour amongst school-age children in out-of-home care. Participants consistently described behaviour as arising from attachment difficulties. Despite this, there were a variety of ways that a child's attachment needs were conceptualized, which appeared to be inconsistent with contemporary attachment theory. Thematic analysis yielded four implicit views about children's attachment: attachment as capacity that is limited, attachment as skill that children can learn and transfer to other relationships, attachment as unachievable for some children and an idealized view of attachment as a close and trusting relationship. These possible misconceptions about attachment and attachment needs and their relationship to the development of challenging behaviour are discussed in terms of attachment informed research and theory. The possible implications for placement practice and policy for children in out-of-home care are discussed.; Sara McLean...
Fonte: Australian College of Child and Family Protection PractitionersPublicador: Australian College of Child and Family Protection Practitioners
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
Previous research shows a clear connection between placement instability and poorer psychological outcomes for children and young people. The aim of this project was to gain greater insights into the factors that may contribute to greater placement success by comparing the family background, placement history and psychological profile of children with very unstable and stable placement histories. The data collection focused on the child's family and placement background as well as psychosocial functioning. It was found that children and young people in stable placements entered care at a younger age and presented with a lower prevalence of family and social background problems, including abuse and neglect, than those in unstable placements. Children in stable placements also scored significantly better on all subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The paper discusses the implications of the findings for placement decision making and alternative placement options for children and young people in South Australian out of home care.; Alexandra Osborn and Paul Delfabbro
As the number of children receiving care in out-of-home settings increases in the United States, the risk of injury in such settings has become the subject of intense research. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relative safety of out-of-home care compared with care in a child's own home. METHODS: This community based prospective cohort study of 656 families in three adjacent counties in the Piedmont region of North Carolina characterizes the patterns and rates of injuries among children less than 5 years of age in three child care settings, home care (HC), center based care (CBC), and other out-of-home care (OOHC). Information about minor and severe injuries was obtained from parents using monthly telephone interviews over a one year period. Statistical modeling designed to handle unbalanced data with correlated observations was used as the primary tool for analysis. RESULTS: Rate of minor injuries was highest in CBC, followed by HC, and then OOHC. However, these differences for OOHC may have been due to reporting biases and errors in rate estimates. There were no significant differences in severe injury rates among the three settings. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of serious injury among children under 5 in CBC is not different from that of children in HC or OOHC despite the fact that the risk of minor injury is higher.
Few studies have asked children directly about their experiences in out-of-home care. This study uses data collected from 180 nine- to-11-year-old children currently in out-of-home care who were asked about their perceptions and appraisals of out-of-home care. Analysis of variance and chi-square analyses were used to examine whether children's appraisals of their lives following removal from their families of origin differ as a function of age, gender, race/ethnicity, type and severity of maltreatment, length of time in out-of-home care, placement type, attachment to current caregivers, and rating of current caregiver/home. Youth who were sexually and emotionally abused, youth who were satisfied with their current caregivers and placements, and girls were more likely to state that their lives would have been worse had they remained with their families of origin. Youth who were physically abused were more likely to report that their lives would have remained the same. Children living in group care were more likely than those living in family foster care or with kin to report that their lives would have been better had they remained with their families of origin. Differences were not found between children living in family foster care and those living with kin nor did children's appraisals differ based on age...
The paper begins by suggesting that child welfare systems in North America and selected European and Scandinavian countries have converged functionally over the last two decades from a focus on child protection or family service to a more comprehensive child development orientation. The overview of the US in-care system covers the topics of mandatory reporting of child maltreatment, permanency planning, foster care funding, and decentralized service provision. It also portrays the current US foster care population and describes recent research on efforts to reduce the number of children in care, differential response, practice and policy reform, subsidized guardianship, Casey Family Programs, transitions to adulthood, and racial disparities in placements in out-of-home care. The overview of the Canadian in-care system notes the responsibility of the 10 provinces and three northern territories for child welfare and the concomitant lack of national data on child protection or out-of-home care. Estimates of the number of children in care are presented, and a review of research describes the following topics: rates and types of maltreatment, over-representation of Aboriginal children in care, prevention of the recurrence of neglect and physical abuse...
This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current child protection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.
An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturally there are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification of social rights. The welfare model presupposes high public legitimacy for a high level of social expenditure. However the idea of marketization and privatization has also affected the welfare model in Sweden and Norway. Although there are more similarities than differences between the two countries' child protection systems, the article discusses some differences, for example the after care services, new groups of children and young people in the out-of-home care, like young unaccompanied asylum seekers. There are also some differences when it comes to privatization, the introduction of evidence-based methods in the child protection system and the tension between general and residual services for children and young people in the child protection system.
While there is a large difference in the number of young inhabitants in the Netherlands and Germany, their child protection frameworks are quite similar. In both countries, child protection services are mainly focused on youth aged 0 to 18 and regulations are aimed at clients' responsibility and their active involvement during care. Youth care services consist of community-based services, day treatment and outof-home care services, which include foster care and residential care. The history of out-of-home care services in both countries is characterized by similar developments. Over the last four decades, similar trends in residential care, towards more small-scale forms of residential care, smaller residential group sizes, and increasing professionalization of staff have emerged. Over the last two decades, a comparable trend towards increasing professionalization can be seen in the context of foster care in both countries. In addition, the number of youths in out-of-home care increased in both countries over the last decade, specifically in foster care. Over the last decade, more studies have been conducted in residential care than in foster care in both countries. Despite similar trends and developments in out-of-home care practice...
This article focuses on the structural similarities and dissimilarities that exist between child protection systems in France and Switzerland, as exemplified by the evolutions of the last decade. The absence of an integrated holistic system and the great diversity of practices between territories in both countries creates a reality that is a challenge for research and practitioners alike. Furthermore, legislation in France and Switzerland is quite similar in that there is no single defined support or welfare body of legislation for children and youth. In both countries, the need for a better understanding of this reality drives the development of better data collection processes and of new in-depth research on these issues.
The analysis of the historical development of child protection in Spain and Italy shows remarkable common aspects. There has been a strong tradition of using residential care by means of large institutions, mostly run by catholic religious organizations, in both countries, and both have had to face the challenge of changing the tendency of this institutional care to a family based care. On the other hand, both countries share a Mediterranean culture where the family has been the main provider of personal and social wellbeing, although the welfare state has achieved a high level of development with large health, education, and social services coverage in the last decades. The current financial crisis of these countries is jeopardizing these recently attained advances and again the importance of family support is becoming crucial. The article reviews the historical development of out-of-home care in both countries and compares foster family and residential care, as well as the main research contributions to these topics in both countries.
This article closes the special issue of this journal about an international review of out-of-home child care, principally family foster care and residential care, tough several aspects related to adoption were included as well. Although a comparison on some data about residential and foster care, or kinship and non-kinship care, is carried out, the article tries above all to make a reflection on the implications of several themes that have emerged as more interesting or important. Matters such as the use of residential care and its role in the current child care system, the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in foster care in several countries, the situation of unaccompanied young people asylum seeking, the use of adoption as a permanent solution, the challenges of the transition to the adulthood from care, the relevance of the professionalization and models based on social pedagogy, the evaluation and planning based on data, and the current financial crisis and its impact on child care systems are some of the remarkable topics that will be reviewed.