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Vocalizations and comments on the relationships of Hypsiboas ericae (Amphibia, Hylidae); Vocalização e comentários sobre as relacões de parentesco de Hypsiboas ericae (Amphibia; Hylidae)

GARCIA, Paulo C. A.; HADDAD, Célio F. B.
Fonte: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The vocalizations of Hypsiboas ericae (Caramaschi & Cruz, 2000) are described and new information on the external morphology and osteology of the species are presented. H. ericae presents a bony spine in the prepolex and the individuals can present green or brown dorsal color, as other species of the Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) species group. The vocalizations of H. ericae are similar to the vocalizations of Hypsiboas bischoffi (Boulenger, 1887), Hypsiboas guentheri (Boulenger, 1886), and other species in the H. polytaenius (Cope, 1870 "1869") clade of the H. pulchellus species group, but some osteological aspects are different to those found in the majority of the species of this group.; As vocalizações de Hypsiboas ericae (Caramaschi & Cruz, 2000) são descritas e novas informações sobre a morfologia externa e a osteologia da espécie são apresentadas. H. ericae apresenta prepólex terminando em um espinho ósseo e os indivíduos podem ter o colorido dorsal marrom ou verde, como outras espécies do grupo de Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841). As vocalizações de H. ericae são similares às de Hypsiboas bischoffi (Boulenger, 1887), Hypsiboas guentheri (Boulenger, 1886) e às de outras espécies do clado de H. polytaenius (Cope...

Estudo filogenético de Characinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae); Phylogenetic study of the Characinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae)

Mattox, George Mendes Taliaferro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2010 PT
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Um dos principais desafios na ictiologia Neotropical moderna refere-se à sistemática de Characidae, uma família com aproximadamente 950 espécies, dois terços da diversidade de Characiformes. Recentemente, tem sido sugerido que subunidades de Characidae sejam primeiramente estudadas e reconhecidas visando um melhor entendimento da sistemática da família como um todo. Characinae é uma destas subunidades que guarda especial importância por incluir Charax, gênero-tipo de Characidae e Characiformes. Doze gêneros e 79 espécies têm sido incluídos em Characinae, mas a subfamília ainda não havia sido foco de estudo filogenético. No presente trabalho, 35 espécies de todos os gêneros de Characinae e 29 representantes de outras linhagens de Characiformes foram incluídas em uma matriz com 151 caracteres provenientes do estudo comparado da morfologia externa, miologia e osteologia, submetida a duas análises cladísticas. Uma delas, sem incluir o gênero Priocharax, resultou em 50 árvores igualmente parcimoniosas (L=697, IC=0.29, IR=0.73). No cladograma de consenso estrito, Characinae como tradicionalmente reconhecido não é um grupo monofilético. Os gêneros usualmente atribuídos à subfamília resultaram em dois clados separados...

Diferenciação geográfica de Ecpleopus gaudichaudii (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) baseada em caracteres morfológicos e moleculares, e considerações sobre a descrição osteológica; Geographical differentiation of Ecpleopus gaudichaudii Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) based on morphological and molecular caracteres, and considerations about the osteological decription

Carolino, Daniel Michiute
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2010 PT
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Ecpleopus gaudichaudii Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) distribuída pelas áreas do Domínio da Mata Atlântica brasileira, é atualmente considerada monotípica. A espécie possui uma aparente homogeneidade morfológica e carece de estudos moleculares e osteológicos na literatura. No presente estudo, faz-se uma análise aprofundada sobre a morfologia do grupo (caracteres quantitativos e qualitativos) e os padrões de variação exibidos através de sua distribuição. Também é feita uma análise das diferenças moleculares em relação ao gene mitocondrial citocromo B entre as diversas populações amostradas. E, por fim, é apresentada uma descrição óssea da espécie. São reconhecidas duas linhagens diferentes com base em uma combinação dos dados morfológicos e moleculares. Os dados moleculares apontam ainda, que a real diversidade do grupo pode ser maior do que aquela demonstrada pelos caracteres morfológicos. Para a determinação da real complexidade taxonômica do grupo faz-se necessários novos testes e estudos de novos genes que permitam uma clarificação melhor das relações entre as populações e linhagens reconhecidas.; Ecpleopus gaudichaudii (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), distributed over areas of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Domain...

Cranial osteology and systematic implications in Crotophaginae (Aves, Cuculidae)

Posso, SR; Donatelli, R. J.
Fonte: Blackwell Verlag Gmbh Publicador: Blackwell Verlag Gmbh
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 247-256
ENG
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Recognizing the scarcity of anatomical and phylogenetic studies on Crotophaginae, the authors set Out to add to the anatomical knowledge of the group based on a detailed description of cranial osteology. Another objective was to verify whether this source of data could be used to infer relationships by performing the first cladistic analysis of the four species of Crotophaginae. The shortest-length cladogram (consistency index = 1.0) indicated that cranial osteology is an important source of characters for cladistic analysis of cuckoos. The findings corroborated the monophyly of Crotophaginae, showing that Guira guira is (lie most divergent and plesiomorphic taxon and that Crotophaga ani and Crotophaga sulcirostris are more closely related to each other than to Crotophaga major.

Cranial osteology in mornoticlae (Aves : Coradiformes)

Pascotto, M. C.; Donatelli, R. J.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 32-48
ENG
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Momotidae (motmots) is found throughout Latin America between Mexico and northern Argentina. Given the absence of detailed studies of cranial osteology of Momotidae in the literature, this article presents a comprehensive description of the variation of the cranial osteology in all nine species of Momotidae and compares the results with published studies of other families of Coraciiformes and families in other orders. In addition, the cranial structures described are related to ecological and behavioral aspects of Momotidae. The cranial osteology of Baryphthengus ruficapillus is described in detail and compared with other species of Momotidae. The results indicate the presence in Momotidae of modified cranial structures, among which the most conspicuous are the frontal, lacrimal, squamosal, orbital, and laterosphenoid regions, as well as the palatine, upper jaw, pterygoid, and mandible. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): Contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematics

Posso, Sérgio Roberto; Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 163-172
ENG
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The study of the contributions of different bones to the formation of the skeleton in birds is necessary: (1) to establish homologies in comparative anatomy; (2) to delimit each bone structure correctly, mainly in relation to the skull and mandible where the bones are fused to each other in adults; and (3) to standardize nomenclature in avian osteology. In this paper at least one young specimen belonging to each sub-family of Cuculidae was examined in order to identify each bone in terms of boundaries and contributions to skull and mandible formation. These cuckoos specimens were also compared with adults and young of turacos and hoatzin. The results show little variation of skull and jaw among the young cuckoos studied compared with the variations among adult specimens. However, it provides new suggestions for the boundaries and nomenclature of certain osseous structures in the skull and mandible of birds, specifically fissura zona flexoria craniofacialis, prominetia frontoparietalis, crista temporalis transversa, processus squamosalis, fossa laterosphenoidalis, tuberculum laterosphenoidale and processus retroangularis. This study also provides more reliable homologies for use in cladistic analysis and above all it contributes to the phylogenetic position of Cuculidae within Neognathae...

Osteologia craniana de Nyctibiidae (Aves, Caprimulgiformes)

da Costa, Thiago Vernaschi Vieira; Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 257-275
POR
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The Potoos form an exclusively neotropical family of nocturnal birds distributed throughout Central and South America, except Chile, and reaching their highest diversity in the Amazon region. The seven currently recognized species are certainly among the most poorly known birds of this region. They are characterized by a distinctive mimicry of vegetal trunks, where they remain almost motionless during daytime. For this reason, their nocturnal and cryptic habits make them exceedingly difficult to study. Published accounts on behavior and natural history of the family are scarce and contributions regarding its anatomy are rare. Here we sample six of the seven currently recognized species of Nyctibiidae, including Nyctibius grandis, N. aethereus, N. griseus, N. jamaicensis, N. leucopterus and N. bracteatus, in order to conduct a detailed and illustrated description of the skull and jaw osteology. High interspecific variation in skull osteology was observed in the family. Species of this family possess a highly modified skull, adapted to their life habits, which shelters their well developed eyes and permits a large mouth opening. The bones that form the palate structure exhibit a dorsoventral flattening, particularly in the pterigoid and parasphenoid bones...

Osteologia craniana de Micrastur semitorquatus Vieillot, 1817 (Falconiformes: Falconidae)

Da Silva, Andreza Gomes; De Ferreira, Guilherme José Bolzani; Donatelli, Reginaldo José; Guzzi, Anderson
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 64-71
POR
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Micrastur semitorquatus, popularly known as Collared Forest-Falcon is an inhabitant of the rainforests of the Neotropical Region. Studies on the cranial osteology are scarce in the literature. To increase the knowledge about the anatomy of this species its cranial osteology was described and compared with other species of birds of prey. Three specimens of M. semitorquatus were examined at the Bird Division of the osteological collection at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, DC (USNM: 245788, USNM 013493 and USNM 289773). Although the relationship between the form of a structure and its function is not fully established, many of the adaptations of the skull of M. semitorquatus may be related to this lifestyle and behavior, such as narrowing of the interorbital width, the robustness of pila supranasalis coupled with the prokinesis of the skull, a process developed post-orbital, and palatine expansion. In addition, the cranial osteology of M. semitorquatus can provide useful characters for cladistic analysis, sustaining the hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships with other species of the same genus or the same family.

Cranial osteology of Picini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae)

Donatelli, Reginaldo J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The Picini is composed of 26 species of woodpeckers from the old world that are grouped into seven genera. Given the absence of detailed studies on the cranial osteology of the Picini, the purpose of this study is to describe the cranial osteology of 14 species of Picini from six genera and to compare these species with each other, with other species of woodpeckers and with other bird groups. The results of the analysis of the bone structures of the skull of the Picini indicate that there are seven outstanding characteristic of bones involved in the functional mechanistics of the jaw apparatus. In the ossa cranii, these include the frontal overhang, the postorbital process, the extension of the parietal versus the frontal region and the temporal fossa. In the ossa faciei, these include the rostral expansion of the pterygoid, the ventral palatine fossa and the orbital process of the quadrate bone. For all of the structures associated with the cranial osteology of the investigated species, there is a clear distinction between the species of the genus Picus and the other species studied. Blythipicus rubiginosus, Chrysocolaptes lucidus, Reinwardtipicus validus, Gecinulus viridis and the species of the genus Dinopium exhibit additional particularities. © 2012 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE)

PREVIATTO,DIEGO MATIUSSI; POSSO,SÉRGIO ROBERTO
Fonte: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140°) with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form). The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

Cranial osteology and taxonomy of albatrosses of genus Dimedea linneaus, 1758 and Thalassarche reichenbach, 1853 (procellariformes: Diomeidae)

Dénes,Francisco V.; Silveira,Luís Fábio
Fonte: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
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The currently accepted albatross taxonomy, based on characters of external morphology, plumage patterns, tail shape, bill size and coloration, organization of the plates of the bill, and, more recently, molecular data such as cytochrome-b gene sequences, resulted in a division of the family Diomedeidae into four genera: Diomedea, comprising the great albatrosses; Phoebastria, the North Pacific albatrosses; Thalassarche, the mollymawks; and Phoebetria, the sooty mollymawks. However, there are only a few, old studies on albatross osteology, which focused mostly on supra-generic relationships. Research on the group's taxonomy and anatomy is important in order to establish a secure basis for the identification of each species, including the differences between males, females and specimens of different ages, and also to verify anatomic characters which might be found useful for phylogenetic analysis based on morphological markers. In the present study, 63 skulls of Diomedea and Thalassarche albatrosses were analyzed and compared, thus establishing topographic correspondences and determining primary homologies, these resulting in: (a) the finding of no pattern of anatomical variation related to sex and age for both T. melanophris and for T. chlororhynchos; (b) the assessment of eight cranial landmarks separating the genera Diomedea and Thalassarche; (c) the recognition of 13 cranial landmarks differing among T. melanophris...

Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae)

Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

Redescription and phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Neotropical electric fish Iracema caiana Triques (Gymnotiformes: Rhamphichthyidae) using x-ray computed tomography

Carvalho,Tiago P.; Albert,James S.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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We redescribe Iracema caiana, a monotypic genus of the gymnotiform electric fish family Rhamphichthyidae. Iracema is known only from the type series (holotype and three paratypes) collected from the rio Jauaperi, affluent to the rio Negro in the Amazon basin, and was never collected again. Previous morphological studies were limited to features of external morphology. To study the osteology of Iracema we examined two specimens of different sizes using high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, a non-invasive and non-destructive technique to visualize internal anatomical structures. We describe and illustrate the osteology of Iracema caiana, and present data on morphometrics and external morphology. Contrary to previous hypotheses we propose that Iracema is the sister group to Rhamphichthys based on four synapomorphies: intermuscular bones present in the adductor mandibulae, reticulated texture of opercles, fully ossified Baudelot's ligaments, and elongate scales above the lateral line in the posterior portion of the body.

On the history, osteology, and systematic position of the Wealden (Hastings group) dinosaur Hypselospinus fittoni (Iguanodontia: Styracosterna)

Norman, David B.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (Norman, D. B. (2015), On the history, osteology, and systematic position of the Wealden (Hastings group) dinosaur Hypselospinus fittoni (Iguanodontia: Styracosterna). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 173: 92?189. doi: 10.1111/zoj.12193). The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12193; The history of discovery and interpretation of several dinosaurs collected from quarries near the town of Hastings during the latter half of the 19th century is more complicated than it should be. Samuel Husbands Beckles and Charles Dawson collected several large ornithopod skeletons from this area, but just a few bones from these skeletons were subsequently described and interpreted (principally) by Richard Owen and Richard Lydekker. All these specimens merited recognition because they had the potential to contribute to an on-going debate about the anatomical structure and relationships of the iconic Wealden dinosaur Iguanodon. Unfortunately, no detailed description of these important skeletons was published in later years. Furthermore, previously known associations of bones and even provenance information, linked to the specimens that were gradually acquired by the Natural History Museum...

Cranial osteology and myology of the jaw apparatus in the Galbulidae (aves, piciformes)

Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia. Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/1992 ENG
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The nature of the relationship among six species of Galbulidae was analysed in terms of cranial osteology, ligaments and myology of the jaw apparatus. A detailed description of G. ruficauda followed by a comparison with G. albirostris, G. galbula, G. cyanicollis, Brachygalba lugubris and Jacamerops aurea was made. This study showed a close relationship among the species of Galbula with Brachygalba lugubris; J. aurea, on the other hand, presented many differences mainly in osteological structures. Among the species of Galbula, G. cyanicollis differed from the general pattern of the genus while G. ruficauda and G. galbula showed many common characteristics.

Cranial osteology and taxonomy of albatrosses of genus Dimedea linneaus, 1758 and Thalassarche reichenbach, 1853 (procellariformes: Diomeidae)

Dénes, Francisco V.; Silveira, Luís Fábio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A atual taxonomia dos albatrozes consiste na divisão da família Diomedeidae em quatro gêneros: Diomedea, que inclui os grandes albatrozes; Phoebastria, formado pelos albatrozes do norte do Pacífico; Thalassarche, para os chamados "mollymawks" e Phoebetria, para os "mollymawks fuliginosos" e foi baseada em caracteres da morfologia externa, padrões de plumagem, forma da cauda, tamanho e coloração do bico e a organização das placas da ranfoteca e, mais recentemente, seqüências do citocromo-b. Entretanto, existem poucos e antigos estudos sobre a osteologia dos albatrozes que estudaram apenas as relações supra-genéricas. A pesquisa na taxonomia e na anatomia do grupo é importante para se criar uma base segura para a identificação das espécies, incluindo aí as diferenças existentes entre machos, fêmeas e de exemplares em diferentes idades, além de se verificar caracteres anatômicos cranianos que podem revelar-se úteis para análises filogenéticas com base em marcadores morfológicos. No presente trabalho, 63 crânios de representantes dos gêneros Diomedea e Thalassarche foram analisados e comparados, estabelecendo correspondências topográficas e determinando homologias primárias, o que resultou em: (a) a descoberta da ausência de padrões de distinção anatômica relacionados ao sexo e à idade para T. melanophris e para T. chlororhynchos; (b) levantamento de oito caracteres do crânio que separam os gêneros Diomedea e Thalassarche; (c) reconhecimento de 13 caracteres cranianos que diferem entre T. melanophris...

Osteologia craniana de Nyctibiidae (Aves, Caprimulgiformes)

Costa, Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da; Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR
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A família Nyctibiidae (urutaus) apresenta sete espécies incluídas em um único gênero Nyctibius, distribuídas por toda a região neotropical desde o México até a Argentina, alcançando sua maior diversidade na região amazônica. São aves de hábito noturno caracterizadas por um distintivo mimetismo em troncos vegetais, onde permanecem imóveis durante o período diurno. Devido seus hábitos noturnos e comportamentos crípticos, o estudo de seus hábitos de vida é excessivamente difícil, o que faz desse grupo um dos menos conhecidos da região tropical. Logo, informações sobre comportamento e história natural da família são muito escassas, e raras são as contribuições a respeito de sua anatomia. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever detalhadamente a osteologia craniana de seis das sete espécies de Nyctibiidae reconhecidas, incluindo Nyctibius griseus, N. grandis, N. aethereus, N. jamaicensis, N. leucopterus e N. bracteatus. Observa-se uma grande variação na osteologia craniana dentro da família, a qual apresenta um crânio bastante modificado e adaptado aos seus hábitos de vida, basicamente no que se refere a abrigar os olhos extremamente desenvolvidos e a proporcionar uma grande abertura bucal. Os ossos que formam o teto da cavidade bucal apresentam um achatamento dorso-ventral...

A new species of Phrynopus (Anura, Strabomantidae) from Peru, with comments on the osteology of the genus

Trueb, Linda; Lehr, Edgar
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 ENG
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A new, small species of Phrynopus is described from the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental just north of the Río Huallaga in central Peru. The species resembles P. montium, but is distinguished from it and other congeners by its spatulate snout. The anterior end of the maxillary arcade is broadly rounded in dorsal view, and composed of wide premaxillae that bear extraordinarily large alary processes that are deflected posteriorly at an acute angle. The configuration of the premaxillae accounts for the wide, depressed snout in this species, which in other osteological features resembles P. montium. The osteology of Phrynopus montium is described in some detail in comparison to the new species, with the intention of establishing a baseline for future morphological studies and taxonomic descriptions of strabomantine anurans of this and related genera.

Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae), with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids; Osteologia e morfologia do condrocrânio de Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae), com uma revisão da diversidade osteológica dos Microhylidae do Novo Mundo.

Trueb, Linda; Diaz, Raul; Blackburn, David C.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiróz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2012 ENG
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Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New World microhylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogenetic context for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolved with robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift of the jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region...

Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography

Makungu,Modesta; Groenewald,Hermanus B.; du Plessis,Wencke M.; Barrows,Michelle; Koeppel,Katja N.
Fonte: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research Publicador: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.