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The interaction between foreign and original motor nerves innervating the soleus muscle of rats.

Frank, E; Jansen, J K; Lono, T; Westgaard, R H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1975 EN
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35.55%
1. The fibular nerve was transplanted on to the soleus muscle of the rats. Interruption of the original soleus nerve then permitted cross-innervation, and subsequently, over a period of weeks, re-innervation by the original nerve. 2. Individual muscle fibres were often innervated by both the original and the foreign nerve. The original and foreign end-plates were located in separate regions of the muscle. There were no indications that the original nerve could displace or repress the foreign innervation. 3. The extent of re-innervation by the original nerve depended upon the method of denervation. A single crush of the nerve was followed by virtually complete re-innervation, even of muscle fibres already innervated by the foreign nerve. When re-innervation was delayed by resection of a segment of the nerve only muscle fibres without foreign nerve innervation were re-innervated. Denervation by a simple nerve cut gave an intermediate result. 4. Re-innervation by the original nerve can take place without measurable extrajunctional sensitivity to ACh. 5. The original end-plate region could retain high and localized sensitivity to ACh for several months despite degeneration of its motor nerve terminal and activity of the muscle fibre. 6. Established foreign end-plates were re-innervated by the foreign nerve on muscle fibres with intact original innervation. 7. The factors controlling synapse formation in skeletal muscles are discussed.

DISQUISITIONS ON ORIGINAL ANTIGENIC SIN : I. EVIDENCE IN MAN

de St.Groth, S. Fazekas; Webster, R. G.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1966 EN
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When primary immunity is boosted not by the homologous but by a crossreacting vaccine, the newly formed antibodies react better with the primary antigen than with the antigen actually eliciting the response. This phenomenon bears the name of Original Antigenic Sin (1). It is shown that the number of antibody molecules produced against the original and the vaccinating antigen is the same; that each of these molecules is capable of reacting with both antigens; that the activity of an antiserum can be completely absorbed with either antigen; that both residual and adsorbed-dissociated fractions of antibody exhibit the same relative affinities towards the two antigens as did the native serum; that, unlike standard primary and secondary responses, the population of antibody molecules characterizing the Original Antigenic Sin is homogeneous; that each molecule has a lower equilibrium constant (i.e. higher avidity) against the original antigen than against the antigen stimulating the present response; and that all equilibrium constants are typical of secondary antibody. It is concluded that the Original Antigenic Sin is a partial anamnestic response, a related antigen stimulating that sector only of the originally primed cells which is destined to produce cross-reacting antibody. A hypothesis is developed according to which the basic difference between primary and secondary reactivity rests on the presence of a trapping mechanism that allows anamnestic production of antibody against lower doses of the homologous antigen. Such a mechanism is capable of cross-trapping related antigens...

Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values

van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Takken, Tim; Willemsen, Sten P.; Tibboel, Dick; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5 years. Furthermore, we compared the original protocol with the so-called ‘half Bruce’ protocol. In the Netherlands this half-Bruce protocol is often used for young children because of the rather large increments in workload in the original protocol. Seventy-eight healthy Dutch children participated. The maximal endurance time was the criterion of exercise capacity. The new reference values for the original Bruce protocol are presented as reference centiles. The mean (SD) endurance time using the original protocol was 10.2 (SD 1.5) min.; this was 9.4 (1.3) min. for the half-Bruce protocol. The mean difference was 50 seconds (95% CI: 29–71 s, P < 0.001). So, for children aged 4 and 5 years the endurance times obtained with the original and half-Bruce protocol are different and should not be considered interchangeable. Our new reference values can be used as reference values for the original Bruce protocol.

Guided bone regeneration with beta-tricalcium phosphate and poly L-lactide-co-glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone membrane in partial defects of canine humerus

Oh, Taehoon; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Lim, Ji-Hey; Park, Mi-Sun; Kim, Dae-Yong; Yoon, Jung-hee; Kim, Wan Hee; Kikuchi, Masanori; Tanaka, Junzo; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong
Fonte: The Korean Society of Veterinary Science Publicador: The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.52%
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of beta-tricalcium phosphate and poly L-lactide-co-glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone (TCP/PLGC) membrane in the repair of partial bone defects in canine proximal humerus. Three adult mixed-breed dogs were used during the experimental period. The length of the defect was quarter of the full length of humerus, and width of the defect was quarter of middle diameter of the lateral aspect of humerus. The humeri of each dog were divided into treatment (TCP/PLGC) and control groups. The defect was covered with TCP/PLGC membrane in treatment group. To evaluate regeneration of the bone, computerized tomography (CT) and histopathologic examination were performed. The radiopaque lines were appeared at the original defect sites in TCP/PLGC group but below the original site in control at 4th week. Radiopacity and thickness of the defect sites, and radiopaque lines were more increased at 8th week than those of 4th week. Histopathologic findings revealed fibrous connective tissue migration into the defect and the migration inhibited the structure of new cortex to be placed in the original level in control whereas new cortex growth was found in the level of original line in TCP/PLGC group. However, the new cortical bone in the TCP/PLGC group was thinner and less organized than the adjacent intact cortex...

Publication of Original Research in Urologic Journals – A Neglected Orphan?

Mani, Jens; Makarević, Jasmina; Juengel, Eva; Ackermann, Hanns; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/12/2012 EN
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35.52%
The pathophysiologic mechanisms behind urologic disease are increasingly being elucidated. The object of this investigation was to evaluate the publication policies of urologic journals during a period of progressively better understanding and management of urologic disease. Based on the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports and the PubMed database, the number and percentage of original experimental, original clinical, review or commentarial articles published between 2002–2010 in six leading urologic journals were analyzed. “British Journal of Urology International”, “European Urology”, “Urologic Oncology-Seminars and Original Investigations” (“Urologic Oncology”), “Urology”, “The Journal of Urology”, and “World Journal of Urology” were chosen, because these journals publish articles in all four categories. The publication policies of the six journals were very heterogeneous during the time period from 2002 to 2010. The percentage of original experimental and original clinical articles, related to all categories, remained the same in “British Journal of Urology International”, “Urologic Oncology”, “Urology” and “The Journal of Urology”. The percentage of experimental reports in “World Journal of Urology” between 2002–2010 significantly increased from 10 to 20%. A distinct elevation in the percentage of commentarial articles accompanied by a reduction of clinical articles became evident in “European Urology” which significantly correlated with a large increase in the journal’s impact factor. No clearly superior policy could be identified with regard to a general increase in the impact factors from all the journals. The publication policy of urologic journals does not expressly reflect the increase in scientific knowledge...

Adaptations of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of Antibodies to Influenza A Virus in Horse Sera for Use in Wild Aquatic Birds

Hoque, M. A.; Skerratt, L. F.; Garland, S.; Burgess, G. W.; Selleck, P.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.53%
We applied a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies for influenza A in equine sera to their detection in sera from wild aquatic birds. Suboptimal results were obtained for the optical density (OD) of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) control and reproducibility between duplicate analyses in the initial assessment. It was therefore necessary to modify the assay to deliver increased reliability and reproducibility while maintaining adequate sensitivity. We optimized reagent concentrations to obtain optimal OD values (close to 2) for the monoclonal antibody control and used 2, 2′-Azino-bis: 3-Benzthiazoline-6-Sulphonic Acid as an alternative chromogen to potentially reduce variability in duplicate analyses. The original assay was compared with the optimized versions, with and without post coating, for the detection of avian influenza viral antibodies in 240 sera obtained from wild plumed whistling ducks. A separate analytical sensitivity study on diluted positive field sera of plumed whistling ducks and a test of antigen stability after post coating were also performed. Some quantitative differences were detected between the original and modified assays. The original assay recorded higher percentage inhibition results which were potentially indicative of increased sensitivity. However...

Relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction and depression following myocardial infarction: an original article

Bagherian-Sararoudi, Reza; Gilani, Bijan; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi; Sanei, Hamid
Fonte: Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
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45.45%

Determination of Odor Release in Hydrocolloid Model Systems Containing Original or Carboxylated Cellulose at Different pH Values Using Static Headspace Gas Chromatographic (SHS-GC) Analysis

Lee, Sang Mi; Shin, Gil-Ok; Park, Kyung Min; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kim, Young-Suk
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/02/2013 EN
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35.52%
Static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC) analysis was performed to determine the release of 13 odorants in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or regio-selectively carboxylated cellulose at different pH values. The release of most odor compounds was decreased in the hydrocolloid solutions compared to control, with the amounts of 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanedione released into the headspace being less than those of any other odor compound in the hydrocolloid model systems. However, there was no considerable difference between original cellulose-containing and carboxylated-cellulose containing systems in the release of most compounds, except for relatively long-chain esters such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl nonanoate. The release from the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions controlled to pH 10 was significantly higher than that from solutions adjusted to pH 4 and 7 in the case of some esters (ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, butyl propionate, ethyl caproate) and alcohols (2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol), in particular, ethyl butyrate and 3-methyl-1-butanol. In contrast, the release of 2,3-butanedione from both the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions was increased at pH 4 and 7 compared to that at pH 10 by about 70% and 130%...

Variability of Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Testing: Analysis of the Article by Brazg and Coauthors

Pfützner, Andreas
Fonte: Diabetes Technology Society Publicador: Diabetes Technology Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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45.39%
The article by Brzag and coauthors in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology reports a competitive accuracy performance study for a branded meter in comparison with six low-cost meters currently available in the United States. It highlights several important topics: (1) the need for more stringent post-marketing requirements for blood glucose meters after launch and (2) low-cost meters use older technologies and their manufacturers do not usually seriously invest in new technology or constant quality assurance efforts. This may explain the study results, which show superior performance of the branded meter. Finally, the article pinpoints to the “quality versus price” dilemma faced by the prescribing physician and their patients in daily routine, which may be additionally aggravated by budget constraints and prescription rules in reimbursed markets.

The Classic: Review Article: Traffic Accidents

Tscherne, H.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x. An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105–108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.)

ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties

Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu
Fonte: Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center Publicador: Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 EN
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S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

How to teach medical students to critically appraise a published article in the public health domain

Rezaeian, Mohsen
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/02/2013 EN
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45.38%
The core part of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the ability to critically appraise published articles on a given subject. Medical students, especially within the developing world, usually do not learn how to critically appraise a published article since this is not part of their designed curriculum. This paper is reporting an innovative approach on how to teach critical appraisal skills to medical students, from an Iranian Medical School.

Rule-based deduplication of article records from bibliographic databases

Jiang, Yu; Lin, Can; Meng, Weiyi; Yu, Clement; Cohen, Aaron M.; Smalheiser, Neil R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/01/2014 EN
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45.4%
We recently designed and deployed a metasearch engine, Metta, that sends queries and retrieves search results from five leading biomedical databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Because many articles are indexed in more than one of these databases, it is desirable to deduplicate the retrieved article records. This is not a trivial problem because data fields contain a lot of missing and erroneous entries, and because certain types of information are recorded differently (and inconsistently) in the different databases. The present report describes our rule-based method for deduplicating article records across databases and includes an open-source script module that can be deployed freely. Metta was designed to satisfy the particular needs of people who are writing systematic reviews in evidence-based medicine. These users want the highest possible recall in retrieval, so it is important to err on the side of not deduplicating any records that refer to distinct articles, and it is important to perform deduplication online in real time. Our deduplication module is designed with these constraints in mind. Articles that share the same publication year are compared sequentially on parameters including PubMed ID number...

Genomic selection for recovery of original genetic background from hybrids of endangered and common breeds

Amador, Carmen; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.46%
Critically endangered breeds and populations are often crossed with more common breeds or subspecies. This results in genetic admixture that can be undesirable when it challenges the genetic integrity of wild and domestic populations, causing a loss in special characteristics or unique genetic material and ultimately extinction. Here, we present two genomic selection strategies, using genome-wide DNA markers, to recover the genomic content of the original endangered population from admixtures. Each strategy relies on the estimation of the proportion of nonintrogressed genome in individuals based on a different method: either genomic prediction or identification of breed-specific haplotypes. Then, breeding programs that remove introgressed genomic information can be designed. To test these strategies, we used empirical 50K SNP array data from two pure sheep breeds, Merino (used as target breed), Poll Dorset and an existing admixed population of both breeds. Sheep populations with varying degrees of introgression and admixture were simulated starting from these real genotypes. Both strategies were capable of identifying segment origin, and both removed up to the 100% of the Poll Dorset segments. While the selection process led to substantial inbreeding...

Leakage evaluation of original and compatible implant–abutment connections: In vitro study using Rhodamine B

Berberi, Antoine; Tehini, George; Rifai, Khaldoun; Bou Nasser Eddine, Farah; Badran, Bassam; Akl, Haidar
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/08/2014 EN
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45.46%
Leakage has been addressed as a major contributing factor to inflammatory reactions at the implant–abutment connection, leading to problems such as oral malodor, inflammation, and marginal bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the leakage at implant–abutment interface of OsseoSpeed™ implants connected to original and compatible abutments. A total of 28 OsseoSpeed implants were divided into four groups (n = 7). Each group was connected to four different abutments according to manufacturers’ recommendations: group A (TiDesign™); group B (Natea™); group C (Dual™); and group D (Implanet™) abutments. The inner volume of each implant–abutment combination was calculated and leakage was detected for each group with spectrophotometric analysis at 1 h (D0) and 48 h (D1) of incubation time using Rhodamine B. At 1 h, leakage volume was significantly lower in TiDesign and Dual than in Natea and Implanet (P < 0.001). At 48 h, however, leakage was significantly lower between TiDesign and all other systems (P < 0.005). Compatible abutments do not fit internal connection of OsseoSpeed implants perfectly, which increases the leakage of the final assembly.

Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress

Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/11/2014 EN
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45.45%
In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate...

Le document technologique original dans le droit de la preuve au Québec

de Saint-Exupéry, Gilles
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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35.53%
L’adoption de la Loi concernant le cadre juridique des technologies de l’information en 2001 a permis de mettre en place un cadre juridique favorisant l’intégration des technologies de l’information dans le droit. Plus particulièrement en droit de la preuve, cela a conféré au document technologique la qualité d’élément de preuve. Dans ce contexte il a été nécessaire d’adapter certains articles du Code civil du Québec et du même fait certaines règles dont la règle de la meilleure preuve, telle que prévue à l’article 2860 C.c.Q.. Cette règle s’appuyait jusqu’à présent sur la notion d’original, notion propre au support papier dont il a fallu trouver un équivalent pour le document technologique. C’est ce qu’a fait la Loi en prévoyant à son article 12 les caractéristiques de l’original technologique. Nous nous penchons sur cette notion en regardant quelles sont ses origines et ses justifications, puis nous avons analysé l’article 12 de la Loi qui traite de l’original sous forme technologique. Enfin nous nous sommes interrogé sur la place des reproductions dans le contexte technologique et nous avons vu que celles-ci ont pris de plus en plus d’importance à côté du document original...

Experimental infection of a US spike-insertion deletion porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in conventional nursing piglets and cross-protection to the original US PEDV infection

Lin, Chun-Ming; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Liu, Xinsheng; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Zhongyan; El-Tholoth, Mohamed; Hu, Hui; Saif, Linda J.; Wang, Qiuhong
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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35.56%
Although the original US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was confirmed as highly virulent by multiple studies, the virulence of spike-insertion deletion (S-INDEL) PEDV strains is undefined. In this study, 3–4 day-old conventional suckling piglets were inoculated with S-INDEL PEDV Iowa106 (4 pig litters) to study its virulence. Two litters of age-matched piglets were inoculated with either the original US PEDV PC21A or mock as positive and negative controls, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs were challenged with the original US PEDV PC21A on 21–29 days post-inoculation (dpi) to assess cross-protection. All S-INDEL Iowa106- and the original US PC21A-inoculated piglets developed diarrhea. However, the severity of clinical signs, mortality (0–75%) and fecal PEDV RNA shedding titers varied among the four S-INDEL Iowa106-inoculated litters. Compared with the original PC21A, piglets euthanized/died acutely from S-INDEL Iowa106 infection had relatively milder villous atrophy, lower antigen scores and more limited intestinal infection. Two of four S-INDEL Iowa106-infected sows and the original PC21A-infected sow showed anorexia and watery diarrhea for 1–4 days. After the original PC21A challenge, a subset (13/16) of S-INDEL Iowa106-inoculated piglets developed diarrhea...

PP-WAVES (the original article)

Peres, Asher
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2002
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45.5%
PP-waves have recently been of interest to string theorists. This is the original, hard to find, original article on plane polarized gravitational waves.

Reflections on the original economic approach to crime; Reflexões sobre o modelo original da economia do crime

Clemente, Ademir; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Welters, Angela; UPFR
Fonte: Editora UFPR Publicador: Editora UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2007 POR
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The economic analysis of crime, security and violence is based uponthe original article by Gary S. Becker whose title is Crime and Punishment: aneconomic approach. The central piece of Becker’s theoretical model is theeconomic reasoning of comparing gains and costs from de individual’s point ofview. Becker assumes that the criminal activity is the result of some socialparameters and then searches for an optimal situation from the social viewpoint,which is defined as the situation of minimum total cost. Crime, security andviolence have acquired such an importance in the 21st Century that a reflection onthe Becker’s model is required in order to give scientific basis to developing and adopting more effective public policies. This article aims to lend a hand to thatreflection by presenting a significant set of inquiries.; A análise econômica da criminalidade, da segurança e da violênciatoma por base o trabalho original de Gary S. Becker, intitulado Crime andPunishment: an economic approach. A peça central do modelo de Becker é oraciocínio econômico de comparação de ganhos e de custos do ponto de vista doindivíduo. Becker considera a atividade criminosa como o resultado de umasérie de parâmetros sociais e busca a situação ótima do ponto de vista dasociedade...