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Uncovering the business opportunity prototype: Cognitive and learning aspects of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition in higher education

Costa, Sílvia Margarida dos Santos Fernandes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Degree of Doctor in Human Resources Management and Development / JEL Classification System: L260 Entrepreneurship; M130 New Firms; Startups; The research project underlying this thesis focuses on three main aspects of entrepreneurship. First, we focus on opportunity recognition as the point of departure for entrepreneurial thinking and entrepreneurial activity. Secondly, we propose that basic perceptive cognitive structures (such as prototypes) are fundamental to recognize opportunities at early stages of development of the entrepreneurial mindset. Third, we focus on cognitive and learning aspects of opportunity recognition with individuals in higher education. To explore these topics, the present thesis is divided in two parts. Part I focuses on the theoretical and empirical development of the topic on business opportunity prototype for opportunity recognition and includes three studies. Study 1 provides a systematic literature review of prototypes in entrepreneurship research. A theoretical model based on this analysis is presented and empirically tested on the remaining studies of the thesis. Study 2 explores the role of the context of business opportunity recognition on the identification of its prototypical features. Study 3 proposes a simplified business opportunity prototype to describe how individuals with no entrepreneurial experience perceive business opportunities from early stages of the entrepreneurial mindset. Part II focuses on the training and learning aspects of cognitive structures regarding opportunity recognition and includes one empirical study. Study 4 focuses on the effect of cognitive training and experiential learning on the development and accuracy of the business opportunity prototype. Moreover...

Adaptive Radiation, Ecological Opportunity, and Evolutionary Determinism

Losos, Jonathan
Fonte: University of Chicago Publicador: University of Chicago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Adaptive radiation refers to diversification from an ancestral species that produces descendants adapted to use a great variety of distinct ecological niches. In this review, I examine two aspects of adaptive radiation: first, that it results from ecological opportunity and, second, that it is deterministic in terms of its outcome and evolutionary trajectory. Ecological opportunity is usually a prerequisite for adaptive radiation, although in some cases, radiation can occur in the absence of preexisting opportunity. Nonetheless, many clades fail to radiate although seemingly in the presence of ecological opportunity; until methods are developed to identify and quantify ecological opportunity, the concept will have little predictive utility in understanding a priori when a clade might be expected to radiate. Although predicted by theory, replicated adaptive radiations occur only rarely, usually in closely related and poorly dispersing taxa found in the same region on islands or in lakes. Contingencies of a variety of types may usually preclude close similarity in the outcome of evolutionary diversification in other situations. Whether radiations usually unfold in the same general sequence is unclear because of the unreliability of methods requiring phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral events. The synthesis of ecological...

Do Our Children Have a Chance? A Human Opportunity Report for Latin America and the Caribbean

Molinas Vega, José R.; Paes de Barros, Ricardo; Saavedra Chanduvi, Jaime; Giugale, Marcelo; Cord, Louise J.; Pessino, Carola; Hasan, Amer
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This book reports on the status and evolution of human opportunity in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It builds on the 2008 publication in several directions. First, it uses newly available data to expand the set of opportunities and personal circumstances under analysis. The data are representative of about 200 million children living in 19 countries over the last 15 years. Second, it compares human opportunity in LAC with that of developed countries, among them the United States and France, two very different models of social policy. This allows for illuminating exercises in benchmarking and extrapolation. Third, it looks at human opportunity within countries, across regions, states, and cities. This gives us a preliminary glimpse at the geographic dimension of equity, and at the role that different federal structures play. The overall message that emerges is one of cautious hope. LAC is making progress in opening the doors of development to all, but it still has a long way to go. At the current pace, it would take...

The Measurement of Inequality of Opportunity : Theory and an Application to Latin America

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Gignoux, Jérémie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
What part of the inequality observed in a particular country is due to unequal opportunities, rather than to differences in individual efforts or luck? This paper estimates a lower bound for the opportunity share of inequality in labor earnings, household income per capita and household consumption per capita in six Latin American countries. Following John Roemer, the authors associate inequality of opportunity with outcome differences that can be accounted for by morally irrelevant pre-determined circumstances, such as race, gender, place of birth, and family background. Thus defined, unequal opportunities account for between 24 and 50 percent of inequality in consumption expenditure in the sample. Brazil and Central America are more opportunity-unequal than Colombia, Ecuador, or Peru. "Opportunity profiles," which identify the social groups with the most limited opportunity sets, are shown to be distinct from poverty profiles: ethnic origin and the geography of birth are markedly more important as determinants of opportunity deprivation than of outcome poverty...

Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality and Economic Mobility : Some International Comparisons

Brunori, Paolo; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Peragine, Vito
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Despite a recent surge in the number of studies attempting to measure inequality of opportunity in various countries, methodological differences have so far prevented meaningful international comparisons. This paper presents a comparison of ex-ante measures of inequality of economic opportunity (IEO) across 41 countries, and of the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for 39 countries. It also examines international correlations between these indices and output per capita, income inequality, and intergenerational mobility. The analysis finds evidence of a "Kuznets curve" for inequality of opportunity, and finds that the IEO index is positively correlated with overall income inequality, and negatively with measures of intergenerational mobility, both in incomes and in years of schooling. The HOI is highly correlated with the Human Development Index, and its internal measure of inequality of opportunity yields very different country rankings from the IEO measure.

How Useful is Inequality of Opportunity as a Policy Construct?

Kanbur, Ravi; Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The academic literature on equality of opportunity has burgeoned. The concepts and measures have begun to be used by policy institutions, including in specific sectors such as health and education. It is argued that one advantage of focusing on equality of opportunity is that policy makers are more responsive to that discourse than to equality of outcomes per se. This paper presents a critique of equality of opportunity in the policy context. Although the empirical analysis to which the literature has given rise is useful and is to be welcomed, current methods for quantifying and implementing the concept with a view to informing the policy discourse face a series of fundamental questions that remain unanswered. Without a full appreciation of these difficulties, the methods may prove to be misleading in the policy context.

Measuring Inequality of Opportunity with Imperfect Data : The Case of Turkey

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Gignoux, Jeremie; Aran, Meltem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The measurement of inequality of opportunity has hitherto not been attempted in a number of countries because of data limitations. This paper proposes two alternative approaches to circumventing the missing data problems in countries where a demographic and health survey and an ancillary household expenditure survey are available. One method relies only on the demographic and health survey, and constructs a wealth index as a measure of economic advantage. The alternative method imputes consumption from the ancillary survey into the demographic and health survey. In both cases, the between-type share of overall inequality is computed as a lower bound estimator of inequality of opportunity. Parametric and non-parametric estimates are calculated for both methods, and the parametric approach is shown to yield preferable lower-bound measures. In an application to the sample of ever-married women aged 30-49 in Turkey, inequality of opportunity accounts for at least 26 percent (31 percent) of overall inequality in imputed consumption (the wealth index).

Equality of Opportunity and Luck: Definitions and Testable Conditions, with An Application to Income in France

LEFRANC, Arnaud; PISTOLESI, Nicolas; TRANNOY, Alain
Fonte: Elsevier Science Sa Publicador: Elsevier Science Sa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
We offer a model of equality of opportunity that encompasses different conceptions expressed in the public and philosophical debates. In addition to circumstances whose effect on outcome should be compensated and effort which represents a legitimate Source of inequality, we introduce a third factor, luck, that captures the random factors whose impact on Outcome should be even-handed for equality of opportunity to be satisfied. Then, we analyze how the various definitions of equality of opportunity can be empirically identified, given data limitations and provide testable conditions. Definitions and conditions resort to standard stochastic dominance tools. Lastly, we develop an empirical analysis of equality of opportunity for income acquisition in France over the period 1979-2000 which reveals that the degree of inequality of opportunity tends to decrease and that the degree of risk of income distributions, conditional on social origin, appears very similar across all groups of social origins. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The perception of inequality of opportunity in Europe

BRUNORI, Paolo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Does the way scholars measure inequality of opportunity correspond to how people perceive it? To answer this question we must first clarify how scholars define and measure inequality of opportunity, we will then discuss the possible mechanisms linking objective measures and subjective perception of the phenomenon, and finally we test our hypothesis by merging data coming from two sources: the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (2011) and the International Social Survey Programme data (2009). We show that individual perception of unequal opportunity is heterogeneous across countries and among individuals. Moreover, the prevailing perception of the degree of unequal opportunity in a large sample of respondents is only weakly correlated with its objective measure. We estimate a multilevel model considering both individual and country level controls to explain individual perception of unequal opportunity. Our estimates suggest that one of the most adopted measure of inequality of opportunity has no significant role in explaining its perception. Conversely, other country level variables and personal experiences of intergenerational social mobility are important determinants of how inequality of opportunity is perceived.

Custo de oportunidade da Reserva Legal do Código Florestal entre 1995/1996 e 2006 e seus determinantes; The Forest Code opportunity cost between 1995/1996 and 2006, its evolution and its determinants

Campos, Samuel Alex Coelho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
A produção agropecuária está sujeita a diversas restrições, como as restrições legais impostas pelo Código Florestal, o qual restringe a área utilizada para a produção agropecuária dentro do imóvel rural, o que implica em custo para os produtores agropecuários e que é representado pela renda renunciada e aumento dos custos pela alocação dos insumos de forma a reduzir a necessidade da área que deve ser mantida com florestas nativas. Esse custo pode variar entre os produtores em razão das características da propriedade e do produtor. Neste contexto, o objetivo desse estudo é mensurar o custo de oportunidade da área ocupada com Reserva Legal e seus determinantes, confrontando os produtores representativos do estado de São Paulo e do Mato Grosso nos anos de 1995 e 2006. O produtor representativo foi obtido dividindo o valor total das variáveis em nível municipal pelo número de estabelecimentos. O custo de oportunidade foi estimado utilizando a metodologia proposta por Zhou, Ang e Poh (2006) e os seus determinantes foram estimados por meio de um modelo de econometria espacial. Os resultados indicaram que a eficiência técnica e a eficiência técnica ambiental dos produtores foram pequenas nos anos analisados em ambos os estados considerados. Um produtor é eficiente tecnicamente se ele obtém o máximo de produção possível dado os insumos utilizados. A eficiência ambiental também objetiva minimizar o desmatamento. O estado do Mato Grosso destacou-se pela baixa eficiência produtiva em 1995/96...

Exploring the Sources of Downward Bias in Measuring Inequality of Opportunity

Lara Ibarra, Gabriel; Martinez Cruz, Adan L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
This study analyzes the extent of downward bias in the calculation of inequality of opportunity for continuous outcomes such as income. A typically recognized source of bias is the unobserved circumstances as there is a limited set of variables available in household and labor force surveys. Another previously overlooked source is the likely unobservable nature of top incomes. Using Monte Carlo simulations where the underlying inequality of opportunity is predetermined at various levels, the study presents three key findings. First, the omission of a relevant circumstance can bias the inequality of opportunity estimate by as much as 80 percent, depending on how much variation of the outcome such circumstance explains. Second, not observing the top 5 percent of the income distribution can lead to downward biases of anywhere between 12 and 35 percent, and the combination of missing the most favored population and even one relevant circumstance exacerbates the bias of the empirical estimates. The third key result is that the estimated inequality of opportunity is strongly correlated with the amount of variation in the outcome variable explained by the combination of circumstances (measured by the R2). This result suggests that in empirical applications...

ARTICULATING THE INTUITIVE: MECHANISMS FOR ENTREPRENEURS TO COMMUNICATE OPPORTUNITY EVALUATION DECISION POLICIES

Mitchell, J. Robert
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Business, 2006; Ironically in the development of expertise, as expertise increases, an individual's ability to communicate the knowledge associated with that expertise decreases. This lack of transferability can be beneficial (the knowledge is inimitable by competitors), but it can also be detrimental (the knowledge is not usable by colleagues and other stakeholders). These differences likely arise from different types of causal ambiguity. Ambiguity about the attributes of a specific entrepreneurial opportunity represents a barrier to the transferability of knowledge to competitors (beneficial), while ambiguity about the relationship between a specific opportunity and value creation represents a barrier to the transferability of knowledge to stakeholders (detrimental). To reduce specific opportunity/value creation relationship ambiguity, I focus in this research on mechanisms thought to enhance entrepreneurial decision makers' decision-policy consciousness in opportunity evaluation decisions. In a field experiment, I capture the opportunity evaluation decisions of 127 entrepreneurial decision makers in high potential technology ventures, and introduce a series of experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase the decision-policy consciousness of these individuals. The findings suggest that firm founders have lower decision-policy consciousness than non-firm founders; that codification increases decision-policy consciousness; that in increasing decision-policy consciousness...

Arab Republic of Egypt - Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Basic Services among Egyptian Children

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Egypt's children and youth, representing more than one-third of the country´s population and its future, face several significant challenges, as shown by higher child poverty rates and unequal access to basic services. The objective of this report is three-fold: (i) to analyze the extent of inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children; (ii) to inform government policy on how success in life is influenced by factors predetermined at birth; and (iii) to identify policies and interventions that may contribute to improving equality of opportunity. The underlying premise is that ensuring equality of opportunity entails leveling the playing field in such a way that every child, regardless of the circumstances of his/her birth, will have an equal chance to succeed in life. This report analyzes the extent of provision of equal access to basic opportunities to all children (including healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation), and identifies the main circumstances that affect it and therefore determine human development outcomes. The analysis in this report builds on the concepts and ideas developed in the World Development Report (WDR). The findings are aimed at supporting debates and discussions...

Equality of Opportunity for Children in Egypt, 2000-2009 : Achievements and Challenges

Vélez, Carlos E.; Al-Shawarby, Sherine; El-Laithy, Heba
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This paper provides relevant indicators and measurements useful for public policies seeking the expansion of equitable human development opportunities for Egyptian children and youth. To measure equitable access to opportunities, the authors use the Human Opportunity Index to examine the evolution of 16 basic opportunity indicators grouped in four sectors: education, basic housing services, early childhood development, and nutrition and hunger. The main findings show that during the last decade most opportunities for children and youth improved unambiguously,for the first two sectors, but were stagnant for nutrition and early childhood development opportunities. Although the urban-rural and interregional gaps were partially reduced, there are still substantial opportunity gaps between children in favorable and unfavorable circumstances. Parents' education, income per capita, urban-rural location, number of siblings, and regional location, are the five most important factors affecting equality of opportunity...

Estimating the Economic Opportunity Cost of Capital for Public Investment Projects : An Empirical Analysis of the Mexican Case

Coppola, Andrea; Fernholz, Fernando; Glenday, Graham
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
This paper offers an assessment of the methodologies employed to estimate the economic opportunity cost of capital for public sector projects, relying on the Mexican case for an applied empirical exercise. The traditional weighted cost of capital (top-down) approach used in the estimation of Mexico's economic opportunity cost of capital is reviewed and compared to the supply price (bottom-up) approach. With respect to previous studies using the top-down approach, this paper explores the contribution of domestic savings and expands the analysis to include a more detailed examination of the available macroeconomic, labor, financial, and tax information. The re-estimated top-down economic opportunity cost of capital for Mexico comes to 10.4 percent. To confirm these results and provide additional insights regarding the alternative bottom-up approach, the economic opportunity cost of capital is estimated using the supply price plus externalities method. For the case of Mexico, this paper recommends using a combination of estimation models (both the top-down and bottom-up approaches) to check the consistency of results and re-estimating the economic opportunity cost of capital every five years to accommodate for macroeconomic and fiscal changes. More broadly...

Inequality of Opportunity Among Egyptian Children

Ersado, Lire; Aran, Meltem
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
This paper analyzes the level and trends in inequality of opportunity among Egyptian children during the 2000s. The analysis uses severall tools, including comparison of the distributions of early risks and outcomes across circumstance groups; estimation of the human opportunity index; measurement of the relative contributions of circumstances to inequality of opportunity; and decomposition of changes in inequality of opportunity and factors driving them over time. Egypt has made significant progress in the availability of and access to basic services for children and mothers, in some cases with an overall pro-poor effect. In particular, appreciable improvements have been made in healthcare utilization before and during pregnancy and immunizations. As a result, there has been a decline in inequality of opportunity over the past decade, largely attributable to increased coverage by basic services rather than through redistributive effects. However, there are areas of persistent and emerging concerns, including postnatal care utilization...

Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

Zhang, NING
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
I conducted two studies to explore cultural differences between Chinese and European Canadians in considering opportunity cost while making purchase decisions. In Study 1, participants (121 Euro-Canadians and 119 Chinese) read a scenario in which they would decide whether to buy a single product (e.g., a backpack) or not. Participants were randomly assigned to either a condition in which opportunity cost information was made salient or a control condition in which opportunity cost was not mentioned. I found that participants in the opportunity cost salient condition displayed a higher level of opportunity cost consideration than did participants in the control condition. When individual differences in the habit of considering opportunity cost and spending habits were controlled for, Chinese participants’ purchase decisions revealed a higher degree of opportunity cost consideration than those of European Canadians. Chinese were also more likely to mention opportunity cost thoughts than did European Canadians while making the decision. In Study 2, participants chose one of two laptops to buy (one was cheaper but had less memory than the other). The results demonstrated that Chinese living in Canada displayed a higher degree of opportunity cost consideration by opting more often for the cheaper laptop...

Equality of educational opportunity employing Pisa data: taking both achievement and access into account

Carvalho, Márcia de; Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fábio D.
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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La medición de la desigualdad de oportunidades con las bases de PISA implican varias limitaciones: (i) la muestra sólo representa una fracción limitada de las cohortes de jóvenes de 15 años en los países en desarrollo y (ii) estas fracciones no son uniformes entre países ni entre periodos. Lo anterior genera dudas sobre la confiabilidad de estas mediciones cuando se usan para comparaciones internacionales: mayor equidad puede ser resultado de una muestra más restringida y más homogénea. A diferencia de enfoques previos basados en reconstrucción de las muestras, el enfoque del documento consiste en proveer un índice bidimensional que incluye logro y acceso como dimensiones del índice. Se utilizan varios métodos de agregación y se observan cambios considerables en los rankings de (in) equidad de oportunidades cuando solo se observa el logro y cuando se observan ambas dimensiones en las pruebas de PISA 2006/2009. Finalmente se propone una generalización del enfoque permitiendo otras dimensiones adicionales y otros pesos utilizados en la agregación.; While PISA datasets have been used for measuring inequality of educational opportunity they have important limitations: (i) samples only cover a relatively limited fraction of developing countries’ cohorts of 15-year-olds...

Limited Means and What I Can't Buy: Resource Constraints and Resource Use Accessibility Drive Opportunity Cost Consideration

Spiller, Stephen Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%

Every consumer decision incurs a cost. An hour spent researching products is an hour not spent working. Vacation days used in the winter are vacation days not used in the summer. A dollar spent on a car payment is a dollar not spent dining out. What determines the extent to which consumers consider such opportunity costs when making decisions?

Although every purchase requires an outlay cost (i.e., spending dollars in order to obtain a good), outlay costs only have economic significance because some other good or service must be given up as a result. Consumers have unlimited wants but limited resources, so satisfying one want means not satisfying another (the opportunity cost). An opportunity cost is "the evaluation placed on the most highly valued of the rejected alternatives or opportunities" (Buchanan 2008) or "the loss of other alternatives when one alternative is chosen" (Oxford English Dictionary 2010). Opportunity costs are foundational to the science of economics and, normatively, consumers should account for opportunity costs in every decision they make. I define opportunity cost consideration as "considering alternative uses for one's resources when deciding whether to spend resources on a focal option."

Because consumers face opportunity costs...

The class of opportunity filters and the preference revealed by a path independent choice function; The class of opportunity filters and the preference revealed by a path independent choice function

Lahiri, Somdeb
Fonte: Nova Economia; Nova Economia Publicador: Nova Economia; Nova Economia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2009 POR
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The purpose of this paper is to replicate the theory developed by Gekker (2001), without using any monotonicity assumption. We however retain a non-triviality assumption implicit in Gekker (2001), which says that there is at least one opportunity set which is preferred to the no-choice situation. In addition we require our preference relation on opportunity sets to be transitive (as in Gekker, 2001), reflexive and satisfy an assumption called minimal comparability, which requires every opportunity set to be comparable with the null set. We also show that there exists a preference relation on the power set of the set of alternatives, revealed by a path independent choice function, which satisfies all the properties that we require of a binary relation to satisfy on the power set of the set of alternatives.; The purpose of this paper is to replicate the theory developed by Gekker (2001), without using any monotonicity assumption. We however retain a non-triviality assumption implicit in Gekker (2001), which says that there is at least one opportunity set which is preferred to the no-choice situation. In addition we require our preference relation on opportunity sets to be transitive (as in Gekker, 2001), reflexive and satisfy an assumption called minimal comparability...