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Proposta de um modelo para geração e análise das oportunidades de mercado e tecnológica para o desenvolvimento de produtos farmacêuticos veterinários; Proposal of a model for generation and analysis of market opportunities and technology for the development of pharmaceutical products.

Silva, Naira Tainá Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2009 PT
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36.45%
A geração e análise de oportunidades é o primeiro passo no desenvolvimento de inovação e da ação empreendedora. Identificar ou criar uma oportunidade por si só não basta, é preciso também conhecer o ciclo de inovação tecnológica no setor do negócio para analisar e verificar a viabilidade de implementação da inovação e sua probabilidade de sucesso. Conhecer as variáveis que compõem o ambiente geral e conhecer o ambiente específico da organização é fundamental para a identificação e verificação da viabilidade de uma idéia inovadora. Isso é possível através do comprometimento da organização como um todo no monitoramento de variáveis externas e internas utilizando ferramentas de inteligência competitiva e de prospecção que permitem não só ter um panorama da realidade atual das variáveis como também permitem a previsão da realidade futuramente. Essa prospecção futura facilita o planejamento em longo prazo da introdução e desempenho da oportunidade de inovação identificada. Este trabalho analisa diversos modelos e processos de geração e análise de oportunidades e os diversos fatores que afetam esse processo como recursos, capacidades, competências, criatividade, ambiente organizacional...

Decisões de investimento das firmas brasileiras: assimetria de informação, problemas de agência e oportunidades de investimento; Investment decisions of Brazilian firms: asymmetric information, agency problems and investment opportunities

Pellicani, Aline Damasceno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a sensibilidade do investimento ao fluxo de caixa de 356 firmas brasileiras de capital aberto no período de 1997-2010, considerando a estrutura de propriedade e controle. As firmas são classificadas a priori entre subinvestimento e superinvestimento, e reagrupadas conforme o nível de oportunidades de investimento do setor industrial. Com uma versão do modelo acelerador de investimento, estimado pelo método GMM System, o estudo mostra que essa sensibilidade poderia sinalizar oportunidades de investimento, problemas de agência do fluxo de caixa livre e problemas de assimetria de informação. Particularmente, discute-se que o superinvestimento pode ser oriundo tanto dos problemas de agência do fluxo de caixa livre quanto ser uma sinalização ao mercado do volume de oportunidades de investimento. Além disso, também é investigado se firmas com controle familiar, estruturadas como pirâmides e pirâmides controladas por família têm influência sobre o volume de recursos próprios aplicados para financiar os investimentos. As estimativas mostram que os investimentos das firmas consideradas com subinvestimento e grandes oportunidades de investimento podem não ser sensíveis ao fluxo de caixa quando o excesso de direito de voto sobre o direito de propriedade do maior acionista é baixo. Por outro lado...

Opportunities for Men and Women : Emerging Europe and Central Asia

Sattar, Sarosh
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia have a long history of striving for gender equality, especially in the public sphere. Not only was this an important goal during the socialist era, but governments continued to pursue gender equality even during the difficult years of transition. The governments in the region allocated substantial resources toward the health and education of both women and men. They also adopted legislation that treated women and men equally in the labor market and they provided child care services. During much of the last century, the region surpassed countries both developing and developed in establishing the equal treatment of women and men. This report reviews changes in gender inequalities in Europe and Central Asia over the last decade, with a particular focus on economic opportunities both in labor markets and in entrepreneurial activity. In addition, given the importance of health and education in opening up opportunities for men and women in the economic sphere...

Emerging Europe and Central Asia - Opportunities for men and women

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Europe and Central Asia have suffered a setback in economic growth because of the recent global crisis, which revealed fundamental structural weaknesses previously hidden by the prosperity before the crisis. The major weaknesses are the large savings deficits, the lagging reforms in the social sectors, and the deterioration in competitiveness. Policies can address these weaknesses by taking into account the role of the behavior of firms, public spending on health and education, the consequences of demographic pressures, particularly on pension systems, and the bottlenecks created by skilled labor force shortages. This report reviews the performance of women and men during the past decade in three spheres: human capital, labor markets, and entrepreneurship. Similar to World Development Report 2012 (World Bank 2011a), it looks at the dimensions of endowments and economic opportunities. However, it does not cover issues related to agency, that is, the ability of actors to make independent choices and exercise control over their own actions. The data are analyzed to determine whether women and men are performing well compared with each other...

Monitoring Basic Opportunities throughout the Lifecycle with the Human Opportunity Index in Chile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Chile has made significant progress towards equalizing opportunities in recent years, especially those pertaining to poverty alleviation, school enrollment, and access to health services. A monitoring system of basic opportunities that effectively incorporates equity concerns may help policymakers to design better policies for vulnerable groups in Chile. The Human Opportunity Index (HOI) is an equality of opportunity adjusted coverage rate. The HOI provides a tractable way, in a single indicator, to measure progress toward universal coverage of opportunities as well as equitable access to those opportunities. Along with being a simple, intuitive and tractable measure, the HOI also satisfies several properties deemed desirable for an equity measure. Any increase in the amount of opportunities will improve the HOI despite to whom it is allocated. It is pro-vulnerable because if the coverage rate of a vulnerable group increases holding the overall coverage rate constant, the HOI also increases. Similarly, for a given expansion of available services...

Foreign Job Opportunities and Internal Migration in Vietnam

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This paper investigates the role of employment opportunities created by foreign-owned firms as a determinant of internal migration and destination choice using the Vietnam Migration Survey 2004 and the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2004. Multinomial logit and conditional logit models are estimated to study both origin and destination-specific characteristics of migrants. The paper finds that the migration response to foreign job opportunities is larger for female workers than male workers; there appears to be intermediate selection in terms of educational attainment; and migrating individuals on average tend to go to destinations with higher foreign employment opportunities, even controlling for income differentials, land differentials, and distances between sending and receiving areas.

Social Spending, Distribution, and Equality of Opportunities : Opportunity Incidence Analysis

Cuesta, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Existing evidence forms a body of "conventional wisdom" on the redistributive impact of fiscal policies that has been recently questioned by more disaggregated analyses. This paper proposes an additional extension to the traditional benefit incidence analysis to explore further the extent to which the conventional wisdom holds, as well as to provide effective guidance in fiscal decision making. The benefit incidence analysis extension includes linking fiscal policies with the concept of equality of opportunities. The paper describes this approach and showcases the application of the proposed "opportunity incidence analysis" to six pilot countries: Liberia, Cote d Ivoire, Zambia, Tajikistan, Thailand, and Paraguay. Three main contributions stand out: first, opportunity incidence analysis complements traditional benefit incidence analysis by applying its mechanics to a more forward looking concept of equal opportunity. Second, opportunities can be used to target public spending with higher precision. Third...

Teenage Pregnancy and Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean : On Teenage Fertility Decisions, Poverty and Economic Achievement

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; Favara, Marta; Haddock, Sarah E.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Muller, Miriam; Perova, Elizaveta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The pregnancy project sought to expose the existence, and challenge the validity, of stereotypes about Hispanic women. The charade explored the underlying motivations of the many who responded with a wide range of reactions. The specific objectives of this regional study are: to establish a thorough description of the magnitude of the issue and its potential implications for social advancement; to advance the understanding of the risk factors, motivations and impacts at the household level-as a determinant of poverty and a cause of intra-and intergenerational poverty traps; to illuminate the coping mechanisms and their individual and social implications; to highlight the gender-related issues that have historically provoked asymmetric costs to boys and girls; and to provide elements that support specific policies on this matter. In the last decade, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been moving in the right direction and the region has experienced important gains in gender equality of endowments (assets) and economic opportunities. In most LAC countries...

Job Opportunities along the Rural-Urban Gradation and Female Labor Force Participation in India

Chatterjee, Urmila; Murgai, Rinku; Rama, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The recent decline in India’s rural female labor force participation is generally attributed to higher rural incomes in a patriarchal society. Together with the growing share of the urban population, where female participation rates are lower, this alleged income effect does not bode well for the empowerment of women as India develops. This paper argues that a traditional supply-side interpretation is insufficient to account for the decline in female participation rates, and the transformation of the demand for labor at local levels needs to be taken into account as well. A salient trait of this period is the collapse in the number of farming jobs without a parallel emergence of other employment opportunities considered suitable for women. The paper develops a novel approach to capture the structure of employment at the village or town level, and allow for differences along six ranks in the rural-urban gradation. It also considers the possible misclassification of urban areas as rural, as a result of household surveys lagging behind India’s rapid urbanization process. The results show that the place of residence along the rural-urban gradation loses relevance as an explanation of female labor force participation once local job opportunities are taken into account. Robustness checks confirm that the main findings hold even when taking into account the possibility of spurious correlation and endogeneity. They also hold under alternative definitions of labor force participation and when sub-samples of women are considered. Simulations suggest that for India to reverse the decline in female labor force participation rates it needs to boost job creation.

Environmentally friendly market opportunities: influencing a change towards more sustainable agricultural practices in the ACT region

de Smeth, Kate
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Environmental certification promotes environmental sustainability in agriculture by developing management systems that consider the impacts of management practices on the environment. By encouraging the participation of agricultural producers in environmental certification schemes, the 'Food Choice and Sustainable Agriculture' project from which this research was derived, aims to influence a change towards more sustainable agricultural practices by producers in the ACT region. Environmental certification is the public recognition that an enterprise has developed an environmental management system to a specified standard. Published literature recognises a number of managerial and financial incentives associated with these management systems, as well as certification. Several potential constraints are also identified in the existing literature, such as the cost involved in terms of time and money, economies of scale and the complexity of the schemes. Due to the broad focus of the existing literature on issues relevant to producers nation-wide, it was vital to understand the core concerns of producers at a local level. Twelve interviews were conducted with producers from the ACT region to ascertain the specific issues that local producers had with environmental certification. Interviews were conducted with producers from both within alternative food networks...

In Search of Opportunities : How a More Mobile Workforce Can Propel Ukraine’s Prosperity (Vol. 1 of 2) : Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Ukrainians do not move often, and when they do move, they don't necessarily go to areas with good jobs and high wages. Internal mobility is about half of what is expected when comparing Ukraine with other countries. The lack of mobility is remarkable, given the availability of more jobs and better wages in several Ukrainian cities. Too few people are taking advantage of economic opportunities, and as a result, Ukraine's structural transformation has stalled. This is a sharp contrast to many other countries in Eastern Europe, where the transition to a market economy has been accompanied by a shift from widely-dispersed industries to a concentration of capital and production in a few areas, and from low- to higher-productivity sectors. Labor has largely mirrored the movement of capital and production. In Ukraine, however, labor is not flowing as smoothly to areas of high production. This report examines the mobility of workers inside Ukraine and their willingness to physically relocate from one area or region to another in search of better economic opportunities. The report explores the patterns and trends of labor mobility in Ukraine as well as the drivers and constraints of that mobility...

Life Chances in Turkey : Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation

Hentschel, Jesko; Aran, Meltem; Can, Raif; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Gignoux, Jeremie; Uraz, Arzu
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Life chances explore the state of equality of opportunities in Turkey. It builds on the concepts and ideas presented in the World Development Report 2006: equity and development. The authors assess how today's distribution of wealth and the success of children in learning to read and write are shaped by the past, by factors predetermined at birth, factors over which today's children and families have no control: one's gender, parents' and grandparents' education, region and area of birth, or mother tongue. Some of the findings are stark, especially as they pertain to how the opportunities today's children have affect the future of the country: a girl born in a remote village to a poor family and parents with primary education degrees will very likely struggle in almost every area of her development. Compared with a boy born to well-off, highly educated parents in one of the urban centers in the country's west, that girl is four times as likely to suffer from low birth weight, one-third as likely to be immunized...

Migration and Poverty : Toward Better Opportunities for the Poor

Murrugarra, Edmundo; Larrison, Jennica; Sasin, Marcin
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Migration has historically been a source of opportunities for people to improve their lives and those of their families. Today, the large differences in income between places-particularly countries-continue to motivate individuals to escape poverty through migration. The potential advantages of migration for sending countries are numerous. Through remittances, migration provides a means of improving income and smoothing consumption; it enables households to overcome the lack of credit and cushion the risks involved in engaging in more productive activities; and migration can also act as a coping strategy in times of distress. Remittances can be spent on investments, such as housing and schooling, and directly on household consumption. Furthermore, new skills and education may be acquired at the place of destination and transferred back to the place of origin. This volume argues that although migration increases income and often reduces poverty, the migration opportunities of the poor are different-among the poor there are fewer migrants...

Equality of Opportunities and Fiscal Incidence in Cote d'Ivoire

Abras, Ana; Cuesta, Jose; Hoyos, Alejandro; Narayan, Ambar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
This study analyzes opportunities for children in Cote d'Ivoire, where opportunities refer to access to basic services and goods that improve the likelihood of a child maximizing his or her human potential. The principle that guides this analysis is one of equality of opportunity, which is that a child's circumstances at birth should not determine his or her access to opportunities. The analysis computes the Human Opportunity Index, which measures the extent to which access to basic services is universal and evenly distributed among children of different circumstances. Opportunities are limited in Cote d'Ivoire, despite some improvements in access to electricity and timely access to primary education. Otherwise, trends on access remain stagnant. Scale effects (variations across the board) are behind these trends, with little improvement observed from equalizing interventions. Circumstances such as region and household head characteristics affect a child's access to opportunities, while household incomes and a child's gender and ethnicity play a relatively small role in access differentials. Public spending on education opportunities is shown to be regressive and pro-rich...

Engaging Youth through Community-Driven Development Objectives : Experiences, Findings, and Opportunities

Adam, Sarah G.; Kaori Oshima
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Community-driven development (CDD) is an approach emphasizing local control over planning and an investment resource offers important advantages for engaging young people. The World Bank's portfolio of CDD projects provides a rich repository of experiences of how this approach is being adapted to enhance the inclusion of young people. This paper synthesizes the findings of a global stocktaking on CDD and youth. The study draws from a universe of over 60 active, planned, or recently closed CDD youth projects across all regions in which the Bank operates. Significant diversity exists among these projects in terms of the extent of youth focus; size, scale, and scope; contexts and conditions to which they respond; and objectives and desired outcomes. Youth engagement is examined through three interlinked dimensions of youth development: (1) endowments or the accumulation of human capital assets; (2) employment and economic opportunities; and (3) empowerment, encompassing the concepts of participation, voice...

FYR Macedonia Gender Diagnostic : Gaps in Endowments, Access to Economic Opportunities and Agency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia has closed several gaps in gender inequalities, particularly in education and health, but key disparities persist in access to economic opportunities and agency, particularly among certain ethnic groups. This report provides an overview of gender disparities in several outcomes related to human and physical endowments, access to economic opportunities, and agency. In addition, it offers potential explanations of these gaps and, in the process, identifies knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research. On average, FYR Macedonia has achieved gender equality in health and in education; however, gender disparities persist for certain population subgroups. However, women are more likely than men to choose general programs or social sciences as their primary field of education. Both men and women are unlikely to undertake additional training following their initial education, but each for different reasons: women are more likely than men to cite family obligations as a key factor in this decision (19 percent of women compared to 1.5 percent of men) as women devote a much larger percentage of their time to domestic activities. In addition...

Human Opportunity Index - National : Equality of Children's Opportunities in Pakistan

Newman, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
This paper complements the World Bank's recent report on poverty by providing some additional information on inequality. In contrast to reports that analyze measures of inequality of income or wealth (such as the Gini), this paper focuses on equality of opportunities of children, where opportunities refer to access to basic services and goods (access to education, health conditions and basic infrastructure) that improve the likelihood of children to maximize their human potential. It introduces a new metric to Pakistan, the Human Opportunities Index (HOI), that combines the overall coverage rate of the opportunity with a penalty for the share of access to opportunities that are distributed in an unequal fashion. The Human Opportunity Index was developed recently at the World Bank and has been estimated now for over 20 countries in Latin America and Africa.

Economic Opportunities for Women in the East Asia and Pacific region

Ellis, Amanda; Kirkwood, Daniel; Malhotra, Dhruv
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
East Asia and the Pacific is a region of dynamic growth. Women have contributed significantly to this growth and have benefited from it through active participation in the labor market. However, women are still disproportionately represented in the informal sector and in low paid work. Efforts to identify barriers to women's business and entrepreneurial activities in the region are critical not only to facilitate inclusive growth in a national context but also to counter the increasing trend of female migratory flows in the region. This report highlights' both the challenges and the economic opportunities for businesswomen in the region offers some useful potential pointers for reform.

Moldova : Gender Disparities in Endowments and Access to Economic Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This assessment provides a broad picture of gender disparities in Moldova in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The gender gap in education is small, yet it is greatest at higher levels of education. Moldova's health indicators are significantly underperforming compared to other Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, and male mortality is of greatest concern. Violence against women is one of the most frequent forms of human rights violations and is widely accepted by both women and men. Male and female labor force participation rates are low, and the gender gap is small. Moldova has one of the highest rates of human trafficking among neighboring countries and is primarily a source country. This paper is structured as follows: chapter one discusses factors which may shape the process of how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities. Chapter two covers human development disaggregated by gender, focusing on education and health. Chapter three examines the gender gap in employment and opportunities...

Understanding missed opportunities for more timely diagnosis of cancer in symptomatic patients after presentation

Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Vedsted, P.; Singh, H.
Fonte: NPG Publicador: NPG
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2015.47; The diagnosis of cancer is a complex, multi-step process. In this paper, we highlight factors involved in missed opportunities to diagnose cancer more promptly in symptomatic patients and discuss responsible mechanisms and potential strategies to shorten intervals from presentation to diagnosis. Missed opportunities are instances in which post-hoc judgement indicates that alternative decisions or actions could have led to more timely diagnosis. They can occur in any of the three phases of the diagnostic process (initial diagnostic assessment; diagnostic test performance and interpretation; and diagnostic follow-up and coordination) and can involve patient, doctor/care team, and health-care system factors, often in combination. In this perspective article, we consider epidemiological ?signals? suggestive of missed opportunities and draw on evidence from retrospective case reviews of cancer patient cohorts to summarise factors that contribute to missed opportunities. Multi-disciplinary research targeting such factors is important to shorten diagnostic intervals post presentation. Insights from the fields of organisational and cognitive psychology...