Página 1 dos resultados de 5371 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

Temas e práticas de pesquisa em gestão de operações; Themes and research practices in operations management

Figueiredo, Jeovan de Carvalho; Teodósio, Armindo dos Santos de Sousa; Gonçalves-Dias, Sylmara Lopes Francelino
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB; João Pessoa Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB; João Pessoa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
A Gestão de Operações tem sido caracterizada pela sobreposição temática com as áreas da Administração e da Engenharia de Produção. Nesse sentido, a proposta deste artigo é analisar os temas e práticas investigativas científicas adotadas por pesquisadores que publicaram em periódicos de cada uma dessas duas áreas, entre os anos de 2010 e 2012. Foram analisados 258 artigos publicados neste período, a partir de técnicas de estatística descritiva e análise de agrupamentos de palavras-chave. Os resultados mostraram que predomina, no campo da Administração, a pesquisa aplicada, enquanto que no campo da Engenharia de Produção, predomina a avaliação de resultados. Contudo, os temas de interesse identificados neste estudo são particularmente comuns nos periódicos analisados, revelando que a Gestão de Operações é efetivamente uma área com forte inserção tanto no campo científico da Administração quanto da Engenharia de Produção; Operations management has been characterized by a thematic overlap between the areas of management science and production engineering science. In this sense, the purpose of this article is to analyze themes and research practices adopted by researchers who published articles related to these two fields between the years 2010 and 2012. We analyzed 258 articles published during this period...

O ensino de administração da produção e operações na cidade de São Paulo: um estudo comparado de programas e livros didáticos utilizados nos cursos de graduação em administração de empresas. ; The education of production and operations management in the city of São Paulo: a comparative study of programs and didatic books used in the graduation courses in business administration.

Bido, Diogenes de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
O ensino de Administração da Produção e Operações (APO) foi investigado em quatro formas complementares: através da revisão da literatura; análise dos conteúdos dos livros didáticos; análise das questões do Exame Nacional de Cursos (Provão) e análise dos programas das disciplinas de APO dos cursos de graduação em Administração de Empresas da FEA-PUC-SP, FEA-USP e FGV-EAESP, que foram consideradas as principais escolas de Administração do município de São Paulo. Quanto aos conteúdos de APO, os resultados convergiram para uma lista de 25 tópicos principais que deveriam ser tratados tanto nos livros didáticos de APO, quanto nos cursos de graduação em Administração de Empresas. Através das respostas aos questionários enviados aos professores, bem como contatos telefônicos, por e-mail e in loco, foram obtidas informações que complementaram a análise do conteúdo de APO, mas também permitiram as seguintes comparações: as três escolas possuem de quatro a cindo disciplinas obrigatórias de APO, totalizando 230 horas no curso, que ainda conta com disciplinas optativas, sendo que a FEA-USP oferece apenas uma disciplina, enquanto a FEA-PUC-SP e a FGV-EAESP oferecem oito; Slack et al. (2002) é o livro mais recomendado para as disciplinas de Administração da Produção e operações...

Operações em serviços de resultados ulteriores: diretrizes gerenciais para um melhor desempenho.; Services of posterior outcomes operations: guidelines for better performance.

Torres Júnior, Noel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Esta tese aborda serviços cuja "matéria-prima" é o próprio cliente e que se diferenciam dos demais tipos de serviços por não apresentarem uma correspondência imediata entre produto e resultado. Ou seja, os resultados almejados - frutos de vários encontros entre o cliente e o seu fornecedor - ocorrem em um tempo posterior ao da ação efetuada. Em função dessas características e da ausência de uma terminologia própria, foram denominados de Serviços de Resultados Ulteriores (SRU). Considerando-se que os SRUs apresentam características específicas, que demandam práticas gerenciais diferenciadas, neste estudo procura-se compreender tal fenômeno sob o ponto de vista de gerenciamento de operações. Desse modo, o presente trabalho objetiva auxiliar as empresas de SRU - academias de ginástica, serviços sociais de inclusão no mundo do trabalho, cursos preparatórios para concursos, entre outros - a obterem um melhor desempenho. Para tanto, a pesquisa foi baseada na metodologia de estudo de múltiplos casos, e uma mostra de seis diferentes organizações pertencentes às categorias de serviços de massa ou lojas de serviços foi investigada. Os resultados da pesquisa de campo evidenciaram que estas empresas estruturaram um sistema de monitoramento e controle voltado para o relacionamento com os seus clientes...

Web-based decision support system for industrial operations management

Magalhães, Ricardo; Varela, Maria Leonilde Rocha; Silva, Sílvio Carmo
Fonte: Institutul de Cercetara-Dezvoltare Pentru Mecatronica si Tehnical Masurarii (INCDTM) Publicador: Institutul de Cercetara-Dezvoltare Pentru Mecatronica si Tehnical Masurarii (INCDTM)
Tipo: Pré-impressão
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
To maintain sustainability in today’s’ global economy industrial companies must have well managed systems and operations to keep up with competition. For this they can take advantage of using Web and Internet based technologies. Such can be achieved by accessing good management resources and methods through the Internet which otherwise would not be available and, at the same time, take advantageous of collaboration provided by networks of partners and users. Due to operations management complexity when a company does not have access to good algorithms it usually draws upon simple and empirical procedures whose quality of solutions provided tends to be poor. This is a situation that can be avoided if companies have easy access to good operations management algorithms or services. This can be possible because a pool of knowledge on industrial operations management, which has been developed by academia and industry over the years, can be made available, through the Internet, to a large community of users. This idea is explored towards development of a web-based system for Industrial Operation Management, based on a P2P network of operations management algorithms providers and users. Thus, the paper describes a web system for aiding the resolution of Operations Management problems through collaboration based on a network of distributed resources and users...

Industrial engineering and operations management – special issue; Industrijsko inženjerstvo i operacioni menadžment – posebno izdanje

Lima, Rui M.; Carvalho, Dinis; Vaccaro, Guilherme; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
This Special Issue of the InternationalJournal of Industrial Engineering and Management (IJIEM)features papers selected from the XVIII International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ICIEOM) This editorial paper introduces the special issue and summarizes 10 selected contributions that embrace researchers from Brazil, China, Colombia, Germany, and Portugal.; Ovo posebno izdanje Međunarodnog časopisa za industrijsko inženjerstvo i mendžment (IJIEM) sadrži radove izabrane sa XVIII Međunarodne konferencije o industrijskom inženjerstvu i operacionom menadžmentu (ICIEOM). Rad urednika predstavlja ovo specijalno izdanje i daje sažetak 10 selektovanih priloga koji uključuju istraživače iz Brazila, Kine, Kolumbije, Nemačke i Portugala.

Changing agendas for operations management

Starr,Martin K.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de São Carlos Publicador: Universidade Federal de São Carlos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Looking at past and present developments in the production and operations management (P/OM) field over time provides insight about where future directions may have us heading. Being in the field, whether academic or practitioner, or both, the sense of direction may seem less important than the ways in which one is involved. Cruise directors have been known to say, it is not where you are going; it is how you get there. In this brief analysis, goals and objectives are equivalent to destinations; alternatively, methods, plans, and agendas are the means of getting there.

Forecasting and Risk Analysis in Supply Chain Management; Confluence of Econometrics with Operations Management

Hilmola, Olli-Pekka; Graham, Donald; Granger, Clive W. J.; Datta, Shoumen
Fonte: MIT Engineering Systems Division Publicador: MIT Engineering Systems Division
Tipo: Parte de Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
Forecasting is an underestimated field of research in supply chain management. Recently advanced methods are coming into use. Initial results are encouraging, but often require changes in policies for collaboration and transparency. In this paper we explore advanced forecasting tools for decision support in supply chain scenarios and provide preliminary simulation results from their impact on demand amplification. It appears that advanced methods may be useful to predict oscillated demand but their performance is constrained by current structural and operating policies. Improvements to reduce demand amplification, for example, may decrease the risk of out of stock but increase operating cost or risk of excess inventory.; Application of econometric principles and techniques (VAR-MGARCH) to risk analytics and forecasting in operations management, healthcare, security and other verticals.; MIT Forum for Supply Chain Innovation

El modelo de rasch en dirección de operaciones; Rasch model in operations management

Sánchez Ruiz, Lidia; Blanco Rojo, Beatriz
Fonte: Universitat Politècnica de València Publicador: Universitat Politècnica de València
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
RESUMEN. Durante décadas, en el área de Dirección de Operaciones, se ha destacado la necesidad de un acercamiento entre el mundo académico y el profesional, reclamando la realización de estudios empíricos que aporten soluciones prácticas a los profesionales. De ahí que durante los últimos años se hayan producido dos fenómenos clave: la convergencia entre los temas objeto de investigación y los temas de interés para las empresas; y un aumento en el número de estudios empíricos realizados. Ahora bien, otro factor importantísimo a la hora de aportar conocimientos prácticos a la disciplina es la herramienta o metodología aplicada. Por ello, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas o la aplicación de otras ya existentes en otros campos es un tema interesante. Es en este punto donde adquiere importancia la Metodología de Rasch. Esta técnica ha sido tradicionalmente utilizada en disciplinas tales como la Psicología o la Medicina. Sin embargo, ya hace algunos años que ha comenzado a utilizarse en otras áreas de conocimiento, entre ellas, el área de Administración y Dirección de Empresas. No obstante, su aplicación al campo concreto de Operaciones es escasa y, por ello, las posibilidades de desarrollo e investigaciones futuras son numerosas. La Metodología de Rasch...

Environmental operations strategies: European approaches and research challenges

Álvarez Gil, María José; Rivera Camino, Jaime
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Since the environment has very recently emerged as a strategic issue, work has only begun to investigate the conceptual linkages between strategic management and the environment. A thoroughly revision of both academic and professional literature evidences that such scarcity of research doubles, or even trebles, when the scenery of the European Operations Management Strategies is considered. The main objective of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the impact of the design of the environmental management strategy on the formulation of the Operations Strategy and its implementation. Since the majority of the literature has neglected to focus the European approaches to such formulation, we will try to overcome this gap by analysing a sample of 2882 European companies.

An Agenda for Sustainable Operations and Supply Chain Management Research

Miemczyk, Joe
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key challenges to sustainable operationsand supply chain management and provide future research directions. While sustainabilityand sustainable development is defined in many ways, the principles of integrating economic,environmental and social imperatives are well understood. Despite an expanding understandingof the implications of sustainability, research to date, as well as practical implementation, reveals many areas for further development. Sustainability is a particularly difficult subject to researchwhich raises many trade-off situations. As examples, there are conflicts between differentenvironmental factors (energy and waste) when taking a life cycle perspective and burgeoninginstitutional constraints limit the economic degrees of freedom (limiting opportunities for closedloop solutions). Drawing on past experiences, recent research and current practices, this article provides a framework for future research in sustainable operations and supply chain management.

Sustainability: An Introduction View from ICIEOM

De Lima, Rui Manuel de Sá Pereira; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Vaccaro, Guilherme; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This Special Issue of the Brazilian Journal of Operations and Production Management (BJOPM)features four papers selected from the XVIII International Conference on Industrial Engineeringand Operations Management (ICIEOM), which conference theme was “Sustainability”, andtwo invited papers based on keynote speeches regarding Sustainability and its association toIndustrial Engineering fields (one from ICIEOM and the other from the ENEGEP conference).This editorial paper evaluates and summarizes these selected contributions as well as introducesthe term sustainability.

Challenges for Managing Complexity in Industrial and Operations Management – A point of view from ICIEOM 2013

Klingebiel, Katja; Leiras, Adriana; Másculo, Francisco Soares
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
This Special Issue of the Brazilian Journal of Operations and Production Management (BJO&PM) presents eight papers selected from the XIXInternational Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ICIEOM 2013). The conference was held under the theme “Managing Complexity: Challenges for Industrial and Operations Management”. This introduction paper evaluates and summarizes the selected contributions characterizing SCM with a leading role in complexity management. The key topics emphasized in the eight papers of this special issue are supply chain performance management, non-profit organizations management, customer relationship management, business-to-consumer relationship, performance evaluation, disruptions, internationalization, geographical relocation, transparency, sustainable transportation, quality, and reliability.

Crossing borders: trends in Operations and Global Supply Chain Management

Corrêa, Henrique
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.17%
The management of global supply chains and the impact of 3BL do not represent a rupture but rather another stage of evolution in the expansion of scope that the area of operations management has been experiencing since the beginning of the 20th Century. It is a fact, however, that the current stage of evolution is occurring in a more accelerated rate than in previous stages and it is also a fact that the levels of volatility, complexity and social pressure on supply chains today and in the future do not have historical precedence. This is one of the reasons why logistics and supply chains will continue to be important factors of differentiation in the market for a long time in the future. But what are the future tendencies for the management of supply chains and how should managers prepare themselves for these tendencies? The goal of this article is to briefly revisit the history of the field and then explore these questions.

A Supply Chain Management view from ICPR – Innovation in Product and Production

Dieter Spath, Dieter Spath; Klingebiel, Katja; Da Costa, Sergio E. Gouvea; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
This Special Issue of the Brazilian Journal of Operations and Production Management (BJOPM) features six papers selected from the supply chain management (SCM) track of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR), which conference theme was “Innovation in Product and Production”. This introduction paper evaluates and summarizes the selected contributions characterizing SCM with a leading role in innovation management. The research presented here focuses on supply chain design and cultural influences on supply chain performance, bridges the gap between basic research and industrial application and provides approaches to effectively design supply networks and processes. Some of the dominate key topics emphasized in the six papers contained in this special issue are countertrade in supply chains, types of contracts in supply chains, value stream mapping (VSM), process management, supply chain performance measurement, order penetration points and inventory policies for distribution systems. The main research tools used are analytical hierarchy process (AHP), simulation, SCM logistic scorecard and Markov chains.

Industrial Engineering, Operations Management and Sustainability: Overview

Machado, Carla Gonçalves; Da Costa, Sérgio Eduardo Gouvea; Manfrim, Pamela Mocelin; De Lima, Edson Pinheiro
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.17%
the field of Industrial Engineering (IE), particularly those related to Operations Management (OM), with special regard to sustainability. Bibliometric analyses were performed by using information collected from 495 selected papers in nine OM-related international databases, based on the keywords “Sustainability” and “Operations Management”. Results pointed out to the evolution of the subject over the past two decades, the relationship among authors in their network of research, its effect on productivity and the related research topics. The results also indicated the main developing issues, authors, institutions and journals most devoted to the subject and the contribution of the study by establishing OM as a discipline in Industrial Engineering. Finally, the current paper will offer an overview of the trends for further research on sustainability into the OM field.

An essay on the dimension and components of customisation in service operations management

Álvarez Gil, María José; Arias-Aranda, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
There is a scarcity of guidelines that trigger the adoption of Customisation, a concept frequently brought up in Service-related Operations management. This paper suggests a comprehensive framework of the Customisation process and its implications for Service Operations Management. We identify the two most outstanding approaches of Customisation, based upon the concepts of Customers'needings and Wishes. Main differences between them and their respective effects on the design of the Service Operations Strategy are discussed. Second, we identify the four dimensions (Time, Space, Volume and Variety) which explain the two mentioned approaches and that may address the process of implementation of the Operations Strategy.

An analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training using supply chain and operations management

Alfonso, Steven; Oh, Dingjin; Younger, Larry M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 84 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Enlisted Entry-Level Training (EELT) pipeline is a complex network that is of vital importance to the U.S. Marine Corps' ability to maintain a balanced force and serve as the nation's force in readiness. This report provides an all-inclusive description of the EELT pipeline by identifying the fundamental steps in the supply chain, analyzing the supply chain's critical characteristics, and providing informed recommendations related to operations and supply chain management in an effort to help synchronize the flow of human inventory through the EELT network. The report recommends six initiatives that have the potential to reduce queuing, minimize P2T2, and decrease total costs. The first proposed recommendation is to level load trainees to the training pipeline throughout the year; second, develop a pull inventory system by eliminating PEF code assignments and postponing trainee classification; third, decrease capacity at the recruit depots and increase capacity at Marine Combat Training schools; fourth, maximize training capacity during the ONDJ trimester by employing all available resources and reducing lost time during the year-end holiday break; fifth...

Towards a new analytical framework for the study of production and operations management

Fleury, Afonso Carlos Correa; Fleury, Maria Tereza Leme
Fonte: European Operations Management Association; Glasgow, UK Publicador: European Operations Management Association; Glasgow, UK
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The purpose of this paper is the presentation of a new framework for an improved understanding of the actual and future challenges of Production and Operations Management. It focuses on the restructuring of organizational networks more than in the internal functioning of individual enterprises. It proposes an analytical framework built around six basic types of firms and their mutual relationships, which would be in the New Era. Methodologically speaking, this paper represents the consolidation of a research work initiated in the early 1990s and involved four large projects on: international operations, Telecommunications, Automobile and Textile-Apparel industries, as well as unpublished outcomes related to consulting activities

Absorptive capacity: Enhancing the assimilation of time-based manufacturing practices

Tu, Qiang; Vonderembse, Mark; Ragu-Nathan, T.S.; Sharkey, Thomas
Fonte: Journal of operations management Publicador: Journal of operations management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
Increasingly, manufacturers are making radical changes in management practices and investing heavily in advanced technologies as they attempt to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Organizations seeking to implement these changes should have an internal environment that emphasizes knowledge assimilation and sharing and creates continuous learning capability, i.e., absorptive capacity. This study reviews the construct of absorptive capacity, develops a valid and reliable instrument to measure it, and examines its impact on the organization's ability to assimilate innovative manufacturing technology and management practice. To illustrate the links, this study tests the relationships among absorptive capacity, time-based manufacturing practices, and value to customer. Structural equation modeling, applied to a relatively large sample (n = 303), indicates strong, positive, and direct relationships between absorptive capacity and time-based manufacturing practices, and between time-based manufacturing practices and value to customer. The managerial implications of these empirical findings are also discussed.; September 2006, Journal of operations management article. Please see www.ScienceDirect.com for the complete article.

Mapeamento da Temáticas de Gestão de Operações: Uma Análise Baseada na Oferta de Espaço Editorial pela Revistas e Congressos Científicos da Área; Thematic Mapping for Operations Management: An Analysis Based Editorial Space Offer By Scientific Magazines and Conferences in This Field; Mapeo de las Temáticas de Gestión de Operaciones: un Análisis Baseado en la Oferta de Espacio Editorial por las Revistas y Congresos Científicos del Área

Peinado, Jurandir; Graeml, Alexandre Reis Graeml
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
The practice of mapping themes according to recommended topics to potential authors by international refereed journals has been used in many research papers in Operations Management. Regardless of the methods and approaches used to classify the themes related to Operations Management, and the judgments that may be made based on them, it is important that such initiatives be carried out. Reflection about what is regarded as important by journals and conference proceedings in the area represent a first step for further reflection on what is really important for the Operations Management academic community. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify the themes that are valued in Operations Management in the context of Business Administration, based on the availability of editorial space in the main national and international academic journals and conference proceedings. The resulting mapping may be useful for understanding the most valued themes by editors and scientific committees and for monitoring the mainstream of studies on Operations Management in Brazil and in the world.; A prática de mapear os temas abordados com base nos tópicos recomendados aos autores por periódicos de referência internacional vem sendo utilizada em diversas pesquisas sobre Gestão de Operações. Independentemente dos métodos e abordagens adotados para classificar as temáticas relacionadas à Gestão de Operações...