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Teste tuberculínico: pesquisa operacional no Mato Grosso do Sul; Tuberculin skin test: operational research in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

OLIVEIRA, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de; RUFFINO-NETTO, Antônio; PANIAGO, Anamaria Mello Miranda; OLIVEIRA, Olcinei Alves de; MARQUES, Marli; CUNHA, Rivaldo Venâncio da; ANDREOTTI, Renato
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
OBJETIVO: Investigar a operacionalização da utilização do teste tuberculínico (TT) em programas de controle de tuberculose e em serviços de assistência especializada do Programa Nacional de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/AIDS e Hepatites Virais em municípios prioritários para o controle da tuberculose no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo, transversal, do tipo inquérito. A formação profissional dos responsáveis pela realização do TT, existência de treinamentos, período de realização dos TTs, conduta em caso de perda de leitura, insumos disponíveis e sua conservação foram levantados por meio de entrevistas e visitas técnicas. O número de inquéritos em populações vulneráveis, número de TTs realizados e número de pacientes em tratamento de tuberculose latente entre 2008 e 2009 foram também levantados. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 12 gestores de seis municípios. Alguns programas/serviços não realizavam o TT. A equipe de enfermagem realizava os TTs, não havia leitores especialistas, e treinamentos eram raros. A conservação dos frascos de PPD RT23 (5 mL) era adequada. Frequentemente utilizava-se a seringa de insulina. A realização de TT ocorria no horário comercial...

Perspectivas históricas da pesquisa operacional

Chaves, Viviane Hengler Corrêa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 117 f. : il.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Pós-graduação em Educação Matemática - IGCE; A história da Pesquisa Operacional se insere na história dos grandes acontecimentos tecnológicos e científicos do século XX e fazer uma reconstituição histórica do seu surgimento e evolução é uma maneira de entender, além do desenvolvimento da matemática aplicada, a mobilização da ciência durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e os contextos social e político que a originaram. Outra vertente dessa história é sua influência no surgimento de outras ciências e aplicações, cujos desdobramentos no período pós-guerra contribuíram para o aumento da racionalização da sociedade moderna. O aperfeiçoamento das técnicas da Pesquisa Operacional foi um fator determinante para o seu sucesso, sendo a Programação Linear uma das mais importantes. São apresentados os seus conceitos básicos e desenvolvidas as principais ideias do algoritmo Simplex para um caso extremamente simplificado. Outra técnica considerada e apresentada de forma bastante elementar é a Teoria dos Jogos. Não é o objetivo da pesquisa detalhar suas técnicas, mas sim entender suas origens que conduzem admiravelmente as histórias de seus grandes idealizadores Dantzig, Kantorovich, John von Neumann e Morgenstern. Os aspectos metodológicos e filosóficos da Pesquisa Operacional reverenciaram pensadores como John Dewey...

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

Royston, Geoff
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

Improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB among people living with HIV: the role of operational research

Sculier, Delphine; Getahun, Haileyesus; Lienhardt, Christian
Fonte: The International AIDS Society Publicador: The International AIDS Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Operational research is necessary to improve the access to and delivery of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions for people living with HIV. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and reports from recent expert consultations and research-related meetings organized by the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership to identify a TB/HIV operational research agenda. We present critical operational research questions in a series of key areas: optimizing TB prevention by enhancing the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy and the implementation of infection control measures; assessing the effectiveness of existing diagnostic tools and scaling up new technologies; improving service delivery models; and reducing risk factors for mortality among TB patients living with HIV. We discuss the potential impact that addressing the operational research questions may have on improving programmes’ performance, assessing new strategies or interventions for TB control, or informing global or national policy formulation. Financial resources to implement these operational research questions should be mobilized from existing and new funding mechanisms. National TB and HIV/AIDS programmes should develop their operational research agendas based on these questions...

The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes

Ramsay, A.; Harries, A. D.; Zachariah, R.; Bissell, K.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Edginton, M.; Enarson, D. A.; Satyanarayana, S.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Tweya, H.; Reid, A. J.; Van den Bergh, R.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Manzi, M.; Khogali, M.; Kizito, W.; Ali,
Fonte: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Publicador: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally...

Sponsored Programs Annual Report / Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences, Fiscal Year 2009.

Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School, Research and Sponsored Programs Office Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School, Research and Sponsored Programs Office
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences (GSOIS) includes graduate resident programs consisting of sixteen technical curricula and awards masters of science and doctoral degrees in four academic departments. This annual report provides a brief look at the Sponsored Program in The Graduate School of Operational covering FY2009 ; Sponsored Program Expenditures by type of activity ; by Sponsor ; and by Department. The four departments reviewed are: Computer Science (CS) ; Defense Analysis (DA) ; Information Sciences (IS) ; and Operations Research (OR)

Assessment of the operational requirements for the transformable craft in Seabasing Missions

Scheibe, Sebastian
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 97 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In 2005, the Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) #05-020 called for research and development efforts to design the Transformable Craft (T-Craft), a transport craft that will create a "game-changing" capability for the U.S. Navy's Seabasing concept. The TCraft is intended to advance the concepts of Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS) and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM). In this thesis, we examine various T-Craft operational and performance requirements using discrete event simulation modeling, statistical design of experiments, and robust analysis techniques. The model is used to investigate the rates at which the T-Craft/Sea base system, as specified in BAA #05-020, can deliver materiel to shore. We use robust analysis to evaluate the impact of both operational and performance design choices for the T-Craft across a spectrum of conflict conditions. The result is a set of design and policy recommendations that are targeted toward achieving mission success in a broad variety of used scenarios.; Outstanding Thesis; German Army author

Upgradable operational availability forecasting tool for the U.S. Navy P-3 replacement aircraft

Margolis, Michael C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 110 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The P-3 Orion maritime aircraft has been the U.S. Navy's primary maritime patrol aircraft since its fleet introduction in 1962. Naval Aviation Systems Command (NAVAIR) has determined that the P-3 fleet has sufficiently aged to warrant a replacement. The replacement aircraft is currently undergoing the conceptual phase of development and it is during this period that NAVAIR is interested in evaluating the trade-off between operational availability and the associated cost to achieve this operational availability. This thesis developed a simulation tool that was used to investigate relationships that affect cost and operational availability of the new (notional) aircraft on a deployment. The simulation tool was exercised for select scenarios in order to gain insights into the value of investing funds in additional aircraft versus the value of investing funds in increased component reliability. The simulation was developed to be very flexible and extensible, enhancing its value for future analyses. Required data inputs into the simulation tool are formatted utilizing a new technology called Extensible Markup Language (XML) which facilitates use of the data in nearly all computer software packages. The model is robust in nature and can be applied to a wide variety of aircraft.; Captain...

The Failures and Promises of an Operational Service-Oriented Architecture: The ROI of Operational Effectiveness in Addition to Acquisition Efficiency at the Navy's Op Level of War

Suttie, Richard; Potter, Nicholas
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); This paper and presentation will share four years of research by the Naval War College into the operational requirements for a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for the Navy''s operational level of war applied at the Navy''s Maritime Operations Centers (MOCs). It will also argue that the cost-benefit analysis for SOA must be the improved operational effectiveness of the organization, not just the lower costs of data management and reduced redundancies of legacy systems. It will share a model for such an evaluation, and a model for proper protocols and data management for implementation. This paper argues that the proper cost-benefit analysis of service-oriented architecture is not possible without an operational integrated architecture that explicitly captures the role-based decision making protocols mapped to the core operational and enterprise-wide processes necessary to improve operational effectiveness. This paper and presentation will share this research and its direct application to the design and implementation of SOA for the Navy''s Operational Level of War.; Acquisition Research Program

A aplicação de modelos matemáticos em situações-problema empresariais, com uso do software LINDO

Rehfeldt, Márcia Jussara Hepp
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Esta tese tem por objetivo mostrar a possibilidade de observação da existência da aprendizagem significativa a partir do uso de modelos matemáticos quando os alunos do curso de administração equacionam situações-problema empresariais com o auxílio do software LINDO. A pesquisa foi realizada com discentes do Centro Universitário UNIVATES, situado em Lajeado, Rio Grande do Sul, quando estes frequentaram a disciplina Pesquisa Operacional. Os fundamentos teóricos estão embasados na teoria da aprendizagem significativa de Ausubel (1968, 2003), na pesquisa operacional e suas ferramentas de resolução, principalmente o software LINDO, bem como na modelagem matemática. Metodologicamente, foram aplicados instrumentos de avaliação de subsunçores relacionados à capacidade de modelagem de problemas de programação linear. Face à ausência de alguns subsunçores, foram utilizados organizadores avançados que serviram como mecanismos pedagógicos para estabelecer relações entre aquilo que os alunos já sabiam e o que deveriam saber. Posteriormente, cada aluno desenvolveu, no mínimo, dois modelos matemáticos e dois mapas conceituais, sendo os primeiros no início da pesquisa e outros ao final. Como resultado, percebeu-se que o ambiente de modelagem matemática sugerido por Barbosa (2006) favoreceu a observação de aprendizagem significativa (AUSUBEL...

Operational research on malaria control and elimination: a review of projects published between 2008 and 2013

Zhou, Shui-sen; Rietveld, Aafje EC; Velarde-Rodriguez, Mar; Ramsay, Andrew R; Zhang, Shao-sen; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Cibulskis, Richard E
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
A literature review for operational research on malaria control and elimination was conducted using the term 'malaria' and the definition of operational research (OR). A total of 15 886 articles related to malaria were searched between January 2008 and June 2013. Of these, 582 (3.7%) met the definition of operational research. These OR projects had been carried out in 83 different countries. Most OR studies (77%) were implemented in Africa south of the Sahara. Only 5 (1%) of the OR studies were implemented in countries in the pre-elimination or elimination phase. The vast majority of OR projects (92%) were led by international or local research institutions, while projects led by National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) accounted for 7.8%. With regards to the topic under investigation, the largest percentage of papers was related to vector control (25%), followed by epidemiology/transmission (16.5%) and treatment (16.3%). Only 19 (3.8%) of the OR projects were related to malaria surveillance. Strengthening the capacity of NMCPs to conduct operational research and publish its findings, and improving linkages between NMCPs and research institutes may aid progress towards malaria elimination and eventual eradication world-wide.

Operational research in primary health care planning: a theoretical model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of staff and facilities

Kemball-Cook, D.; Vaughan, J. P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
This report outlines a basic operational research model for estimating the coverage achieved by different distributions of primary health care staff and facilities, using antenatal home visiting as an illustrative example. Coverage is estimated in terms of the average number of patient contacts achieved per annum. The model takes into account such features as number of facilities and health workers per 10 000 population, the radius of the health facility area, the overall population density in the region, the number of working days in the year, and the health worker's travelling time and work rate.

The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

Emerson, Paul M.; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers...

Using Operational Research for Supply Chain Planning in the Forest Products Industry

D'Amours, Sophie; Ronnqvist, Mikael; Weintraub Pohorille, Andrés Félix
Fonte: INFOR, UNIV TORONTO PRESS, JOURNALS Publicador: INFOR, UNIV TORONTO PRESS, JOURNALS
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Over the years, Operational Research (OR) has been used extensively to support the forest products industry and public forestry organizations (e.g., governments, environmental protection groups) in their respective planning activities concerning the flow of wood fiber from the forest to the customer. The applications deal with a wide range of problems, ranging from long-term strategic problems related to forest management or company development to very short-term operational problems, such as planning for real-time log/chip transportation or cutting. This paper presents an overview of the different planning problems and reviews the past contributions in the field of forestry, with a focus on applications and problem descriptions. In the context of the 50th anniversary of the Canadian Operational Research Society, this paper also recognizes the contributions of many Canadian researchers to the field of forestry management.

Statistics of statisticians: Critical mass of statistics and operational research groups in the UK

Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the quality of statistics and operational research groups and the quantity researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 $\pm$ 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is about twice this value.

Operational Research to Improve HIV Prevention in the United States

Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 15/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities.

Inequity-averse decisions in operational research

Karsu, Ozlem
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
This thesis is on inequity-averse decisions in operational research, and draws on concepts from economics and operational research such as multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) and mathematical modelling. The main focus of the study is developing systematic methods and modelling to help decision makers (DMs) in situations where equity concerns are important. We draw on insights from the economics literature and base our methods on some of the widely accepted principles in this area. We discuss two equity related concerns, namely equitability and balance, which are distinguished based on whether anonymity holds or not. We review applications involving these concerns and discuss alternative ways to incorporate such concerns into operational research (OR) models. We point out some future research directions especially in using MCDM concepts in this context. Specifically, we observe that research is needed to design interactive decision support systems. Motivated by this observation, we study an MCDM approach to equitability. Our interactive approach uses holistic judgements of the DM to refine the ranking of an explicitly given (discrete) set of alternatives. The DM is assumed to have a rational preference relation with two additional equity-related axioms...

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

Royston,Geoff
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: using operational research for policy, planning and implementation

Emerson,Paul M; Burton,Matthew; Solomon,Anthony W; Bailey,Robin; Mabey,David
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers...

The research agenda for improving health policy, systems performance, and service delivery for tuberculosis control: a WHO perspective

Nunn,Paul; Harries,Anthony; Godfrey-Faussett,Peter; Gupta,Raj; Maher,Dermot; Raviglione,Mario
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The development of WHO's DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in 1995 led to the expansion, adaptation and improvement of operational research in this area. From being a patchwork of small-scale studies concerned with aspects of service delivery, TB operational research shifted to larger-scale, often multicountry projects that were also concerned with health policy and the needs of health systems. The results are now being put into practice by national TB control programmes. In 1998 an ad hoc committee identified the chief factors inhibiting the expansion of DOTS: lack of political will and commitment, poor financial support for TB control, poor organization and management of health services, inadequate human resources, irregular drug supplies, the HIV epidemic, and the rise of multidrug resistance. An analysis of current operational research on TB is presented on the basis of these constraints, and examples of successful projects are outlined in the article. We discuss the prerequisites for success, the shortcomings of this WHO- supported programme, and future challenges and needs.