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Determinação da dose de radiação ionizante para conservação de três cultivares híbridos de cebola (Allium cepa L.); Ascertainment of ionizing radiation dose to the conservation of three hybrid onions cultivars (Allium cepa L.)

Souza, Mirela Andressa Maluf
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2014 PT
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A cebola é a terceira hortaliça mais produzida do mundo, sendo que o Brasil é o oitavo produtor mundial, participando com 2% dessa produção e 36% da produção sul-americana. O Brasil é um dos maiores consumidores de cebola do mundo, sendo a sua maior parte comercializada in natura. A cebola, como as demais hortaliças, é um produto altamente perecível, o que determina importantes perdas pós-colheitas se não forem observadas as devidas técnicas de produção. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a dose de radiação gama específica para os cultivares híbridos Aguarius, Goiana e Optima, baseada na conservação da cebola por um período de armazenamento, e determinar os efeitos da radiação gama sobre as características físico-químicas. Após a irradiação das cebolas com doses de 40, 60, 80 e 100 Gy, as cebolas foram mantidas a temperatura e umidade relativa do ar ambiente. As seguintes análises foram realizadas mensalmente: perda de massa fresca, por um período de 90 dias de armazenamento, brotamento externo e putrefação, coloração interna e teor de sólidos solúveis por um período de 150 dias e análises sensoriais (Aparência Geral Externa, Firmeza, Aparência Geral Interna, Odor e Brilho), por um período de 120 dias. Tendo em vista os resultados obtidos foi possível verificar que o processo de irradiação inibiu o brotamento e manteve as características sensoriais e físico-químicas...

Caracterização química, física e de compostos funcionais em cebolas frescas e minimamente processadas; Chemical, physical and functional compound characterization in both fresh and minimally processed onions

Muniz, Lidiane Batista
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, 2007.; A cebola é a hortaliça condimentar mais difundida no mundo, e o seu consumo na forma fresca e minimamente processada vem aumentando consideravelmente. Contém compostos organosulfurados e fenólicos, que são responsáveis pelo sabor e aroma característico e provável ação antioxidante. Esse estudo teve como objetivo determinar a caracterização química e física de cebolas frescas e minimamente processadas armazenadas a 5 oC. Bulbos das cultivares CNPH 6400 e Óptima provenientes dos campos de produção experimental da Embrapa Hortaliças, em Brasília-DF, foram selecionados, classificados e utilizados em dois experimentos distintos. No primeiro, os bulbos foram armazenados na forma fresca por 60 dias a 5 oC. A cada 10 dias os bulbos foram analisados para perda de massa fresca, firmeza, cor, sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável total (ATT), relação SS/ATT, pungência, fenólicos totais, quercetina e atividade antioxidante. Já no segundo, os bulbos foram minimamente processados logo após a cura e após 60 dias de armazenamento. Em ambos os casos o material processado foi armazenado a 5 ºC por 15 dias. A cada 3 dias amostras foram retiradas e analisadas para SS...

Effect of nitrogen source on soil nitrate concentration and yield, and quality of intermediate-day onions

Machado, Rui; Campos, Tiago
Fonte: NutriHORT Publicador: NutriHORT
Tipo: Aula
POR
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The effect of nitrogen source application, broadcast onto the planting bed during the growing phase, on soil nitrate concentration, soil pH, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onions was evaluated in a field experiment in southern Portugal. In addition, the soil potential for providing nitrate-N to the crop along the growing season was also monitored. The field trial consisted of six treatments of different combinations of ammonium nitrate (17% NH4-N + 17% NO3-N) (AN) and ammonium sulphate (20.5 % NH4-N and 60% SO3) (AS) as fertilizers. Soil NO3-N and soil pH were measured at 0, 47, 76, 95, and 124 days after transplanting (DAT). Nitrogen source did not significantly affect the soil nitrate concentration, commercial yield, bulb dry weight, soluble solids or pH. AS-AS application as compared with AN-AN led to a significantly decrease in soil pH. The nitrate release through the mineralization of organic matter began in the first 47 DAT and occurred throughout the growing season. At 0 to 10 cm soil depth from 0 to 47 DAT, nitrate concentration increased by 14.8 mg kg-1. A significant amount of N uptake was provided by the soil, achieving a high commercial yield of 7.52 kg m-2 in the treatment without nitrogen application and 9.05 kg m-2 where N (45kg N/ha) was applied.

Effect of nitrogen source on soil nitrate concentration and yield, and quality of intermediate-day onions

Machado, RMA; Campos, Tiago
Fonte: Nutriort Publicador: Nutriort
Tipo: Aula
POR
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Abstract The effect of nitrogen source application, broadcast onto the planting bed during the growing phase, on soil nitrate concentration, soil pH, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onions was evaluated in a field experiment in southern Portugal. In addition, the soil potential for providing nitrate-N to the crop along the growing season was also monitored. The field trial consisted of six treatments of different combinations of ammonium nitrate (17% NH4-N + 17% NO3-N) (AN) and ammonium sulphate (20.5 % NH4-N and 60% SO3) (AS) as fertilizers. Soil NO3-N and soil pH were measured at 0, 47, 76, 95, and 124 days after transplanting (DAT). Nitrogen source did not significantly affect the soil nitrate concentration, commercial yield, bulb dry weight, soluble solids or pH. AS-AS application as compared with AN-AN led to a significantly decrease in soil pH. The nitrate release through the mineralization of organic matter began in the first 47 DAT and occurred throughout the growing season. At 0 to 10 cm soil depth from 0 to 47 DAT, nitrate concentration increased by 14.8 mg kg-1. A significant amount of N uptake was provided by the soil, achieving a high commercial yield of 7.52 kg m-2 in the treatment without nitrogen application and 9.05 kg m-2 where N (45kg N/ha) was applied

Texture of onions before and after freeze-drying.

Guiné, Raquel; Barroca, Maria João
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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Dehydrated onion is widely used as flavor additive in the manufacture of processed foods and many other convenience foods. However, when drying shelf-stable vegetables it is absolutely essential to preserve their desired quality attributes. In the present work fresh and freeze-dried onions were analysed in terms of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) to evaluate in what extent this operation influences the texture attributes of onions. From the analysis made to the onions, it was observed that the fresh onion had 90.02 ( ± 1.20) % moisture (wet basis) and the freeze-drying operation reduced the moisture content to 5.19 ( ± 0.38) % (w.b.). The results shows that the hardness of the fresh onion is very much higher than that of the freeze- dried, being the average value for hardness of the fresh onion 12.87 ( ± 2.24) N and that for the freeze- dried 3.50 ( ± 0.70) N. The cohesiveness increases slightly with drying, from an average of 0.41 ( ± 0.03) in the fresh form to 0.65 ( ± 0.07) in the freeze-dried product. The values for springiness, 78.72 ( ± 13.78) % for the fresh and 74.64 ( ± 4.51) % for the dried onion, are very similar, indicating that this drying treatment did not affect this property. In the fresh state...

Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1981 EN
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The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. cepacia and B. polymyxa and lyase and pectinesterase activities for all of the isolates, usually at higher levels of activity than those of the pectin medium culture filtrates. In both culture media, Vibrio sp. showed the highest lyase and pectinesterase activities. In the viscometric test, all of the isolates achieved at least a 50% decrease in viscosity for lyase enzyme, with M. epidermidis and Vibrio sp. recording viscosity decreases as high as 83%. The ability to cause soft rot in onion bulbs was demonstrated by P. cepacia and Xanthomonas sp. Benzoic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml caused total suppression of enzyme production, whereas sodium benzoate at this concentration reduced pectinesterase production by 71% and lyase production by 72%. The possible use of these preservatives in the control of soft rot in onions is noted.

Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations.

Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 EN
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1. Claims for beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, fibrinolytic activity, and platelet aggregation are attributed both to fresh garlic and onions (or their extracts) and to commercially available preparations. 2. Regarding fresh garlic, the claims have been confirmed, but so far only at very high dosages. 3. For onions and commercially available supplements contradictory results have been reported. 4. All published trials showed severe methodological shortcomings. Some trials were not randomized and/or not blinded whilst this was possible, and in only one of every three studies more than 25 patients participated in each treatment group. In no trial was prognostic comparability of the treatment and the control groups ascertained. At the moment there is inadequate scientific justification for garlic supplementation.

Effect of Onions on Blood Fibrinolytic Activity

Menon, I. Sudhakaran; Kendal, R. Y.; Dewar, H. A.; Newell, D. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/08/1968 EN
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Twenty-two convalescent patients at rest were given a fat-enriched breakfast with and without the addition of 60 g. of fried or boiled onions. Both forms of onions were found to prevent the expected decrease in fibrinolytic activity, and indeed the latter was actually increased.

Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure To Inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Internalized within and Adhered to Preharvest Contaminated Green Onions

Neetoo, Hudaa; Lu, Yingjian; Wu, Changqing; Chen, Haiqiang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 EN
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Green onions grown in soil and hydroponic medium contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were found to take up the pathogens in their roots, bulbs, stems, and leaves. Pressure treatment at 400 to 500 MPa for 2 min at 20 to 40°C eliminated both pathogens that were internalized within green onions during plant growth.

Temperature-Dependent Survival of Hepatitis A Virus during Storage of Contaminated Onions

Sun, Y.; Laird, D. T.; Shieh, Y. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 EN
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Pre- or postharvest contamination of green onions by hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been linked to large numbers of food-borne illnesses. Understanding HAV survival in onions would assist in projecting the risk of the disease associated with their consumption. This study defined HAV inactivation rates in contaminated green onions contained in air-permeable, moisture-retaining high-density polyethylene packages that were stored at 3, 10, 14, 20, 21, 22, and 23°C. A protocol was established to recover HAV from whole green onions, with 31% as the average recovery by infectivity assay. Viruses in eluates were primarily analyzed by a 6-well plaque assay on FRhK-4 cells. Eight storage trials, including two trials at 3°C, were conducted, with 3 to 7 onion samples per sampling and 4 to 7 samplings per trial. Linear regression correlation (r2 = 0.80 to 0.98) was observed between HAV survival and storage time for each of the 8 trials, held at specific temperatures. Increases in the storage temperature resulted in greater HAV inactivation rates, e.g., a reduction of 0.033 log PFU/day at 3.4 ± 0.3°C versus 0.185 log PFU/day at 23.4 ± 0.7°C. Thus, decimal reduction time (D) values of 30, 14, 11, and 5 days, respectively, were obtained for HAV in onions stored at 3...

Radioprotective Effect of Alk(en)yl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

Chang, Hye-Sook; Endoh, Daiji; Ishida, Yushi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shuji; Hayashi, Masanobu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu
Fonte: The Scientific World Journal Publicador: The Scientific World Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2012 EN
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To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS) and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS) derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L.) by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/11/2012 EN
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2014 EN
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Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707...

Economics of Controlling Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Onions with Insecticides in South Texas

Edelson, J. V.; Cartwright, B.; Royer, Tom A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Onion thrips, Trips tabaci Lindeman, populations on onions, Allium cepa L., were managed using insecticides to achieve differential levels of infestations. Yields of onion bulbs from the plots were evaluated using regression analysis to determine impact of thrips feeding on bulb size. Results were used to quantify the economic impact of managing thrips with insecticides. Results indicate that in years with favorable weather for onion production, a grower will increase profits by controlling thrips populations. Additionally, results indicate that in years with unfavorable weather conditions for production of onions, the lack of thrips management may result in net losses to a grower.

Influence of Unharvested, Cull-pile, and Volunteer Onions on Populations of Onion Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)

Finch, S.; Eckenrode, C. J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Damaged bulbs left in the field following harvest were the major food source for overwintering populations of Delia antiqua (Meigen). Numbers of pupae overwintering in the field soil ranged from 0.06 million (boiler onions) to 0.67 million (bulb onions) per ha. Flies emerged from at least 95% of these pupae in the spring. Approximately 400 flies (about 0.1% of the total spring population) emerged from piles of onions culled from each ha of harvested crop. Unfavorable conditions within cull piles and the inability of larvae to establish on undamaged volunteer plants in the spring indicate that neither of these sites are important sources of D. antiqua infestations.

Colhedora beneficiadora de cebolas para a agricultura familiar: Projeto informacional e conceitual; Harvester-processed onions to the family farm: Informational and Conceptual Design

OLDONI, Andr??
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The onion (Allium cepa L.) is considered of great social and economic importance in Brazil, and 70% of its production comes from family farmers. The production of onions is a tradition passed from generation to generation among the farmers, using simple tools and machines for the implementation of the crop. The physical exertion demanded, especially in transplant and harvest stages, which are carried out entirely by hand, is quite large. Usually the manufacturers of agricultural machinery have no interest in this sector. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanized system for the purpose of harvesting and benefit onions adapted to needs of family farmers. The methodology used is based on a phase model which is divided into: informational design, conceptual design, preliminary design and detailed design, and performed this work is the first two. In the first phase, informational design, we identified the needs of clients according to the functions that develop within each phase of the life cycle of the product to establish the design specifications. In the conceptual design phase there was the scope of the problem, establishing the functional structures feasible to meet the design specifications. There were searches for solution principles...

Administrative instructions : fumigation of onions by methyl bromide as a condition of certification of onions moving by refrigerator car from the area listed in regulation 5 of quarantine no. 4g; Fumigation of onions by methyl bromide as a condition of certification of onions moving by refrigerator car

Strong, Lee A; United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Fonte: United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C ) Publicador: United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: [1] leaf : ; 27 cm.
Publicado em //[1938] ENGLISH
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(Additional Physical Form) Also available in electronic format.; Caption title.; "Approved July 14, 1938 ; effective July 19, 1938."; "Lee A. Strong, Chief, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine."

Chemistry of novel nanoscale carbon materials: Nanodiamond and carbon nano-onions

Liu, Yu
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
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Nanoscience is the area of science concerning materials on the level of nanometer scale. Currently much of the discussion of nanoscience is focused on carbon-based nanostructures. Tremendous studies have been carried out on fullerenes and carbon nanotubes in the past a couple of decade due to their unique chemical and physical properties. This thesis studies the chemistry of the other two novel nanostructures in the carbon family: nanodiamond and carbon nano-onions. Nanodiamond is relatively a new engineering material with particular applications for fabrication of wear-resistant surface coatings, lubricating films and prototypes field emission displays. These materials are also of interest for studies of chemical reactivity stemming from their nanoscale particle sizes. The surface fluorination of nanodiamond at various temperatures yields a fluoro-nanodiamond with up to 8.6 at. % fluorine content. The fluoro-nanodiamond was used as a precursor for preparation of the series of functionalized nanodiamonds by subsequent reactions with alkyllithium reagents, diamines, and amino acids. The fluoro-nanodiamond and all derivatives were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TG-MS, FTIR, XPS, and Raman measurements. In comparison with the pristine nanodiamond...

Inactivation of murine norovirus on green onions and in salsa by high pressure processing, and inactivation of Salmonella on blueberries by a novel ultraviolet light and washing process

Sido, Robert
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Chen, Haiqiang; Two projects are presented in this thesis. In the first project, high pressure processing was tested as a method for inactivation of a surrogate for human norovirus (murine norovirus) in green onions and salsa. Conditions for high pressure treatment, inactivation kinetics at 300 and 350 MPa, and persistence testing in salsa at as-received and acidified pH were tested. Over the range of 1-20??C, 1??C and addition of water to the treatment package was found to improve effectiveness. The most effective treatment for green onions resulted in elimination of the virus below the detection limit (>5.5 log reduction; 350 MPa, 3 min, 1??C). D-values calculated at 300 and 350 MPa (66 s and 36 s, respectively) indicate increasing barosensitivity at higher pressures. A 300-MPa treatment in salsa for 2 minutes resulted in a 2.2-log reduction that was not dependent on pH over the range 3.8-4.0; storage trials lasting 24 and 72 h resulted in ???0.5-log reductions, demonstrating that murine norovirus is insensitive to acidic pH both during pressure treatment and during storage. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of high pressure processing as a useful method for decontamination of green onions and salsa. In the second project...

Foodborne pathogenic decontamination and quality enhancement of fresh produce using pulsed light (PL) and sanitizer washing

Xu, Wenqing
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Wu, Changqing; Imported green onions have been associated with three large hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States. Contamination has been found on both domestic and imported green onions. Raspberries have been associated with outbreaks caused by C. cayetanensis , Calicivirus, hepatitis A and norovirus. C. cayetanensis , hepatitis A as well as norovirus contamination happened through a fecal-oral route which indicates that foodborne pathogens that share this transfer route, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. may also contaminate green onions or raspberries leading to outbreak. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential of using pulsed light (PL) technology alone or in combination with other hurdles to decontaminate green onions and raspberries from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and/or Salmonella spp. The first study on green onions was conducted to evaluate decontamination ofSalmonella Typhimurium using new formula sanitizer washing, PL, as well as synergy between the sanitizer wash and PL. The results showed that for spot inoculated green onions, 0.4 mg/mL thymol individually and the five new formula sanitizers all achieved higher log reduction of Salmonella (4.5-5.3 log 10 CFU/g reduction) than 200ppm chlorine washing. The 5 second dry PL (4.6 log 10 CFU/g) or 60 second wet PL treatment (3.6 log 10 CFU/g) was better or comparable to chlorine washing. For dip inoculated green onions...