GAMA, Paulo Diniz da; MACHADO, Luís dos Ramos; LIVRAMENTO, José Antonio; GOMES, Hélio Rodrigues; ADONI, Tarso; LINO, Angelina Maria Martins; MARCHIORI, Paulo Eurípedes; MORALES, Rogério de Rizo; LANA-PEIXOTO, Marco Aurélio; CALLEGARO, Dagoberto
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEUROPublicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
The frequency of oligoclonal bands (OCB) restricted to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) varies widely in different populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of these OCB in a group of MS patients in the city of São Paulo. Techniques used to detect OCB consisted of isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. Oligoclonal bands were found in 49 (54.4%) out of 90 patients with clinically definite MS; in (31.2%) of the 16 patients with clinically isolated syndrome; in 7 (17.9%) of 39 patients with inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (IDCNS), and in none of the individuals with no neurological condition (control group). The specificity of the method was 100% when compared to the control group and 82.1% when compared to the IDCNS group. These results suggest that the frequency of CSF OCB is much lower in Brazilian MS patients from São Paulo city than that reported in MS series from Caucasian populations.; A frequência da detecção de bandas oligoclonais (BOC) restritas ao líquido cerebrorraquidiano (LCR) em pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM) varia amplamente em diferentes populações. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência destas BOC em pacientes com EM em amostra de população da cidade de São Paulo. A técnica utilizada para a detecção das BOC foi a focalização isoelétrica...
Introdução: O diagnóstico da esclerose múltipla (EM) embora seja clínico, se completa com os resultados de imagem de ressonância magnética, somados ainda com a análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR), que se constituem em ferramentas indispensáveis. A presença das bandas oligoclonais (BOC) no LCR faz parte do estudo da EM, assim como auxilio no diagnóstico. Existem grandes variações quanto à frequência de BOC em pacientes com EM nas diferentes populações, desde 90% em países nórdicos europeus, até 30 a 60% no Japão, China, Índia e Líbano. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de estabelecer o valor da análise do LCR para o diagnóstico da EM em nossa população, com ênfase na pesquisa de BOC. O estudo também objetiva correlacionar os resultados destas análises com as características clínicas e demográficas da amostra selecionada. Casuística e Métodos: Foram estudados 145 pacientes selecionados do Centro de Referência de Doenças Desmielinizantes do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Universidade de São Paulo, no período de agosto de 2005 a janeiro de 2008. Foram registrados para o estudo os dados demográficos, clínicos e da evolução da doença. O diagnóstico da EM foi estabelecido segundo o painel internacional de McDonald...
Introdução: A frequência de detecção de bandas oligoclonais (BOC) em doentes com esclerose múltipla (EM) na cidade de São Paulo é significativamente mais baixa do que em outras cidades do Brasil e de outros países, principalmente da Europa e da América do Norte. Não se conhece o motivo pelo qual isso ocorre. Uma das hipóteses mais interessantes relacionada à imunopatogenia da EM é a chamada Hipótese Higiênica, que postula uma relação inversamente proporcional entre a prevalência de infecções por parasitas e a frequência da EM. Objetivo: verificar se há relação entre a ocorrência de anticorpos contra parasitas no soro sanguíneo e a detecção de BOC em pacientes diagnosticados com EM na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Foram estudados 164 pacientes do Ambulatório de Doenças Desmielinizantes da Divisão de Neurologia Clínica e da Divisão de Anestesia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo dos quais foram obtidas as amostras de LCR e de soro em que foi realizado este estudo. Esses pacientes foram separados em 4 grupos (EM, CIS, Grupo Controle com Pacientes de DNI e Grupo Controle com Pacientes sem Queixas Neurológicas) nos quais foram identificadas as presenças de BOC e de anticorpos parasitários. Para a detecção de anticorpos parasitários...
The demonstration of intrathecal IgG synthesis has been used as an important laboratory parameter to support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis(MS). The Committee for European Concerted Action for Multiple Sclerosis has recommended a protocol for the assessment of intrathecal IgG synthesis. We applied this methodology to determine the cerebrospinal (CSF) profile of 128 Brazilian patients with MS. We detected hypercytosis lower than 35 cells/mm3 in 97%, protein lower than 80mg/dl in 99%, normal blood-CSF barrier function in 76%, increased IgG local production around 53% and oligoclonal IgG bands by isoelectric focusing in 85% of the definite MS patients. The diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative analysis was lower than the qualitative. The detection of oligoclonal bands was especially important in the cases of normal quantitative assays of IgG. In addition, we found a lower frequency of inflammatory reaction in CSF in our MS cases, in comparison to some European studies.
We assessed the frequency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) restricted oligoclonal IgG bands (IgG-OCB) in Portuguese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its relationship with outcome. Paired CSF/serum samples of 406 patients with neurological disorders were submitted to isoelectric focusing with immunodetection of IgG. Ninety-two patients had definite MS; non-MS cases were assembled in groups inflammatory/infectious diseases (ID, n=141) and other/controls (OD, n=173). We found in the MS group: mean duration, 38.9 months; clinically isolated syndromes, 24%; relapsing/remitting course (RR), 65%; in RR patients the mean EDSS was 2.1 and the mean index of progression was 0.31. Positive patterns significantly predominated in MS (82.6%; ID, 40.4%; OD, 3.5%). The sensitivity and the specificity of positive IgG-OCB for MS diagnosis was 82.6% and 79.9%, respectively. The sole statistically significant difference in the MS group was the lower progression index observed in negative cases. We conclude that the frequency of positive IgG-OCB patterns in our MS patients fits most values reported in the literature, and that negative results indicate benign disease.
The frequency of oligoclonal bands (OCB) restricted to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) varies widely in different populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of these OCB in a group of MS patients in the city of São Paulo. Techniques used to detect OCB consisted of isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. Oligoclonal bands were found in 49 (54.4%) out of 90 patients with clinically definite MS; in (31.2%) of the 16 patients with clinically isolated syndrome; in 7 (17.9%) of 39 patients with inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (IDCNS), and in none of the individuals with no neurological condition (control group). The specificity of the method was 100% when compared to the control group and 82.1% when compared to the IDCNS group. These results suggest that the frequency of CSF OCB is much lower in Brazilian MS patients from São Paulo city than that reported in MS series from Caucasian populations.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB) at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter volume (WMV). RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6) compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6) in the negative ones (p=0.02). GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6) in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6) in negative ones (p=0.002). No differences in WMV (p=0.09) were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR) markers in early RRMS.
The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates an inverse relationship between the prevalence of parasitic infections and the frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: It was to study whether antibodies against parasites could be demonstrated more frequently in blood serum from MS patients with oligoclonal bands (OCB) than from MS patients without OCB. Methods: We studied serum samples from 164 patients who had previously been analyzed to investigate OCB. Parasitic antibodies were studied through unidimensional electrophoresis of proteins on polyacrylamide gel against Taenia antigens, searching for antiparasitic specific low molecular weight antibodies and also for antiparasitic nonspecific high molecular weight antibodies. Results: Two of the 103 patients with no evidence of OCB had antibodies of low molecular weight and 59 of them had antibodies of high molecular weight. Of the 61 patients with evidence of OCB, one showed antibodies of low molecular weight and 16 showed antibodies of high molecular weight. Conclusion: Antiparasitic antibodies are detected with similar frequency in MS patients with OCB and in MS patients without OCB.
We analyzed the genetic recombination pattern of the T-cell receptor beta-chain gene (TCR-beta) in order to identify clonal expansion of T-lymphocytes in 17 human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-positive healthy carriers, 7 of them with abnormal features in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of T-cells was detected in 5 of 7 HTLV-I-positive patients with abnormal lymphocytes and unconfirmed diagnosis by using PCR amplification of segments of TCR-beta gene, in a set of reactions that target 102 different variable (V) segments, covering all members of the 24 V families available in the gene bank, including the more recently identified segments of the Vbeta-5 and Vbeta-8 family and the two diversity beta segments. Southern blots, the gold standard method to detect T-lymphocyte clonality, were negative for all of these 7 patients, what highlights the low sensitivity of this method that requires a large amount of very high quality DNA. To evaluate the performance of PCR in the detection of clonality we also analyzed 18 leukemia patients, all of whom tested positive. Clonal expansion was not detected in any of the negative controls or healthy carriers without abnormal lymphocytes. In conclusion, PCR amplification of segments of rearranged TCR-beta is reliable and highly suitable for the detection of small populations of clonal T-cells in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers who present abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes providing an additional instrument for following up these patients with potentially higher risk of leukemia.
We developed a sensitive peroxidase staining procedure to identify oligoclonal band specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis by subjecting serum and cerebrospinal fluid to isoelectric focusing and immunofixation with measles virus. The gel was washed and stained with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat antihuman immunoglobulin G. The samples showed dark brown measles-specific oligoclonal bands in the alkaline pH region of the gel, whereas the controls showed no significant staining. This technique may be useful in identifying specific antibody activity against viral and other antigens in oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid and serum.
Groups of oligoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) bands were isolated from sera of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis by employing preparative isoelectric focusing. Six IgG fractions containing two to three oligoclonal bands with different isoelectric points were used to precipitate the proteins from Vero cells infected with measles virus. The results showed that all of the measles virus proteins except the M protein were precipitated by all of the IgG fractions and that the precipitation of viral proteins by the fractions containing groups of oligoclonal IgG showed slightly different patterns in some sera, whereas other sera showed no significant differences. The present study indicates that oligoclonal IgGs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis sera are not specific to individual measles virus proteins.
A prospective study in patients with a clinical acute isolated brainstem or spinal cord disorder was undertaken. The aim was to evaluate the predictive value of IgG intrathecal synthesis (through the detection of oligoclonal bands in CSF) and MRI lesions at presentation, for the subsequent progression to multiple sclerosis. Forty four patients took part in this study: 22 had a brainstem disorder and 22 a spinal cord disorder. After a mean period of 26 (SD 22) months, 30 patients (68.2%) developed clinically definite multiple sclerosis. The remaining 14 patients were followed up for more than seven years. Twenty six (59.1%) patients had oligoclonal bands in CSF, with a sensitivity of 80.0%, specificity of 85.7%, and a predictive value of 92.2%. Magnetic resonance imaging showed disseminated white matter lesions in 22 patients (50.0%), with a sensitivity of 60.0%, a specificity of 71.4%, and a predictive value of 81.7%. The difference between patients with multiple sclerosis and patients without the disease was statistically significant for the findings of an IgG intrathecal synthesis (P < 0.001). It was only borderline for the MRI findings (P = 0.052). Thus the detection of an intrathecal synthesis at presentation seemed to be a better prognostic indicator of the progression to multiple sclerosis in patients affected by acute isolated brainstem or spinal cord syndromes.
Two methods of electrophoresis for the detection of oligoclonal bands in unconcentrated CSF were compared. A sample of 98 routine CSFs yielded 18 positives by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) while cellulose acetate electrophoresis with immunofixation (CAIF) gave 13 positives (72% of the PAGE findings). Despite the loss of sensitivity the cellulose acetate electrophoresis was easier to interpret and more suited to a routine hospital laboratory.
The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in CSF provides evidence for the occurrence of a humoral immune response, but it is not always appreciated that the oligoclonal IgG may have originated in the serum. To determine the diagnostic significance of serum OCBs 146 patients with serum OCBs were identified among 1874 patients with suspected neurological disorders (7.6%). Clear diagnoses had been made in 112 of these patients: in 56 identical CSF and serum bands were present, revealing a systemic immune response, while in 46 additional unique CSF bands indicated that intrathecal IgG synthesis was also occurring. In the first group neoplasia and peripheral neuropathies accounted for over 50% of the diagnoses, infections and systemic inflammatory disorders for 32%, and multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in only one case. These figures contrast considerably with those reported for patients with CSF OCBs alone. Diagnoses in the second group of patients, with unique CSF OCBs in addition to serum OCBs, resembled those among patients with CSF OCBs alone. Examining CSF and serum in parallel for OCBs of IgG provides more diagnostic information than examining CSF alone, and the latter is potentially misleading.
A new modification of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was applied to cerebrospinal fluid proteins from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The same spinal fluids were also examined by a cytological technique. Over 90% of patients with clinically definite or early probable or latent MS showed abnormal PAGE patterns in the form of oligoclonal gammaglobulin bands. Reactive (atypical, large) lymphocytes or typical plasma cells were found in some patients. In all such cases an oligoclonal pattern was present. The findings of oligoclonal bands provides valuable supporting evidence for the diagnosis of MS in the less definite clinical categories.
bands are a characteristic finding in the CSF of patients with multiple
sclerosis, yet their target antigen(s) remain unknown. The objective
was to determine whether a filamentous phage peptide library could be
employed to allow the oligoclonal bands to select their own target epitopes. METHODS—CSF IgG
antibody from 14 patients with multiple sclerosis and 14 controls was
used to select individual phage clones from a bacteriophage library
containing≈4 × 107 different hexamers expressed on its
surface pIII protein. The amino acid sequence selected was deduced by
sequencing the DNA of the genetically engineered insert. RESULTS—In general,
after three rounds of selection, CSF from both patients with multiple
sclerosis and controls selected one to two consistent peptide motifs.
Five out of 14 patients with multiple sclerosis, and one control,
selected the amino acid sequence motif, RRPFF. Given 20 possible amino
acids per position, the likelihood of five patients selecting the same
linear five amino acid sequence is at most 1.6 × 10-13,
corrected for the number of clones sequenced. A GenBank computer search
showed that this sequence is found in the Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear
antigen (EBNA-1), and a heat shock protein αB crystallin. Human serum
antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing RRPFF were virtually
exclusively found in patients with prior infection by Epstein-Barr
virus. Other studies have suggested a relation between Epstein-Barr
virus infection and multiple sclerosis...
The emergence of oligoclonal bands is associated with a favorable outcome after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin oligoclonality in 33 patients with multiple myeloma in complete remission achieved with primary therapy with either cytotoxic agents (n=18, 54.5%) or new induction regimens incorporating novel drugs (n=15, 45.4%). Eleven patients (33.3%) developed oligoclonal bands. In the group treated with novel agents, this oligoclonal immune response was observed in 60% (9 of 15) of the patients versus only 11.1% (2 of 18) of those given cytotoxic therapy (P=0.003). This is the first report showing a different frequency of oligoclonal humoral response in patients in complete remission achieved after conventional cytotoxic therapy versus induction incorporating novel agents. This difference could be due to a higher antitumor effect associated with the use of novel drugs, a stronger immune reconstitution, or both.
The emergence of an oligoclonal humoral response, resulting in the appearance of a different serum M-protein to that observed at diagnosis is a well-recognized event after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma in complete response, and it has been considered to be a benign phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence, biological characteristics and prognostic value of the oligoclonal bands in patients with myeloma who underwent autologous transplantation at our institution in the last 18 years. We proceed with a retrospective systematic review of all serum and urine immunofixation studies performed in the 211 patients with multiple myeloma who underwent melphalan-based autologous transplantation. Oligoclonal bands were observed in 34% of the patients, with a significantly higher prevalence with the use of novel agents versus conventional chemotherapy in induction (63% vs. 22%; P=0.0001). The incidence of oligoclonal bands was most frequent in non-IgG isotype, particularly in light chain only myeloma. The oligoclonal phenomenon was almost exclusive to patients in complete remission compared to other degrees of response (87% vs. 13%; P=0.0001), and lasted for a median of 1.35 years, persisting during follow up in all patients except in those who relapsed. In prognostic terms...
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is usually performed to exclude inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although in a small subset of patients an intrathecal synthesis of IgG is detectable, usually there is no clear explanation for this evidence. This study investigates the occurrence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the CSF of a large series of ALS patients, attempting a correlation with genotype data. CSF was collected from 259 ALS patients. CSF parameters were measured according to standard procedures, and detection of OCBs performed by isoelectric focusing. The patients were screened for mutations in SOD1, FUS, TARDBP, ANG, OPTN, and C9ORF72. We observed the presence of OCBs in the CSF of 9/259 ALS patients (3.5 %), and of disease-associated mutations in 12 cases. OCBs were significantly more frequent in mutation carriers compared to the remaining cohort (3/12 vs 6/247; p < 0.01). Among patients with OCBs, two patients had the TARDBP p.A382T mutation (one of which in homozygous state), and one the ANG p.P-4S variant. Both patients carrying the p.A382T mutation had an atypical phenotype, one of them manifesting signs suggestive of a cerebellar involvement, and the other presenting neuroradiological findings suggestive of an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that ALS patients with OCBs may harbor mutations in disease-causing genes. We speculate that mutations in both TARDBP and ANG genes may disrupt the blood–brain barrier (BBB)...
da Gama, Paulo Diniz; Machado, Luís dos Ramos; Livramento, José Antonio; Gomes, Hélio Rodrigues; Adoni, Tarso; Morales, Rogério de Rizo; da Gama, Rodrigo Assad Diniz; da Gama, Daniel Assad Diniz; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Ca
Genetic susceptibility is a well-recognized factor in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of oligoclonal bands (OCB) restricted to the cerebrospinal fluid, in an ethnically mixed group of MS patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Techniques used to detect OCB consisted of isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. OCB were found in 49 (54.4%) out of 90 patients with clinically definite MS; out of the 23 brown/black patients, 17 (73.9%) were OCB+; out of the 66 white patients, 32 (48.5%) were OCB+; and the only patient yellow was OCB+ (p = 0.05). Analysis of the IgG index was also consistent with the findings, but with lower statistical significance. The data presented in our study show that the ethnic differences in MS extend to the immune response.