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GIS applied to geotechnical and environmental risk management in a Brazilian oil pipeline

AUGUSTO FILHO, Oswaldo; HIRAI, Jonnhy Norio; OLIVEIRA, Andre Silva; LIOTTI, Elizabeth Shen
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
The paper presents the development of a decision support system for the management of geotechnical and environmental risks in oil pipelines using a geographical information system. The system covers a 48.5 km long section of the So Paulo to Brasilia (OSBRA) oil pipeline, which crosses three municipalities in the northeast region of the So Paulo state (Brazil) and represents an area of 205.8 km(2). The spatial database was created using geo-processing procedures, surface and intrusive investigations and geotechnical reports. The risk assessment was based mainly on qualitative models (relative numeric weights and multicriteria decision analysis) and considered pluvial erosion, slope movements, soil corrosion and third party activities. The maps were produced at a scale of 1:10,000.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo-Fapesp, Brazil[05/00044-1]

Estudo do poliuretano de alta densidade para proteção externa de oleodutos térmicos.; Study of high density polyuretane as external protection of thermal oil pipelines.

Abe, Rodnei Massamiti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
O transporte subterrâneo de óleos aquecidos dentro dos processos da Petrobrás/Transpetro é um ponto crítico devido à necessidade de conservar a temperatura do óleo dentro da rede de tubulações do ponto de origem ao seu destino com o mínimo de perda de calor possível. Tubulações utilizando espumas rígidas de poliuretano como isolamento térmico têm sido usadas por muitos anos neste processo de transporte. Entretanto, inspeções instrumentadas têm mostrado graves processos de corrosão externa em algumas tubulações isoladas após alguns anos em operação. Devido à grande extensão da rede de tubulações térmicamente isoladas no Brasil, este tipo de problema somente foi identificado após alguns vazamentos acidentais. Após uma profunda investigação em campo, foi verificado que o tipo de proteção da tubulação e o sistema de isolamento térmico usado não era adequado para evitar o processo de corrosão. Com o intuito de se prevenir e evitar maiores estragos ao meio ambiente e, principalmente, às comunidades que moram próximas às zonas das tubulações enterradas, foi necessário uma revisão urgente de toda metodologia utilizada até o momento para as tubulações térmicas isoladas com poliuretano. A solução veio pela adaptação de uma norma européia a EN 253 utilizada para tubulações pré-isoladas e enterradas para distribuição de água quente em cidades. Entretanto...

Digital radiography for the inspection of weld seams of pipelines - better sensitivity

Moreira, Edson Vasques; Simõesa, Heleno Ribeiro; Rabello, José Maurício Barbosa; de Camargo, José Rubens; Pereira, Marcelo dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 249-257
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Conventional radiography, using industrial radiographic films, has its days numbered. Digital radiography, recently, has taken its place in various segments of products and services, such as medicine, aerospace, security, automotive, etc. As well as the technological trend, the digital technique has brought proven benefits in terms of productivity, sensitivity, the environment, tools for image treatment, cost reductions, etc. If the weld to be inspected is on a serried product, such as, for example, a pipe, the best option for the use of digital radiography is the plane detector, since its use can reduce the length of the inspection cycle due to its high degree of automation. This work tested welded joints produced with the submerged arc process, which were specially prepared in such a way that it shows small artificial cracks, which served as the basis forcomparing the sensitivity levels of the techniques involved. After carrying out the various experiments, the digital meth odshowed the highest sensitivity for the image quality indicator (IQI) of the wire and also in terms of detecting small discontinuities, indicating that the use of digital radiography using the plane detector had advantages over the conventional technique (Moreira et al. Digital radiography...

Aplicação de ondas longitudinais criticamente refratadas para a medição de tensões em dutos; Application of longitudinal critically refracted waves to measure stress in pipelines

Marcilio Haddad Andrino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/07/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Os dutos têm se tornado o principal meio de transporte para gás natural, petróleo e derivados nas últimas décadas. Diversos novos projetos, visando a extensão da malha dutoviária atual estão sendo implantados e as dimensões das redes de distribuição de países desenvolvidos mostram que este tipo de modal será cada vez mais utilizado, acompanhando o crescimento do Brasil. Dutovias com tais dimensões requerem esquemas de manutenção adequados, com técnicas otimizadas de inspeção. A falha, em muitos casos, pode levar a desastres ambientais, com conseqüências econômicas e sociais imensuráveis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver uma nova metodologia para a medição de tensões mecânicas em dutos baseada na variação da velocidade de ondas longitudinais criticamente refratadas (ondas Lcr). Como objetivos específicos foram estudadas a influência da temperatura sobre o resultado da medição, a influência da textura do material para dutos e a determinação e validação do método matemático mais adequado para emprego na determinação das tensões. Para a determinação das tensões no duto foi construído um dispositivo especial para movimentar o conjunto de transdutores ao longo dos pontos de medição. Foram realizadas medições na direção longitudinal e transversal do duto e esses levantamentos foram comparados com medidas de tensão determinadas através de extensômetros. Os resultados finais da tese mostraram a excelente correlação entre a tensão aplicada e a resposta do sistema indicando que a técnica pode ser empregada em campo; Pipelines have become the main transport means for natural gas...

Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline.

Avaliação da corrosão em dutos por técnica gravimétrica e de resistência elétrica

Silva, Allison Alexandre Ribeiro da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
With the increasing of demand for natural gas and the consequent growth of the pipeline networks, besides the importance of transport and transfer of oil products by pipeline, and when it comes to product quality and integrity of the pipeline there is an important role regarding to the monitoring internal corrosion of the pipe. This study aims to assess corrosion in three pipeline that operate with different products, using gravimetric techniques and electrical resistance. Chemical analysis of residues originated in the pipeline helps to identify the mechanism corrosive process. The internal monitoring of the corrosion in the pipelines was carried out between 2009 and 2010 using coupon weight loss and electrical resistance probe. Physico-chemical techniques of diffraction and fluorescence X-rays were used to characterize the products of corrosion of the pipelines. The corrosion rate by weight loss was analyzed for every pipeline, only those ones that has revealed corrosive attack were analyzed located corrosion rate. The corrosion potential was classified as low to pipeline gas and ranged from low to severe for oil pipelines and the pipeline derivatives. Corrosion products were identified as iron carbonate, iron oxide and iron sulfide; Com o aumento da demanda de gás natural e consequente crescimento da malha dutoviária...

Análise química de produtos de incrustação em dutos de petróleo por espectometria de fluorescência de raios X

Sena, Caio Patrício de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The quantitative chemical characterization of the inorganic fraction of scale products is very relevant in studying, monitoring and controlling corrosive processes of oil pipelines. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a very versatile analytical technique, which can be used in quantitative analysis in solid samples at low concentrations of the chemical element, in the order of few ppm. A methodology that involves sample preparation diluted in the proportion of 1:7 (one portion of the sample for seven of wax), pressed as pellets was used in the XRF calibration for chemical analysis of scale products from oil pipelines. The calibration involved the preparation of reference samples from mixtures of P.A. reagents, aiming to optimize the time consumed in the steps of sample preparation and analysis of Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr and Ti, using the same pressed pellet for trace and major elements analysis; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; A caracterização química quantitativa da fração inorgânica de produtos de incrustação é de grande relevância no estudo, monitoramento e controle de processos corrosivos em dutos de petróleo. A espectrometria por fluorescência de raios X (EFRX) é uma técnica analítica muito versátil...

Assessing whether Heavy Fuel Oil 6303 and Federated Crude oil are able to strand in simulated spawning shoals, enabling their toxic components to become to bioavailable to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Chrisanthus, Amanda
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
In freshwater aquatic systems, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in oil may cause toxic effects to fish if PAH are able to partition into the water column. The bioavailability of PAH is important to consider when oil is present in fish spawning shoals. The objective of this study was to determine whether water that moves through oil-contaminated spawning shoals allows for partitioning of PAH into the interstitial waters inhabited by fish embryos and larvae prior to hatching. To investigate the ability of oil to strand in gravel, simulated spawning shoals were injected with 10mL of Heavy Fuel Oil 6303 (HFO 6303) or Federated Crude oil at water flow rates of 20mL to 180mL/minute. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were significantly more bioavailable from HFO 6303 than from Federated Crude. It was also found that HFO 6303 had significantly different levels of PAH bioavailability among the different flow rates, whereas Federated Crude did not. These results may be attributed to the different physical and chemical properties of the oils, such as PAH composition and oil behaviour. This research is crucial for freshwater conservation as talks regarding the implementation of oil pipelines are current and ongoing. This is especially evident when considering the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline...

Caucasus Transport Corridor for Oil and Oil Products

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This study evaluates the potential demand for oil and oil products transport via the existing rail corridor in the Caucasus, taking into consideration the competition from alternative routes. It identifies potential bottlenecks that would prevent the potential traffic from using the corridor and proposes solutions for the physical and operational improvements to the corridor needed to attract the potential traffic. The report is based on a review of studies of oil production and transport, and interviews with oil producers, transportation intermediaries, railways, and ports in the region. The report begins with a discussion of the outlook for Caspian oil production and transport options for oil. Next, it discusses the physical and commercial constraints on the Caucasus rail corridor. It ends with a market analysis, strategies for attracting business, and significant actions needed to address the problems outlined previously in the report.

Ecuador : Diversification and Sustainable Growth in an Oil - Dependent Country

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Diversification is important to sustainable economic growth and economic development in an oil-dependent country like Ecuador because it allows the country to be less vulnerable to external shocks. An analysis of diversification in the Ecuadorian economy is needed at this time because (a) the growth has been sluggish despite favorable terms of trade in recent years, and (b) external and fiscal balances are highly vulnerable to shocks in oil prices. This study focuses on the general concept of diversification, including diversification of public revenues, trading partners, and production. It seeks to understand the linkages between the oil and non-oil sectors and offer recommendations on how Ecuador could frame public policy to achieve diversification.

MENA Quarterly Economic Brief, January 2015 : Plunging Oil Prices

Devarajan, Shanta; Mottaghi, Lili
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This issue of the MENA Quarterly Economic Brief focuses on the implications of low oil prices for eight developing countries, or the MENA-8 (oil importers: Egypt, Tunisia, Lebanon and Jordan and oil exporters: Iran, Iraq, Yemen and Libya) and the economies of the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council), who play a major role in providing funds in the form of aid, investment, tourism revenues and remittances to the rest of the countries of the region. We make the following assumptions about the future price of oil: (i) The price will average $65 Brent p/b in 2015; (ii) a higher price $78 Brent p/b will be used for comparison analysis. As with other economic variables, there is uncertainty associated with the future price of oil, which adds to the error involved in projections. The data for 2015 2017 in the figures and tables are projections. These projections are based on statistical information available through early January 2015.

Investment in Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southern Cone of Latin America

Jadresic, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
Increasing demand for clean energy sources is expanding investment in natural gas infrastructure around the world. Many international projects involve pipelines connecting energy markets in two or more countries. A key feature of investment taking place in Latin America is the convergence of gas and electricity markets. Many projects are being developed to supply gas to new power generation plants needed to meet electricity demand. Construction of a pipeline over the Andes mountains to supply gas from Argentina to energy markets in central Chile was an idea long unfulfilled for political, economic, and technical reasons. Great changes have now taken place in a very short time. The author discusses both the achievements and the challenges to be faced by pipeline developers and Chiles energy sector. He details the benefits of the cooperative effort to consumers in terms of lower energy prices, higher environmental standards, and a more reliable energy system. The experience in Latin Americas southern cone shows how technological innovation...

Convergence on cooperation: the driving factors In U.S. and Russian cooperation on Belarus

Brown, Joseph W.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 99 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Russia; Belarus; Oil Pipelines; Democratic Revolution; As the last dictatorship in Europe, Belarus is a "problem state" for the United States. This thesis analyses U.S. interests in Belarus and assesses the extent of interdependence of these interests with Russian interests there. It first establishes a theoretical framework for U.S. and Russian national interests and the possibility for cooperation between the two countries. It then examines the mutuality of U.S and Russian interests in Belarus in the areas of democracy and human rights, drug and human trafficking, arms proliferation, oil and gas transit, and Russo-Belarusian trade and political integration and the policy options available to each country. Next, other elements of cooperation are applied to the situation in Belarus. Finally, the possibilities for cooperation are evaluated. This thesis demonstrates that the achievement of U.S. interests is significantly constrained by Russia's willingness to cooperate and that the United States can best achieve its objectives only through cooperation with Russia. This cooperation should center on neither country's first preference, but a compromise solution involving the ascendance of a moderate opponent to Lukashenka from within the Belarusian elite.

Oil policy in Russia toward selected new independent states

Stevens, John J., III
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiii, 104 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Following the breakdown of the Soviet Union, one of the world's strongest oil producing industries was divided into a few major oil provinces. The Russian energy industry has been adversely affected by this process. The process of change to the former Soviet oil industry including: Russian efforts to maintain control of its former resources, NIS resource development, Western capital investment, and environmental issues in the major oil provinces of the former Soviet Union, is the main focus of this thesis. Free market world oil majors and their counterparts, both in Russia and the New Independent States, have developed a number of significant alliances that have resulted in several potentially lucrative joint ventures. The coercive tactics that the Russian government resorts to in an effort to prevent its former republics from efficiently developing their reserves, and the position the United States must take to ensure these efforts are stifled will be addressed. A sound grasp of these critical energy issues by American policy makers will result in the development of these vast resources in a manner favorable to U. S. national interests. This will provide security for our strategic reserves and offer a viable alternative to the Persian Gulf resources far into the twenty-first century.; http://archive.org/details/oilpolicyinrussi00stev; Lieutenant Commander...

Political Economy of the Petroleum Sector in Nigeria

Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a "rentier" dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution...

Oil Industry Training for Indigenous People : The Bolivian Experience

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Bolivia has the highest percentage of indigenous peoples in America and has recently attracted substantial investments in gas pipelines and in exploration work in new areas. the country also has one of the most dynamic indigenous peoples movement in the region. The joint UNDP/World Bank ESMAP program designed a pilot training program to instruct indigenous peoples on the impact of hydrocarbon activities. The pilot training program in Bolivia was sufficiently successful to warrant publication of this report. The report is organized as follows: After the Introduction, Chapter 2 describes the program's background. It addresses the development of the oil and gas industry in Bolivia, the specific demands of indigenous peoples in this respect, the progress made with the relevant legislation, and the circumstances under which this training program was designed. Chapter 3 describes the experience of program implementation, which was split into three phases: a preparatory phase, a development (training) phase, and a dissemination phase. Chapter 4 includes the lessons...

Geometrical and kinematic properties of interfacial waves in stratified oil-water flow in inclined pipe

Castro, Marcelo S. de; Pereira, Cleber C.; Santos, Jorge N. dos; Rodriguez, Oscar M. H.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
The stratified oil-water flow pattern is common in the petroleum industry, especially in offshore directional wells and pipelines. Previous studies have shown that the phenomenon of flow pattern transition in stratified flow can be related to the interfacial wave structure (problem of hydrodynamic instability). The study of the wavy stratified flow pattern requires the characterization of the interfacial wave properties, i.e., average shape, celerity and geometric properties (amplitude and wavelength) as a function of holdup, inclination angle and phases' relative velocity. However, the data available in the literature on wavy stratified flow is scanty, especially in inclined pipes and when oil is viscous. This paper presents new geometric and kinematic interfacial wave properties as a function of a proposed two-phase Froude number in the wavy-stratified liquid-liquid flow. The experimental work was conducted in a glass test line of 12 m and 0.026 m id., oil (density and viscosity of 828 kg/m(3) and 0.3 Pa s at 20 degrees C, respectively) and water as the working fluids at several inclinations from horizontal (-20 degrees, -10 degrees, 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees). The results suggest a physical relation between wave shape and the hydrodynamic stability of the stratified liquid-liquid flow pattern. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) [2008/06922-9...

Stress analysis of parallel oil and gas steel pipelines in inclined tunnels

Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Wu, Shijuan
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
Geological conditions along long distance pipelines are complex. In consideration of differences in elevation and terrain obstacles, long distance pipelines are commonly laid through tunnels. Oil and gas pipelines are often laid side by side to reduce construction costs and minimize geological impact. The layout and construction of parallel oil and gas pipelines are more complex than those of single pipelines. In order to reduce safety hazards, it is necessary to carry out stress analysis of the oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels. In this study, a stress analysis model of pipelines running through a tunnel was developed. On the basis of the finite element method, CAESAR II software was used to analyze the stress and displacement of a section of parallel oil and gas pipelines that run through tunnels and stress and displacement distribution laws were drawn from the analyses. A study of the factors influencing stress recommended that: (1) The buttress interval of the parallel oil and gas pipelines in a tunnel should be 12 m; (2) The angle of inclined pipelines should be no greater than 25°; (3) The stress of oil pipelines enhances more obviously than that of gas pipelines under earthquake action; (4) The average stress can be reduced by adopting “ladder” laying; and (5) Guide bend can be set at the tunnel entrance and exit in order to reduce the stress.

Accuracy of Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensing for Use in Leak Detection of Subsea Pipelines

Madabhushi, S.; Elshafie, M. Z. E. B.; Haigh, S. K.
Fonte: American Society of Civil Engineers Publicador: American Society of Civil Engineers
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from ASCE at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29PS.1949-1204.0000189.; Accurate and rapid detection of leaks is important for subsea oil pipelines to minimize environmental risks and operational/repair costs. Temperature-sensing optical fiber cables can provide economic, near real-time sensing of leaks in subsea oil pipeline networks. By employing optical time domain reflectometry and detecting the Brillouin scattered components from a laser source, the temperature gradients can be detected at any location along an optical fiber cable attached to the oil pipeline. The feasibility of such technology has been established in the literature along with a case study on a land-based pipeline. In this paper the accuracy of an optical fiber-based temperature sensing system is investigated. A mathematical model that simulates the process of temperature sensing is developed and the results are presented. An experimental investigation is carried out with two different laboratory setups to establish the spatial resolution and accuracy of the optical fiber cable detection system, and the experimental results are compared with predictions from the theoretical model. Based on these comparisons it has been established that the optical fiber cable detection system is capable of providing an accurate and rapid assessment of the location of a leak along a subsea pipeline. Furthermore...

Congress can stop the boom in oil tank cars

Makholm, Jeff
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Recent weeks have seen a number of destructive explosions following oil train derailments in several U.S. states. These disasters follow a dramatic increase in the number of new oil tank cars on the rails since 2011 which are associated with the boom in unconventional oil extraction in states such as North Dakota. Jeff D. Makholm examines why so many dangerous oil tank cars are on the rails, arguing that the main cause is a lack of federal licencing authority over oil pipelines. He writes that oil pipelines in America are governed by a myriad of regulatory agencies and authorities which makes expanding the pipeline system difficult and costly. If Congress wants to make oil transportation safer, it should look to the gas industry’s regulatory model for inspiration on which reforms to put into place.