Página 1 dos resultados de 62 itens digitais encontrados em 0.022 segundos

Innovating Development Finance : From Financing Sources to Financial Solutions

Girishankar, Navin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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66.19%
As early as 2000, development partners embarked on a decade-long search for "innovative" or alternative sources of Official Development Assistance to help finance achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. For their part, developing countries have sought not only more financial flows but better financial solutions, for example, through partnerships that mobilize private finance for public service delivery, risk mitigation efforts that promote private entry in the productive sectors, and support for carbon trading. This paper offers a framework to organize and understand this heterogeneous mix of innovations in fund-raising and financial solutions for development. It also provides, for the first time, a stocktaking of actual innovations that make up the international landscape and highlights the World Bank Group s role to date. The stocktaking shows that innovative finance mechanisms have played a more significant role in supporting financial solutions on the ground than in identifying and exploiting "alternative sources of ODA." Innovative fund-raising therefore should be viewed as a complement to - rather than a substitute for - traditional efforts to mobilize official flows...

Arab Development Assistance : Four Decades of Cooperation

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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86.16%
Over the past four decades, Arab aid, which has been relatively under-studied, has played an important role in global development finance. Arab donors- predominantly the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)-have been among the most generous in the world, with official development assistance (ODA) averaging 1.5 percent of their combined gross national income (GNI) during the period 1973-2008, more than twice the United Nations target of 0.7 percent and five times the average of the Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development (OECD)- Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries. In addition to government-to-government aid, Arab donors have established a number of specialized financial institutions to provide development assistance to low-income countries. Assistance through these institutions increased substantially by 4.4 percent per year in real terms over the period 1990-2008. There are good reasons to believe that Arab aid will continue to play an important role in international development assistance into the foreseeable future. Arab donors have recently increased their aid volumes...

Financial Crises and Social Spending : The Impact of the 2008-2009 Crisis

Lewis, Maureen; Verhoeven, Marijn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.17%
This paper examines the impacts of the 2008-2009 economic crisis on social spending, drawing on evidence at the global, national, and household levels, to provide a sense of the nature and the effects of the worldwide downturn on spending in the social sectors. It summarizes existing empirical evidence on the relationship between crises, or other serious dislocations on education, health, HIV/AIDS, and nutrition as background to the analysis of growth and social spending. The paper analyzes the relationship between GDP growth, growth in education and health spending, and projects expenditure responses to 2012, to illustrate how expected changes in future economic growth are likely to affect both absolute spending and growth in social expenditures. It provides an analysis of the effects on HIV/AIDS spending, a relatively new funding category and therefore outside the purview of the econometric analysis. It examines the responsiveness of Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) to financial crises in terms of subsequent allocations from the developed world...

Fungibility of Donor Assistance to Liberia : Focusing on Aid to the Health Sector, A Case Study

Fairbank, Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.29%
The main purpose of this work is to develop a case study assessing the recent patterns and impacts of ODA (official development assistance) and DAH (development assistance for health) to Liberia on overall government spending and domestic revenue generation as well as domestic government health spending. Specifically, the study will examine the recent flows of ODA and DAH resources into the country and test whether it is possible to determine the degree of fungibility in domestic budgetary expenditures and revenues, overall, as well as in domestic health budgetary spending and receipts (from internal and external sources) as a result of (or due to) ODA and DAH. The study will distinguish between targeted/earmarked aid and general budget support, and will attempt to distinguish commitments from actual disbursements (both for DAH and for government).

Democratic conditionality in development assistance

Rich, Roland
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 161519 bytes; 354 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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[Introduction]: President Bush’s address to the United Nations Conference on Financing for Development with its startling announcement of a 50% increase in United States Official Development Assistance (ODA) has put the issue of aid conditionality at the forefront of the development debate. To understand and evaluate the impact of the announcement, it is worthwhile examining the concept of ODA and the role of conditionality in that concept. The paper will then consider to what extent, and to what effect, has democratic governance become one of the conditions for the granting of ODA.; no

ODA and the quest for innovative sources of financing development

BALIAMOUNE-LUTZ, Mina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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66.15%
Motivated in large part by recent economic and financial crises in several high-income donor countries, the emergence of new official donors (such as China), and the increasingly important role of private donors (philanthropy), the quest to identify alternative (or innovative) sources of financing development has accelerated in the past few years. At the same time, the issue of aid effectiveness has again become a hot topic. In this paper, I primarily comment on the official purpose of official development assistance and provide an overview of the main issues related to aid effectiveness and innovative sources of development finance.

Ayuda oficial al desarrollo científico-tecnológica: una evaluación macroeconómica de la distribución geográfica y sectorial; Official development assistance for science and technology: a macroeconomic evaluation of the geographical and sectorial distribution

Quiñones Montellano, Ainoa; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Sociedad de Economía Mundial Publicador: Sociedad de Economía Mundial
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
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RESUMEN. La innovación y el acceso al conocimiento son elementos decisivos para los procesos de desarrollo económico. No obstante, aunque la globalización facilita una expansión sin precedentes del conocimiento, la sociedad del siglo XXI tiene aún pendiente garantizar un acceso equitativo a los beneficios de la innovación para expandir las oportunidades de progreso a todos los pueblos. En este contexto, las políticas internacionales de cooperación científicotecnológica para el desarrollo (cooperación CT) pretenden promover el progreso tecnológico, científico e innovador de los países en desarrollo. En este trabajo caracterizamos las políticas de cooperación CT (identificando sus principales objetivos, actores y sectores de destino), y analizamos la evolución y la distribución geográfica y sectorial de los flujos de Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo científico-tecnológica (AOD-CT). El trabajo concluye que las políticas de cooperación CT son una apuesta, desde la innovación, por una estrategia inclusiva de desarrollo internacional.; ABSTRACT. Innovation and access to knowledge are critical elements for the processes of economic development. Nevertheless, although globalization facilitates an unprecedented expansion of knowledge...

Ayuda oficial española al desarrollo: los retos de la especialización geográfica y sectorial; Spanish official development assistance: the geographical and sector specialization challenges

Larrú Ramos, José María; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT Publicador: Asociación Internacional de Economía Aplicada ASEPELT
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
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RESUMEN. España cierra un ciclo de fuerte expansión de su política pública de ayuda internacional para el desarrollo, e inicia una nueva etapa de crisis y ajuste presupuestario en la que deberá revisar su estrategia de cooperación. En este artículo se describen los hechos estilizados que caracterizan la estructura de la Ayuda Oficial española al Desarrollo (AOD). Para ello se analiza la distribución geográfica, sectorial e instrumental de la AOD, comparando los niveles de coordi-nación logrados por los dos últimos Gobiernos del PP y del PSOE, y se proponen criterios de política económica para diseñar una política pública de cooperación verdaderamente selectiva y “estratégica”.; ABSTRACT. Spain closes a cycle of strong growth in its public policy of foreign aid for development, and starts a new period of crisis and fiscal adjustment in which the co-operation strategy must be revised. This article describes the stylized facts that characterize the Spanish Official Development Assistance (ODA). We analyze the geographical, sectorial and instrumental ODA distribution, comparing the different patterns followed by the last two Governments of the PP and the PSOE, and we propose economic policy criteria to design a truly selective and “strategic” public policy of inter-national co-operation.

Innovación, ayuda y crecimiento: ¿un “trío” de conveniencia?; Aid & innovation: a boost to the effectiveness of aid?

Quiñones Montellano, Ainoa; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA) Publicador: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
SPA
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RESUMEN. Uno de los resultados más unánimes de la investigación económica es que la innovación es uno de los principales determinantes del crecimiento económico sostenido. No obstante, ningún estudio ha contrastado el impacto que las ayudas para ciencia y tecnología ejercen sobre el ritmo de crecimiento de los países que las reciben. Este artículo analiza el impacto de la Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo Científico-Tecnológica (AOD-CT) en el periodo 1993-2008, a través de un modelo de crecimiento endógeno. La estimación econométrica arroja cinco conclusiones principales: i) la AOD-CT estimula eficazmente el crecimiento; ii) el impacto de estas ayudas puede ser mayor en los países con menores capacidades de innovación; iii) la innovación es el principal determinante del crecimiento, iv) las desigualdades de rentas constituyen una importante rémora; y v) los dispares ritmos de progreso de los países en desarrollo se traducen en un lento proceso de divergencia en niveles de renta per capita.; ABSTRACT. One of the most unanimous results of the economic research is that innovation is one of the main determinants of sustained economic growth. However, no study has contrasted the impact that aid for science and technology has on the growth rate of developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of Official Development Assistance for Science and Technology (ODA-CT) in the period 1993-2008...

¿Altruismo o interés?: el papel de la inmigración en la asignación geográfica de la ayuda oficial española al desarrollo; Altruism or interest?: the role of immigration flows in the geographical allocation of Spanish official development assistance

Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio; Gutiérrez Sobrao, David
Fonte: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA) Publicador: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
SPA
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116.37%
RESUMEN. Aunque el “eclecticismo” con el que se distribuye geográficamente la Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo (AOD) no tiene visos de cambiar, sí se han alterado las prioridades del sistema internacional, “redefiniéndose” el mapamundi de la ayuda del siglo XXI. Uno de los fenómenos más relevantes es la intensificación de los flujos migratorios emitidos por los países en desarrollo y recibidos por los países desarrollados. No obstante, hasta la fecha no se ha estudiado la influencia que la inmigración ejerce en la asignación geográfica de la ayuda. Este artículo analiza en qué medida los flujos migratorios han modificado el patrón de asignación de la AOD española y revela que la inmigración es relevante tanto para la selección de países socios, como para la asignación de cuotas de ayuda, lo que agrava la fragmentación de los recursos y “difumina” la estrategia geográfica de la cooperación oficial española.; ABSTRACT. Although the “eclecticism” of the geographical distribution of Official Development Assistance (ODA) does not seem to change, the priorities of the international system have actually changed, “reshaping” the aid map of the 21st Century. One of the most relevant phenomenon is the intensification of the immigration flows emitted by developing countries and received by developed countries. However...

Cooperación científico-tecnológica para el desarrollo internacional: una apuesta desde la innovación; International development co-operation for science and technology: an innovation commitment

Quiñones Montellano, Ainoa; Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio
Fonte: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA) Publicador: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
RESUMEN. La innovación y el acceso al conocimiento son elementos decisivos para los procesos de desarrollo económico. Aunque la globalización facilita una expansión sin precedentes del conocimiento, la sociedad del siglo XXI tiene aún pendiente garantizar un acceso equitativo a los beneficios de la innovación para expandir las oportunidades de progreso a todos los pueblos. En este contexto, las políticas internacionales de cooperación científicotecnológica para el desarrollo (cooperación CT) pretenden promover el progreso tecnológico, científico e innovador de los países en desarrollo. En este trabajo caracterizamos las políticas de cooperación CT (identificando sus principales objetivos, actores y sectores de destino), y analizamos la evolución y la distribución geográfica y sectorial de los flujos de Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo científico-tecnológica (AOD-CT). El trabajo concluye que las políticas de cooperación CT son una apuesta, desde la innovación, por una estrategia inclusiva de desarrollo internacional.; ABSTRACT. Innovation and access to knowledge are critical elements for the processes of economic development. Although globalization facilitates an unprecedented expansion of knowledge, the human society of the 21st Century still has to guarantee an equitable access to the benefits of innovation in order to expand the opportunities of progress of all peoples. In this context...

Desigualdad, ayuda y crecimiento: impacto macroeconómico de donaciones y créditos de ayuda en América Latina y el Caribe; Inequality, aid and growth: macroeconomic impact of aid grants and loans in Latin America and the Caribbean

Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio; Guijarro Garvi, Marta
Fonte: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA) Publicador: Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
SPA
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76.06%
RESUMEN. Este artículo analiza el impacto de la Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo en los países de América Latina y el Caribe a través de un modelo de crecimiento endógeno. Evaluamos la eficacia de la ayuda en relación con la tasa de crecimiento del PIB per capita de la población con renta inferior al noveno decil (“PIB per capita ajustado por la desigualdad”), al objeto de definir de manera precisa el impacto deseado de la ayuda en un ámbito geográfico de elevados niveles de desigualdad. Asimismo, distinguimos el impacto de dos modalidades de ayuda: donaciones y créditos. La estimación econométrica arroja tres conclusiones principales: i) la ayuda resulta eficaz, en términos agregados, cuando se corrige el efecto de las desigualdades de renta; ii) el impacto de los créditos concesionales es mayor que el de las donaciones; y iii) la ayuda resulta más eficaz en los países menos corruptos.; ABSTRACT. This article uses an endogenous growth model to analyze the impact of Official Development Assistance in Latin American and the Caribbean. The model evaluates aid effectiveness in relation to the growth rate of the GDP per capita within the population with lower income than the ninth decile (“inequality-adjusted GDP per capita”)...

Más allá de la ayuda: una nueva métrica de la ayuda oficial al desarrollo post-2015; Beyond aid: a new metric for official development assistance post-2015

Domínguez Martín, Rafael
Fonte: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales-Sede Académica de Ecuador Publicador: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales-Sede Académica de Ecuador
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
SPA
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86.38%
RESUMEN. El trabajo trata de responder a la pregunta ¿en qué va a consistir después de 2015 la idea de más allá de la ayuda, que en su origen estaba asociada a la coherencia de políticas? Tras analizar el nuevo contexto de fatiga de la ayuda oficial al desarrollo (AOD) y la crisis de identidad del régimen de ayuda, se repasan las distintas métricas propuestas de cara a la redefinición del concepto de AOD después de 2015, que en ningún caso parece tendrá que ver con la idea inicial de la coherencia de políticas, sino más bien con un intento de los donantes tradicionales europeos de maquillar su fracaso en el cumplimiento del compromiso del 0,7 del PNB y de flexibilizar criterios con el fin (bastante incierto) de atraer a las disciplinas del Comité de Ayuda al Desarrollo a los proveedores de cooperación Sur-Sur de las ligas mayores (Brasil, Rusia, India, China, Sudáfrica o BRICS) y las secundarias (Indonesia, Malasia, Tailandia, Turquía, México, Chile, Colombia o Perú).; ABSTRACT. The study attempts to respond to the question, “after 2015, what will constitute the idea of ‘beyond aid,’ whose origins were associated with the policy coherence?” After analyzing the new context of fatigue in Official Development Assistance (ODA) and the identity crisis of the aid regime...

ODA in 2014: Projections of current foreign aid spending by DAC memebers and recommendations for reform

Clarke, Adeline
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This research report comments on Official Development Assistance (ODA) provided by members of the OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC). The report answers two questions: 1. How much aid is being provided by DAC members in 2014? 2. Should the definition of ODA be changed? In answering the first question, the report provides predictions of 2014 foreign aid spending. Timely reporting of aid spending is acknowledged to be important for aid effectiveness but there remains little data on current ODA flows. The OECD will not provide data on 2014 ODA flows until they release a preliminary report in April 2015. Therefore my projections estimate 2014 aid spending. I have used data for the 15 largest donors in the DAC and projected for the remaining DAC members. DAC members’ foreign aid budgets indicate that they plan to spend USD 133.4 bn (2013 dollars), but if they instead spend according to the difference between their 2013 budgets and spending they will instead spend USD 136.2bn (2013 dollars). This is unlikely to be an accurate prediction of 2014 aid spending, but in the absence of real data it does provide an indication of what 2014 aid trends.. The report argues that the definition of ODA should be reformed. The OECD has committed to looking into a new aid measure by the end of 2015...

La política de cooperación española a partir de 2008 : el reto de culminar las reformas

Sanahuja, José Antonio
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Centro de Iniciativas de Cooperación al Desarrollo y Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Centro de Iniciativas de Cooperación al Desarrollo y Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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Con el Gobierno Socialista (2004-2008) se ha iniciado una fase de reformas en la política española de cooperación al desarrollo, que suponen un fuerte aumento del esfuerzo de ayuda y de la Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo (AOD) total; una marcada orientación de la política a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM); mejoras en la planificación y los instrumentos de la ayuda; y reformas en el marco legal e institucional. Sin embargo, hay desafíos importantes en materia de consolidación de los presupuestos, de coherencia de políticas, de la reforma de la Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional (AECI), y de adaptación al nuevo marco internacional de la Declaración de París sobre Eficacia de la Ayuda, que no van a poder llevarse a cabo en esta legislatura. Tras hacer un balance de la legislatura, este artículo plantea que, a pesar del cambio de Gobierno en 2008, se debe asegurar la continuidad de las políticas y que esas reformas puedan ser completadas.; The Socialist Government (2004-2008) began a phase of reforms in the Spanish Development Co-operation Policy, that means a high increase in the Official Development Assistance (ODA) resources and the aid effort; a marked policy focus to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); improvements in planning and the aid Instruments; and reforms in the legal and institutional frameworks. However...

The Challenges of Australian Official Development Assistance to Burma

Williams, Megan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.36%
On May 2, 2008, millions of people across the Irrawaddy Delta in Burma took shelter as flood waters surged and winds of up to 200km/h carved a path of destruction, destroying villages and flooding agricultural fields throughout the Delta. The worst disaster ever recorded in Burma, Cyclone Nargis killed an estimated 140,000 people and displaced at least 800,000 more. The world watched, stunned, at not only the extent of devastation caused by the cyclone, but by the shockingly inadequate response of the Burmese regime who failed to launch any substantial relief effort and moved to block many private donors and international aid agencies from the worst affected areas. For the international community this brought to the fore the complicated environment within which aid agencies operate in Burma. Poverty in Burma is widespread. More than 30 percent of the population lives in acute poverty with an estimated 90 percent of the country spending three quarters of income, less than 65c, on food. What makes this poverty more intense is the low level of Official Development Assistance (ODA) the country has received despite the obvious need. After a brutal crackdown on pro-democracy protests in 1988 and the ruling regime's refusal to recognise the results of democratic elections in 1990...

The effectiveness of Australian aid in PNG

Mills, Rebecca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Currently grappling with the complicated task of state and nation building, Papua New Guinea represents what, at times, seems like an insurmountable obstacle to development theory. Despite the vast resource pool at the disposal of the state, one of which is a substantial volume of foreign ODA, with particularly high input from Australia, the nation has failed to prosper. The symptoms of PNG's poor development record are manifest in a profusion of measures. The nation exhibits a number of poor socio-economic indicators, such as insufficient economic growth relative to the pace of population growth, growing law and order problems, endemic corruption, poor service delivery, high poverty rates, low education levels and short life expectancy. The causes are deep-seated, complex and overlapping. They are consequently extremely difficult to penetrate and address. Incompetent governance is widely seen as lying at their core. The intricate torrent of issues underlying ineffectual governance in PNG, however, is embedded in a cycle that infiltrates every level of the society. The extraordinarily linguistically, geographically and culturally diverse population lacks a sense of nationhood. Traditional clan based social obligations precede loyalty to the state. A weak government produces an abysmal level of service delivery...

Trust Fund Support for Development : An Evaluation of the World Bank's Trust Fund Portfolio

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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76.1%
In the changing global environment of development cooperation, trust funds have emerged as a significant pillar of the global aid architecture, used to address limitations in bilateral aid and fill perceived gaps in the operations of existing multilateral institutions. They currently account for about 11 percent of official development assistance (ODA), and they finance a substantial part of the World Bank's business. The activities they fund are highly varied, ranging from huge global programs with their own governance structures to conventional development projects, debt and disaster relief operations, and technical assistance. This IEG evaluation, undertaken at the request of World Bank executive directors, assesses the value of the trust fund vehicle as a way of delivering aid and the effectiveness and efficiency of the deployment of trust fund resources. In addition, the evaluation assesses the Bank's management and accountability for the use of trust fund resources and the impact of trust funds on the Bank's development role. The evaluation finds that donors...

Response of the Arab Donors to the Global Financial Crisis and the Arab Spring

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Development assistance from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Arab financial institutions has been responsive in addressing development and humanitarian needs in many developing countries. Since the global financial crisis (2008-2011), the combined net official development assistance (ODA) from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the UAE peaked at US$ 6.5 billion in 2008at the height of the global financial crisis. It has since remained relatively high at US$ 4.8 billion annually on average. Total ODA from the three also increased significantly as a share of gross national income, yielding a weighted average of 0.55 percent during 2008-2011, compared to 0.49 percent in the previous four years. The share of Arab financial institutions' aid to International Development Association (IDA) recipients grew by 9 percentage points between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012, reaching 47 percent of total commitments. The overall annual average of financial assistance provided to Arab Spring countries by Arab financial institutions in 2011 and 2012 was slightly higher than the average during the global economic and financial crisis...

What If We're Not Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) : The Opportunities Ahead for International Development NGOs

Glenzer, Kent
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
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International development NGOs (IDNGOs) have both flourished and been objects of cogent critique over the past twenty years. The populations and budgets of IDNGOs continue to grow even as concerns about accountability, quality, and cost persist. Meanwhile, major inroads have been made on reducing poverty, driven not by official development assistance (ODA) but by market forces.