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Efeito da acidificação da água do mar no sistema imune e no balanço ácido-base de ouriços-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) e Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758).; Effects of seawater acidification in the immune system and acid-base balance in sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) and Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758).

Figueiredo, Débora Alvares Leite
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2014 PT
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56.87%
A acidificação oceânica, resultante do aumento da concentração de CO2 atmosférico, vem alterando a química dos oceanos resultando na diminuição de seu pH. Diversos estudos avaliaram as consequências dessa diminuição no pH oceânico nas taxas de calcificação, reprodução e desenvolvimento em diversos modelos marinhos, entretanto estudos relacionados a outros processos fisiológicos, como a imunidade, e estudos com indivíduos adultos são escassos. Ouriços-do-mar são espécies aderidas ao substrato, importantes para a ciclagem de nutrientes no ambiente marinho, sendo também animais utilizados como bioindicadores para monitoramento ambiental; assim o estudo da resposta imune inata desses animais frente à acidificação dos oceanos é de extrema importância para prever possíveis alterações fisiológicas desses animais e sua capacidade de adaptação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações provocadas pela acidificação oceânica na resposta imune e no balanço ácido base de duas espécies de ouriço-do-mar tropicais: Lytechinus variegatus e Echinometra lucunter durante as estações de verão e inverno; para isso foram analisados os índices fagocíticos, a capacidade de adesão e espraiamento celular dos amebócitos fagociticos além do balanço acido base do liquido celomático após o período de 24 horas e cinco dias de exposição aos pHs 7...

Efeitos da acidificação dos oceanos nos processos biogeoquímicos em sedimentos costeiros: experimentos in situ e em laboratório; Effects of ocean acidification on biogeochemical processes in marine sediments: In situ and laboratory experiments

Alves, Betina Galerani Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.85%
A acidificação dos oceanos, resultado do aumento das emissões de gás carbônico (CO2), por atividades antrópicas, vem causando uma mudança no equilíbrio químico do sistema carbonato e uma consequente diminuição do pH nos oceanos mundiais. Cerca de 30% das emissões antropogênicas de CO2 é absorvida pelo oceano, o que já reduziu o PH em 0,1 unidade em águas superficiais e são esperadas ainda maiores reduções. A escala de mudanças "toleráveis" de pH ainda é incerta para muitos organismos e pouco conhecida para muitos processos biológicos, particularmente no sedimento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar tanto as taxas atuais de remineralização da matéria orgânica e fluxos de nutrientes na interface água-sedimento, como as alterações nessas taxas em resposta a diferentes cenários de acidificação do oceano, usando câmaras de incubação bêntica tanto in situ como em laboratório. Os experimentos in situ e coleta de material para montagem dos experimentos em laboratório foram realizados através de mergulho autônomo, na área rasa de Ubatuba-SP (6-8 m de profundidade). As incubações mostraram alto consumo de O2, variando entre -17 mmol m-2 d-1 em Julho de 2012 e -112 mmol m-2 d-1 em Abril e Junho de 2013. Houve uma dominância da nitrificação...

Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific

Dore, John E.; Lukas, Roger; Sadler, Daniel W.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing at an accelerating rate, primarily due to fossil fuel combustion and land use change. A substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction of seawater pH. Continued acidification may over time have profound effects on marine biota and biogeochemical cycles. Although the physical and chemical basis for ocean acidification is well understood, there exist few field data of sufficient duration, resolution, and accuracy to document the acidification rate and to elucidate the factors governing its variability. Here we report the results of nearly 20 years of time-series measurements of seawater pH and associated parameters at Station ALOHA in the central North Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. We document a significant long-term decreasing trend of −0.0019 ± 0.0002 y−1 in surface pH, which is indistinguishable from the rate of acidification expected from equilibration with the atmosphere. Superimposed upon this trend is a strong seasonal pH cycle driven by temperature, mixing, and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. We also observe substantial interannual variability in surface pH, influenced by climate-induced fluctuations in upper ocean stability. Below the mixed layer...

Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification

Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05–0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r2 = 0.87...

Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification

Kroeker, Kristy J.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO2 vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species’ responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity...

Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol
Fonte: The Royal Society Publishing Publicador: The Royal Society Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

How will Ocean Acidification Affect Baltic Sea Ecosystems? An Assessment of Plausible Impacts on Key Functional Groups

Havenhand, Jonathan N.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.83%
Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 is causing ocean pH to fall—a process known as ‘ocean acidification’. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2–0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

Evolutionary change during experimental ocean acidification

Pespeni, Melissa H.; Sanford, Eric; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M.; Hosfelt, Jessica D.; Jaris, Hannah K.; LaVigne, Michèle; Lenz, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Ann D.; Young, Megan K.; Palumbi, Stephen R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) conditions are driving unprecedented changes in seawater chemistry, resulting in reduced pH and carbonate ion concentrations in the Earth’s oceans. This ocean acidification has negative but variable impacts on individual performance in many marine species. However, little is known about the adaptive capacity of species to respond to an acidified ocean, and, as a result, predictions regarding future ecosystem responses remain incomplete. Here we demonstrate that ocean acidification generates striking patterns of genome-wide selection in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) cultured under different CO2 levels. We examined genetic change at 19,493 loci in larvae from seven adult populations cultured under realistic future CO2 levels. Although larval development and morphology showed little response to elevated CO2, we found substantial allelic change in 40 functional classes of proteins involving hundreds of loci. Pronounced genetic changes, including excess amino acid replacements, were detected in all populations and occurred in genes for biomineralization, lipid metabolism, and ion homeostasis—gene classes that build skeletons and interact in pH regulation. Such genetic change represents a neglected and important impact of ocean acidification that may influence populations that show few outward signs of response to acidification. Our results demonstrate the capacity for rapid evolution in the face of ocean acidification and show that standing genetic variation could be a reservoir of resilience to climate change in this coastal upwelling ecosystem. However...

Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and warming on primary producers

Alsterberg, Christian; Eklöf, Johan S.; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Sundbäck, Kristina
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of environmental change such as warming and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on benthic microalgae in a seagrass community mesocosm experiment. Net effects of acidification and warming on benthic microalgal biomass and production, as assessed by analysis of variance, were relatively weak regardless of grazer presence. However, partitioning these net effects into direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling revealed several strong relationships. In the absence of grazers, benthic microalgae were negatively and indirectly affected by sediment-associated microalgal grazers and macroalgal shading, but directly and positively affected by acidification and warming. Combining indirect and direct effects yielded no or weak net effects. In the presence of grazers, almost all direct and indirect climate effects were nonsignificant. Our analyses highlight that (i) indirect effects of climate change may be at least as strong as direct effects...

Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sediment Processes in Shallow Waters of the Arctic Ocean

Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.85%
Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH...

An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming

Cooley, Sarah R.; Rheuban, Jennie E.; Hart, Deborah R.; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Doney, Scott C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.94%
Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics...

Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient

Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.84%
Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

Constraints on Ocean Acidification Associated with Rapid and Massive Carbon Injections of the Early Paleogene: The Geological Record at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1215, Equatorial Pacific Ocean

Leon-Rodriguez, Lizette
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.74%
Massive amounts of 13 C-depleted carbon rapidly entered the ocean more than once during the early Paleogene, providing a geological framework for understanding future perturbations in carbon cycling, including ocean acidification. To assess the number of events and their impact on deep-sea carbonate accumulation, I have studied carbonate ooze units of the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene, which were deposited on a subsiding flank of the East Pacific Rise (ODP Site 1215). From this record several proxies were used to ascertain changes in carbonate dissolution: carbonate content, foraminiferal test fragmentation, and planktic/benthic foraminiferal ratio. Based on these analyses, 1 observe that carbonate preservation generally increased from the late Paleocene (56 Ma) through the early Eocene (51.5 Ma), after which it became poor to negligible. This trend was punctuated by four short-term intervals characterized by carbonate dissolution and pronounced negative d 18 O and d 13 C excursions. It is inferred that these were anomalously warm periods (hyperthermals) caused by massive and relative fast 13 C-depleted carbon injections. These correspond to the PETM (∼55.5 Ma), H1/ETM-2 (∼53.7 Ma), I1 (∼53.2 Ma), and K/X (∼52.5 Ma) events. I also calculated carbonate...

Assessing the impacts of ocean acidification, global warming and terrestrial runoff on the cross-shelf variability of coral calcification in the central Great Barrier Reef

D'Olivo Cordero, Juan Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
Ocean acidification and thermal stress due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions present significant, potentially interacting, threats to the future of coral reefs. Coastal reef environments, as in the case of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), can also be exposed to terrestrial stressors. This thesis evaluates the combined effects of ocean acidification, rising temperatures and river inputs on the calcification of Porites corals along a transect across-shelf the central GBR, north of Townsville. Calcification rates were obtained for 41 long-lived Porites corals from 7 reefs, in an inshore to offshore transect across the central GBR. The boron isotope composition (d11B) of selected cores was used to reconstruct annual and sub-annual changes in seawater pH in inner-shelf and mid-shelf environments. These unique seawater pH records are integrated with sea-surface temperature, river discharge and rainfall records to assess the nature and cause of seasonal, interannual, decadal and long-term (̃50 years) trends in coral calcification. Significant across-shelf differences in the temporal variability and long-term evolution of coral calcification are documented and can be related to local and global-scale changes in environmental conditions and water quality. Corals in the mid-shelf and outer-reef regions of the GBR exhibit an increase in calcification of 10.9% (1.1% S.E.) and 11.1% (3.9% S.E.) respectively since ̃1950 which are associated to the rise in sea-surface temperatures. However...

Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

Fitzer, Susan C.; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie
Fonte: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Publicador: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.95%
Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under‐saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here...

The Role of ocean acidification in Emiliania huxleyi coccolith thinning in the Mediterranean Sea

Meier, K. J. S.; Beaufort, L.; Heussner, S.; Ziveri, Patrizia
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.85%
Ocean acidification is a result of the uptake of anthropogenic CO₂ from the atmosphere into the ocean and has been identified as a major environmental and economic threat. The release of several thousands of petagrams of carbon over a few hundred years will have an overwhelming effect on surface ocean carbon reservoirs. The recorded and anticipated changes in seawater carbonate chemistry will presumably affect global oceanic carbonate production. Coccolithophores as the primary calcifying phytoplankton group, and especially Emiliania huxleyi as the most abundant species have shown a reduction of calcification at increased CO₂ concentrations for the majority of strains tested in culture experiments. A reduction of calcification is associated with a decrease in coccolith weight. However, the effect in monoclonal cultures is relatively small compared to the strong variability displayed in natural E. huxleyi communities, as these are a mix of genetically and sometimes morphologically distinct types. Average coccolith weight is likely influenced by the variability in seawater carbonate chemistry in different parts of the world’s oceans and on glacial/interglacial time scales due to both physiological effects and morphotype selectivity. An effect of the ongoing ocean acidification on E. huxleyi calcification has so far not been documented in situ. Here...

Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification

Azevedo Ligia B.; De Schryver, An M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.74%
Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species exposed to pH declines. Effects on species growth were observed at higher pH than those on species reproduction (mean pH10 was 7.73 vs 7.63 and mean pH50 was 7.28 vs 7.11 for the two life processes, respectively) and the variability in the sensitivity of species increased with increasing number of species available for the PAF (pH10 standard deviation was 0.20, 0.21, and 0.33 for survival, reproduction, and growth, respectively). The SSDs were then applied to two climate change scenarios to estimate the increase in PAF (ΔPAF) by future ocean acidification. In a high CO2 emission scenario, ΔPAF was 3 to 10% (for pH50) and 21 to 32% (for pH10). In a low emission scenario, ΔPAF was 1 to 4% (for pH50) and 7 to 12% (for pH10). Our SSDs developed for the effect of decreasing ocean pH on calcifying marine species assemblages can also be used for comparison with other environmental stressors.

Detrimental effects of ocean acidification on the economically important Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum)

Bramanti, L.; Movilla, J.; Guron, M.; Calvo, E.; Gori, A.; Dominguez-Carrió, C.; Grinyó, J.; Lopez-Sanz, A.; Martinez-Quintana, A.; Pelejero, C.; Ziveri, Patrizia; Rossi, Sergio
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.85%
The mean predicted decrease of 0.3–0.4 pH units in the global surface ocean by the end of the century has prompted urgent research to assess the potential effects of ocean acidification on the marine environment, with strong emphasis on calcifying organisms. Among them, the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) is expected to be particularly susceptible to acidification effects, due to the elevated solubility of its Mg-calcite skeleton. This, together with the large overexploitation of this species, depicts a bleak future for this organism over the next decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low pH on the species from aquaria experiments. Several colonies of C. rubrum were long-term maintained for 314 days in aquaria at two different pH levels (8.10 and 7.81, pHT). Calcification rate, spicule morphology, major biochemical constituents (protein, carbohydrates and lipids) and fatty acids composition were measured periodically. Exposure to lower pH conditions caused a significant decrease in the skeletal growth rate in comparison with the control treatment. Similarly, the spicule morphology clearly differed between both treatments at the end of the experiment, with aberrant shapes being observed only under the acidified conditions. On the other hand...

Human risk to ocean acidification

Doherty, Carolyn
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 22/04/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.93%
Ocean acidification is a global phenomenon generated from increased anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Increased rates of ocean acidification are projected to drastically alter marine and coastal ecosystems. Human communities are intrinsically linked to ocean acidification, both as the main drivers of the process and as a particularly vulnerable party to its expected effects. As part of a larger project that aims to highlight global hotspots of vulnerability to ocean acidification, this paper explores the concept of characterizing and measuring the socioeconomic, cultural, and political forces that influence human vulnerability. This paper offers a concise overview of vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity as they relate to ocean acidification, and provides a comparison of five vulnerability studies to explore commonalities between vulnerability framework methodologies. This paper also provides a detailed review of the collection and initial analysis of variables considered in determining which human communities are most at risk from ocean acidification.

Evaluating the effects of ocean acidification on sand-smelt larvae through biochemical biomarkers and swimming ability

Silva, Cátia Sofia Esteves da
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; A acidificação oceânica é um problema global, cujos efeitos são ainda pouco estudados. Com maior foco de investigação em organismos com exoesqueleto calcário, pouca atenção tem sido dada ao potencial impacto noutros processos e componentes do ecossistema, como o caso dos estágios iniciais do ciclo de vida de outros organismos, como os peixes. Neste sentido, o principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da exposição a elevadas concentrações de pCO2 no comportamento, desenvolvimento e metabolismo das fases larvares do peixe-rei, Atherina presbyter. As larvas em estado de desenvolvimento de flexão e pós-flexão foram capturadas no parque marinho da Arrábida, Portugal, e mantidas em condições controladas com diferentes níveis de pCO2 (Controlo: ~600μatm; Médio: ~1000μatm; Elevado: ~1800μatm) entre 7-15 dias, antes da sua velocidade crítica de natação (Ucrit) ser testada. Adicionalmente, foram determinados dados morfométricos e biomarcadores bioquímicos relacionados com stress oxidativo (SOD, CAT, LPO, danos no DNA e ROS) e metabolismo energético (ETS, LDH, IDH e Hidratos de Carbono). Os resultados sugerem que o comportamento natatório das larvas não é afectado pela exposição a elevados níveis de CO2; no entanto os resultados bioquímicos apoiam a hipótese de que elevados custos energéticos poderão estar associados a alterações morfométricas...